Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/50

Click to flip

50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Reinforcing properties of cocaine in experimental animal can be mimicked by electrical stimulation of:

a. prefrontal cortex
b. cerebellum
c. amygdala
d. medial forebrain bundle (and/or nucleus accumbens)
e. hypothalamus
d. medial forebrain bundle (and/or nucleus accumbens)
The subjective reasons for continuously using cocaine as reported by the subjects are the following except one. Which is the exception?

a. feeling of strength.
b. feeling of self-confidence.
c. escape from feeling of depression.
d. escape from feeling of frustration.
e. escape from hedonia.
e. escape from hedonia.
The molecular mechanism for enhancing the dopamine syapse by cocaine is due to:

a. blocking the enzmatic breakdown of dopamine.
b. blocking the D2 post-synaptic receptor.
c. blocking the dopamine reuptake transporter.
inducing the cytoplasmic release of dopamine.
c. blocking the dopamine reuptake transporter.
One of the paradoxical effects is that intermittent use of cocaine can lead to:

a. sensitization
b. tolerance
c. vomiting
d. insomnia
e. Parkinson's disease
a. sensitization
The sensitization of cocaine can be blcoked by:

a. ACh blocker
b. GABA blocker
c. NMDA blocker
d. NE blocker
e. 5-HT blocker
c. NMDA blocker
Cocaine sensitization is mediated by the glutamate system via the following processes. Which of the following is NOT one of these processes?

a. dopamine is released in the VTA (ventral tegmental area).
b. It stimulates the release of glutamate indirectly.
c. Glutamate then stimulates the NMDA receptors on the dopamine neurons.
d. Opening of NMDA receptor allows Ca++ ions entry into the neuron, which then induces gene expression.
e. It stimulates the GABAergic neurons to inhibit the nucleus accumbens.
e. It stimulates the GABAergic neurons to inhibit the nucleus accumbens.
The "crash" phase of cocaine-abstinenece syndrome usually lasts for:

a. 15-30 min.
b. few hours.
c. few days.
d. few weeks.
e. few years.
a. 15-30 min
Characteristics of the crash phase include the following except one? Which is the exception?

a. agitation
b. anxiety
c.. depression
d. intense craving
e. nausea
e. nausea
The characteristics of the "withdrawal phase" of cocaine-abstinence syndrom include the following except one. Which is the exception?

a. intense craving for cocaine.
b. anergia.
c. hyperphagia.
d. hypersomnalence.
e. anhedonia.
a. intense craving for cocaine.
The failure rate of either pharmacotherapy or behavioral therapy to treat cocaine dependence can be indicated by the statistics that only ____ of subjects remain abstinent from cocaine for more than 6 months.

a. 100%
b. 75%
c. 50%
d. 25%
e. 5-10%
e. 5-10%
The characteristics of prenatal exposure to cocaine are:

a. attention deficit.
b. hyperactivity.
c. lowered birth weight and smaller head circumference.
d. Parkinson's symptoms.
e. mental retardation.
c. lowered birth weight and smaller head circumference.
The neonatal behavioral assessment scale (NBAS) indicated that crack babies grow up:

a. with ADHD
b. with hypertension
c. with Parkinsons's symptoms
d. without any cognitive or behavioral defects
e. without the ability to experience pleasure
d. without any cognitive or behavioral defects
The defining characteristics of ADHD include the following except one. Which is the exception?

a. impulsivity
b. hyperkinesia
c. combination of a and b.
d. inattentiveness (or lack of focus)
e. hyper-anxiety
e. hyper-anxiety
Executive function requires the following cognitive skills except one. Which is the exception?

a. selective attention
b. judgment
c. decision-making
d. anticipation
e. emotional expression
e. emotional expression
Working memory is:

a. the same as photographic short-term memory
b. dynamic memory used to hold temporary information in order to accomplish a task
c. the same as long-term memory
d. the emotional memory triggered by association with emotional event.
e. the memory used only at work and not at play
b. dynamic memory used to hold temporary information in order to accomplish a task
Which of the following is NOT one of the five functions requiring working memory to accomplish?

