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155 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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What are the descending motor pathways?
goes from higher centers to lower centers
NAME
this goes from higher centers to lower centers
descending tracts
1st O.N. is that (1)in the descending tract
upper neuron
(1)is the upper neuron in the descending pathway
1st
(1)is the lower neuron in the descending pathway
1st O.N.
1st O.N.is the (1)in the dsecending pathway
lower neuron
What is one differ btwn all of the descending pathways?
each pathway's 1 order neuron oringates in a different spot
What is one differ btwn all of the descending pathways?
each pathway's 1 order neuron oringates in a different spot
What is one thing that all of the descending pathways have in common?
the 2nd order neuron is found in the ventral horn of the spinal cord
What is one thing that all of the descending pathways have in common?
the 2nd order neuron is found in the ventral horn of the spinal cord
NAME
all of these tracts have on thing in common--their 2nd order neuron is found in the ventral horn of the spinal cord
descending pathways
What are the (3)descending pathways?
(1)Corticospinal (2)Rubrospinal (3)vesitibulospinal
What are the (3)descending pathways?
(1)Corticospinal (2)Rubrospinal (3)vesitibulospinal
What are the (3)descending pathways?
(1)Corticospinal (2)Rubrospinal (3)vesitibulospinal
NAME
these include the Cortiocospinal, rubrospinal, and viestibulospinal pathways
descending pathways
What is the corticospinal tract?
provides fast complex movement
NAME
this provides fast complex movements
corticospinal tract
NAME
the motor cortex is found here
pre0central gyrus
Where can you find the precentral gyrus?
in the motor cortex
All of the descending tracts end in the (1)
ventral horn of the spinal cord
Where does the corticospinal tract orginate?
in the precentral gyrus of the motor cortex
Where does the corticospinal tract start and end? (3)
(1)motor cortex (2)crosses at the pyramids (3)endings in the ventral horn of the spinal cord
NAME
this tract starts in the motor cortex, crosses at the pyramids, and ends in the ventral horn of hte spinal cord
corticospinal tract
Where does the corticospinal tract start and end? (3)
(1)motor cortex (2)crosses at the pyramids (3)endings in the ventral horn of the spinal cord
what are alpha motor neurons?
are cells that supply muscle tissue
NAME
these are cells that supply motor tisssue
alpha motor neurons
in the descending pathway, the U.N. regulates th e (1)
L.N.
What does U.N. stand for?
upper motor neuron
What does L.N. stand for?
lower motor neuron
What happens if U.N. does not inhibit the L.N.?
muscle fires
What happens if U.N. does not inhibit the L.N. because it is not present?
muscle bceomes spastic
What happens if U.N. does not inhibit the L.N. because it is not present?
muscle bceomes spastic
the absence of U.N. can be be cause of a (1)or (2)
lesion or CVA
What happens when the L.N.is not present?
muscle gets flacid and atrophies
What happens when the L.N.is not present?
muscle gets flacid and atrophies
Compare and contrast a U.N. and L.N. lesion?
(1)U.N.-muscle gest spastic bc muscle conts to fire nothing inhibits it (2)L.N.=muscles gets flacid and atrophies
Compare and contrast a U.N. and L.N. lesion?
(1)U.N.-muscle gest spastic bc muscle conts to fire nothing inhibits it (2)L.N.=muscles gets flacid and atrophies
Compare and contrast a U.N. and L.N. lesion?
(1)U.N.-muscle gest spastic bc muscle conts to fire nothing inhibits it (2)L.N.=muscles gets flacid and atrophies
What is Rubrospinal tract?
facilatates the activity of flexors and inhibits the extensors
NAME
this tract facilitates the activity of the flexors and inhibits the extensors
rubrospinal
What is the differ btwn all the differ descending tracts? (3)
see notes
Does the rubrospinal act on the extensor digituriuom?
yes
What is the Vestibulospinal tract?
facilatates the activity of the extensor muscles inhibiting the flexors
NAME
this facilates the activity of the extensor muscles inhibiting the flexors
vestibulospinal tract
Where does rubrospinal tract start?
in the red nucleus of the midbrain
NAME
this tract starts in the red nucleus of the midbrain
rubropsinal tract
What is the differ btwn all the differ descending tracts? (3)
see notes
What is the differ btwn all the differ descending tracts? (3)
see notes
Where does the vestibulospinal tract orginate in?
vestibular nuclei
NAME
this originates in the vestibular nuclei
vestibulospinal tract
(1)and(2)descending tracts work together
rubrospinal and vestibulospinal tract
the rubrospinal and the vestibulospinal tract (1)
work together
What does Cerebellum mean?
little brain
NAME
this means little brain
cerebellum
IN the cerebellum everything is in (1)
3
in the (1)everything is in 3
cerebellum
NAME
this is the visible portion of the cerebellum is a thin layer of highly corrugated (wrinkled) gray matter
cerebellar cortex
What is the cerebellar cortex?
is the visible portion of the cerebellum is a thin layer of highly corrugated gray matter
Where is the white matter located in the cerebellum?
on the inside
What is the vermis?
called worm..divides the cerebellum in half
NAME
this is called the worm and divides the cerebellum in half
vermis
Each hemisphere of the cerebellum has (1)
lobes