a. hindsight
b. forethought
c. sense of time
d. self-awareness
e. pleasure
e. pleasure
Focusing attention requires not only selective attention to the relevant events, but also

a. inhibition to irrelevant events
b. emitional response
c. motor activation
d. imagination or hallucination
e. hormonal influence
a. inhibition to irrelevant events
Which part of the brain is involved in processing executive functions, selective attention and working memory?

a. basal ganglia
b. cerebellum
c. thalamus
d. prefrontal cortex
e. brainstem
d. prefrontal cortex
Behavioral symptoms of ADHD include the following except one. Which is the exception?

a. short attention span.
b. low frustration tolerance.
c. abstinancy.
d. impulsively turn attention to almost everything int he environment.
e. insomnia
e. insomnia
The behaviroal symptoms of ADD-RT (residual type) include the following except one. Which is the exception?

a. distractibility
b. restlessness
c. hyper-emotionality
d. delusion
e. difficulty with work or inter-personal relationships
d. delusion
The co-morbidity disorders often co-exist with ADHD include the following except one. Which is the exception?

a. anxiety disorder
b. Tourette's syndrome
c. reading disability
d. conduct disorder
e. psychosis
e. psychosis
The neuropathology of ADHD from PET or fMRI imaging studies indicates there is a decrease in metabolism in

a. pre-frontal cortex and basal ganglia
b. thalamus
c. cerebellum
d. brainstem
e. hippocampus
a. pre-frontal cortex and basal ganglia
The psychophysics assessment test for impulsivity to resolve a conflict between the color and meaning of a word is called

a. stop task test
b. tower of Hanoi game test
c. fluency task test
d. Stroop test
e. reaction-time test
d. Stroop test
ADHD patients often perform with _____ in the stop task test compared to normal subjects.

a. shorter reaction time
b. longer reaction time
c. the same reaction time
d. longer attention period
e. shorter attention period
b. longer reaction time
The Tower of Hanoi game tests:

a. the reaction time to stop ongoing action.
b. association skills with multiple objects
c. the ability to plan with intermediate steps using working memory
d. memory task to remember photographically
e. the speed of motor task
c. the ability to plan with intermediate steps using working memory
Which of the following drugs is used in the treatment of ADHD?

a. amphetamine or cocain-class drugs
b. lithium
c. SSRI
d. MAOI
e. antipsychotics
a. amphetamine or cocain-class drugs
The molecular action of Ritalin (methlphenidate) is:

a. blocking the dopamine post-synaptic receptor
b. blocking the dopamine authoreceptor
c. blocking the reuptake of dopamine transporter
d. blocking the reuptake of norepinephrine transporter
e. blocking the reuptake of glutamate transporter
c. blocking the reuptake of dopamine transporter
The molecular of action of Strattera is:

a. blocking the dopamine post-synaptic receoptr.
b. blocking the dopamine autoreceptor.
c. blocking the reuptake of dopamine transporter
d. blocking the reuptake of norepinephrine transporter
e. blocking the reuptake of glutamate transporter
d. blocking the reuptake of norepinephrine transporter
Based on the treatment model of ADHD, the nurochemical hypothesis of ADHD is due to:

a. hyperfunction of dopaminergic/noradrenergic system.
b. hypofunction of dopaminergic/noradrenergic system
c. hyperfunction of glutamergic system
d. hyperfunction of GABAergic system
e. hyperfunction of serotoninergic system
b. hypofunction of dopaminergic/noradrenergic system
Bipolar disorder is also called:

a. mania
b. hypomania
c. manic-depressive disorder
d. schizophrenia
e. monopolar disorder
c. manic-depressive disorder
Characteristics of schizophrenia include the following except one. Which is the exception?

a. delusion
b. distrubance int the form of thought
c. desturbance int eh content of thought
d. hallucination
e. depression
e. depression
The cross-modality association, such as seeing sound or hearing light, is called:

a. delusion
b. phsychosis
c. schizophrenia
d. synesthesia
e. hypersensitivity
d. synesthesia
The most common form of hallucination in schizophrenia is:
a. auditory hallucination
The disturbances of emotions in schizophrenia include the following except one. Which is the exception?