What is the only exception to the everything being in 3 in the cerebellum?
there are (2)hemispheres
There are (1)hemispheres in the cerebellum
2
What are the (3)lobes of the hemisphere's of the cerebellum?
(1)flocculandalar lobe (2)anterior lobe (3)middle posterior lobe
NAME
these include the flocculandalar lobe, anterior lobe, and posterior lobe
lobes of the hemispheres of the cerebellum
What are propriocepters?
monitor things on the inside
NAME
these monitor things on the inside
propriocepters
What does the word penducles literally mean?
bridges
NAME
these word literally mean
penducles
What are the cerebellum peduncles?
connect the cerebellum to the brain stem
NAME
these connect the cerebellum to the brain stem
cerebellum peduncles
What are (3)cerebelluar peduncles?
(1)inferior cerebellar peduncles (2)middle cerebellar peduncles (3)superior cerebellar peduncles
NAME
there are (3)of these: inferior, middle, and superior
cerebelluar peduncles
What tract is located in the cerebellum?
spinocerebellar tract
NAME
this tract is located in the cerebellum
spinocerebellar tract
What are the (2)tracts of spinocerebellar tract?
dorsal and ventral
What is the spinocerebellar tract?
relays unconscious preceptive info
NAME
this relays unconscious preceptive info
spinocerebellar tract
What is lesion like on the in the cerebellum?
lesion is on the same side of the body
How does the cerebellum coordinate movements?
by it makes motions smooth by controlling speed and coordination of all movement
What are (3)layers of the cerebellar cortex?
(1)molecular (2)purkinie (3)granule cells
NAME
this has three layers: molecular, purkinie, and granule cells
cerebellum
NAME
these (3)fibers provide input to the cerebelluar cortex
(1)mossy fibers from spinal cord (2)mossy fibers from pons
(3)climbing fibers from the olives
What are (3)fibers that provide input to the cerebelluar cortex?
(1)mossy fibers from spinal cord (2)mossy fibers from pons
(3)climbing fibers from the olives
the mossy fibers from the spinal cord and from the pons and the climbing fibers from the olives provide (1)
input to the cerebellum cortex
the output of the cerebellar cortex is the (1)
purkine cells
NAME
these are the output of the cerebral cortex
purkine cells
the purkine cells are the (1)of the cerebellar cortex
output
Describe how motor input occurs in the cerebellum (5) look at chart
(1)olives receives input from the vestibular system (2) mossy fibers synapse w granule cells then granule cells send axons to the molecular layer (3)They split forming parellel fibers (3)parallel fibers reach dendrites of purkinje cells synapse (4)the purkinje cells then send axons down to the deep nuclei or (5)direct path-climbing fibers go directly to the purkinae cells
Describe how motor input occurs in the cerebellum (5) look at chart
(1)olives receives input from the vestibular system (2) mossy fibers synapse w granule cells then granule cells send axons to the molecular layer (3)They split forming parellel fibers (3)parallel fibers reach dendrites of purkinje cells synapse (4)the purkinje cells then send axons down to the deep nuclei or (5)direct path-climbing fibers go directly to the purkinae cells
What are the deep nuceli?
are the actual motor output of the cerebellum
NAME
these are the actual motor output of the cerebellum
deep nuceli
What are the purkinjae cells?
regulate the deep nuceli by inhibiting the output of the deep nuclei
NAME
these regulate the deep nuceli by inhibiting the output of the deep nuclei
purkinje cells
What are the (3)inhibitory interneurons in the cerebellum?
(1)Golgi (2)stellate (3)basket
NAME
this has three inhibitory interneurons: Golgi, stellate, and basket
inhibitory interneurons in the cerebellum
The cerebellum has (1)highways
3
the cerebellum has (1)inputs and outputs
3
the deep nuclei is the (1)of the cerebellum
deep nuclei
Deep nuclei are also called the (1)of the cerebellum
main output of the cerebellum
the (1)is also called the main output of the cerebellum
deep nuceli
What are the (3)main outputs of the cerebellum?
(1)fastigial (2)dentate (3)interposed
NAME
these include the fastigial, dentate, and interposed
main outputs of the cerebellum
what do the corticospinal tracts do?
pathway to volntary mm of E
NAME
these (2)pathways provide voluntary mm of the E
lateral and ventral corticospinal tracts
what is the corticobulbar tracts do?
pathway to voluntary mm of the head
NAME
this tract is the pathway to the voluntaty movements of the head
corticobulbar tract
where are the cell bodies for the corticobulbar tract located?
in the primary motor area (2)premotor cortical areas
the primary motor area is also called area (1)
4
the (1)is also called area 4
primary motor area
where do cell bodies of the corticospinal tract arise from?
frontal lobe and some from the parietal lobe
NAME
this is the name of the cell bodies for the corticospinal tract
pyramidal cells
what are pyramidal cells?
cell bodies for the corticospinal tract
the corticospinal tract is also calld the (1)
pyramidal tract
the (1)tract is also called the pyramidal tract
corticospinal tract
describe the pathway forthe corticospinal tract
LATERAL FIBERS OF THE CORTICOSPINAL TRACT
(1)primmary efferent fibers (UMN) descend and 80% to 90 % of the fibers decussate in the medulla and project caudally to synapse at the various levels of the spinal cord levels on the LMN in the ventral horn (2)