a. inappropriate emotions
b. no emotion
c. no expresion of emotion such as monotone
d. sudden change of emotions
e. hallucination
e. hallucination
THe catatonic subtype of schizophrenia is characterized by the:

a. emotional disturbances
b. motor disturbances
c. sensory distubrances
d. memeory disturbances
e. cognitive disturbances
b. motor disturbances
The disorganized subtype of schizophrenia is characterized by the:

a. disorganization of emotion
b. disorganization of motor response
c. disorganization of thought
d. disorganization of memory
e. disorganization of sensory perception
c. disorganization of thought
Positive sympotms of schizophrenia refer to the:

a. freeze posture
b. devoid of behavior
c. devoid of thoughts
d. devoid of emotions
e. excessive behavior, thought or emotion
e. excessive behavior, thought or emotion
Negaitve sympotms of schizophrenia includes the following abnormalities except one. Which is the exception?

a. paranoia
b. hallucination
c. delusion
d. lack of behavior, emoition or thought
e. excessive bahavior, thought or emotion
d. lack of behavior, emoition or thought
The neuropathology of schizophrenia includes the following abnormalities except one. Which is the exception?

a. neural formation
b. neural migration
c. synaptogenesis
d. neural prunin
e. head circumference
e. head circumference
Pre-pulse inhibition to startle reflex can be explained by the:

a. neurochemical imbalance.
b. gating hypothesis to filter sneosry input when preceded by a soft tone
c. etiology of ADHD
d. inability to response emotionally
e. ahedonic response
b. gating hypothesis to filter sneosry input when preceded by a soft tone
Schizophrenic patients often:

a. respond without any startle in the pre-pulse inhibition test
b. respond with a big startle in the pre-pulse inhibition test
c. fail to respond correctly in the Stroop test
d. respond slower in the stop taskk test
e. fail in the fluency test
b. respond with a big startle in the pre-pulse inhibition test
One of the side effects of typical antipsychotics is:

a. hyperphagia
b. hyperactivity
c. insomnia
d. extrapyramidal symptoms
e. hyperextension
d. extrapyramidal symptoms
Lactation is one of the side effects of:

a. typical antisychotics
b. atypical antipyschotics
c. antianxiety drug
d. antidepressants
e. antiepileptics
a. typical antisychotics
The following are the environmental stressors for schizophrenia except one. Which is the exception?

a. emotional negativity
b. critical or emotionality over-involved family climate
c. over-stimulation in social environment
d. stressful life even beyond personal control
e. positive family problem solving skills
e. positive family problem solving skills
Blind pane in the Johari window corresponds to the windown pane that is:

a. known to self and others
b. known to self but not others
c. known to others but not self
d. not known to self of others
e. unknown to anybody
c. known to others but not self
The dysphoric moodds in depression include the following except one. Which is the exception?

a. hopelessness
b. helplessness
c. worthlessness
d. despair
e. delusion
e. delusion
Symptoms of depression include the following except one. Which is the exception?

a. diminished interst in all activities
b. fatigue or loss of energy
c. decrease ability to think or concentrate or indecisiveness
d. paranoia
e. recurrent thought of death and suicide
d. paranoia
Sympotms of mania include the folllowing except one. Which is the exception?

a. infalted self-esteem
b. inflated self-confidence
c. increase need for sleep
d. increase goal-directed activities
e. excessive pleasurable activities with high potentials for painful consequences
c. increase need for sleep
Treatments of depression include the following except one. Which is the exception?

a. MAOI (monoamine oxidase inhibitor)
b. tricycliic antidepressant
c. SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor)
d. dual-action
e. anxiolytic
e. anxiolytic
Examples of executive function disorders include the following except one. Which is the exception?

a. ADHD
b. ODD
c. CD
d. HFA
e. Parkinson's disorder
e. Parkinson's disorder