VENTRAL CORTICOSPINAL TRACT
the remaning 10% of the fibers DO NOT decusssate in teh medulla but project caudally and decussate near the site of termination at which point they synapse w the LMN in the ventral horn of the spinal cord
for the corticospinal tract,

where are the synapses

(a)80% to 90% of fibers
(b)10% of fibers
LATERAL FIBERS OF THE CORTICOSPINAL TRACT
80 to 90 FIBERS

(1)primary efferent fibers (UMN) decussate in the medulla and synapse various levels of the spinal cord w LMN in the ventral horn
(2)10-20%I

primary efferent fibers project caudally and decussate near the site of termination at which point they synapse w the LMN in the ventral horn
for the corticospinal tract where do the fibers decussate? (2)
LATERAL FIBERS
80 to 90%-in the medulla


VENTRAL FIBERs
(2)10% to 20% -near the site of termination in the spinal cord (ventral horn)
what is the differ btwn the lateral and ventral fibers of the corticospinal tract?
(1)lateral-are involved in iniating skilled movement of the E (2)ventral corticospinal tract-are inolved in control of the axial mm (trunk and proximal mm)
what is the lateral corotcispinal tract?
involved in iniaiting skilled movement of the E
NAME
this tract is inolved in iniating skilled movement of the E including distal mm
lateral cortociospinal tract
what isthe lateral corticospinal tract
involved in iniating skilled movements of the E including distal mm
what is the ventral corticospinal tract?
are inolved in the control of axial mm (trunk and proximal mm)
NAME
are inolved in the control of the axial mm (trunk and proximal mm)
ventral corticospinal tract
where are the cell bodies for the corticobulbar tract located?
in primary and pre-motor areas of the frontal lobe
decribe the corticobulbar tract
(1)the primary efferent fibers synapse on LMN in the brainstem in CN's motor nuclei of CNs (III, IV, V, VII, IX, X, XI, XII)

ALL the ONE involved in MOTOR control
NOTE-the fibers branch off to each CN and bifucate to provide bilateral integration to both pairs of CN.


EXCEPT for lower parts of CN 7 and 12 do not recieve bilateral innervation

(2) the LMN send fibers via the cns to voluntary mm of the head.
T or F
all the CNs in the corticobulbar tract recieve bilateral innervation
false lower parts of CN 7 and CN 12 do not
which fibers in the corticobulbar tract do not receive billateral innervation?
CN 7 and 12
which fiber do receive bilateral innervation in the corticospinal tract?
all cns (II, IV, VI, V, IX, X and XI) except Cn VII, and CN XII
NAME
this is the pathway to the voluntary mm of the head
corticicobulbar pathway
what are the synapses for the corticobulbar tracts?
(1)area 4-cerebral motor cortex area (2)both pairs of CN nuclei w LMN except CN 7 and 12 (3)mm
in the coroticobulbar tract?

describe how the fibers innervate the CNs
(1)CN-(right and left)-get bilateral inervation (3,4,5,6, 9,10,,11)
(2)CN VII-facial
bilateral innervation of the upper part

lower parts-gets contralateral innervation
ex)left tract supplies R lower CN VII or lower mm of the R face
if the cerebral motor cortex area was damage in a stroke.

what would you expect to see?
(1)spastic paralysis (bc UMN damage) of the mm on the contralateral side --for the lower half of the face mm and the tongue (2)all facial mm would not be affected bc the pathway is bilateral
the person had a stroke on the R side in the cerebral motor cortex. how would this affected facial movement?
would have L spastic paralysis ofthe lower face mm and tongue

(2)all other facial mm would not be affected bc iti s a bilateral pathay
T or F
Bob had a R CVA in the area 4.you would see L spastic paralysis of the upper facial mm and tongue
false lower face and tognue
what kind of connections does the basal ganalia have? (3)
exicitary and inhibitory connections w the (1)frontal lobe (2)reticular formation (3)midbrain
what is the basal ganglia?
involved in modulating movement by indirectly modifying the activity of the LMN throgh the complex connections.
NAME
this part of the brain is involved in modulating movement by indirectly modifying the activity of the LMN throgh the complex connections.
basal ganglia
NAME
dysfunction in this structure can affect the execution of smoothly controled movement
basal ganglia (THINK EXECUTION)
a dysfunction in the basal ganglia can affected the (1)
execution of the smooth controlled movement i
where are cell bodies located for the corticobulbar tract?
primary area (area 4 and premotor area (area 8)
cerebral motor cortex is also called the (1)
area 4
(1)is also called area 4
cerebral motor cortex
what is area 4?
cerebral motor cortex
what is area 8?
premotor cortical areas
what is Bell Palsy?
inflammation of Cn VII
NAME
this is inflammation of CN 7
Bell Palsy
what part of the brain degenerates w Parkinsons sx?
basal ganglia fx-substania nigra degeneration .....less DOPA being produced
NAME
w this disease, basal gangla degenerates at teh substania negira
Parkinsons disease
people w damage to the cerebellum will have (1)tremors will people w damage to the basal ganglia will have (2)tremors
(1)iniation tremors (2)resting tremors
NAME BRAIN REGION AFFECTED
resting tremors
basal ganglia damage
NAME BRAIN REGION AFFECTED
intention tremors
cerebellum damage
what is Hungtingtons chorea?what is charaxterixed by?
rapid, jerky nonrhytmtic, involunatary jerky movements of E, trunk, and/or face and by dementia
NAME
this disease is characterized by rapid, jerky nonrhytmtic, involunatary jerky movements of E, trunk, and/or face and by dementia
Hungintons chorea