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752 Cards in this Set

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Why are neural stem cells important?
bc they have the potential to become either a neuron or a glial cells
NAME
these have the potential to become either a neuron or glial cells
neural stem cells
What are neural stem cells?
have the potential to become either a neuron or glial cells
What are some properties of stem cells? (3)
(1)they have potential to become either a neuron or glial cell (2)self renew (3)populate developing and degenerating reactions of the CNS
What is the plurie potential?
is the ability of cells to become anything they want
NAME
this is the ability of cells to become anything they want
plurie potential
What is the deciding factor in what a stem cells becomes?
the needs and demands of the NS tissue
you can harvest stems from (1)
embyros
What is the big controivesity over stem cell reserach?
stems cells can be harvests from embyros and you have to kill the fetus to get the stem cells (2)some people believe that this is murder
It is easier to harvest stem cells in (1)
china
stem cells are a possible solution to (1)
progressive demyelinating diseses
NAME
these are possible solutions to progressive demyelinating diseases
stem cells
What is example of progressive dymeylinating disease? (2)
MS and GB syndrome
MS is a example of a (1)disease
progressive dymeylinating disease
What are Gila cells?
are supporting cells that provide nutrients and remove cell debris
what are glial cells?
are supporting cells that provide neurons w nutrients and remove cell debris
NAME
these are supporting cells that provide neurons w nutrients and remove cell debris
glial cells
What are (2)types of glial cells?
(1)macrogila (2)microgila
NAME
there are two types of these cells: marcogila and microgila
glial cells
What are some types of macrogila? (3)
(1)astrocytes (2)oligodendrocytes (3)schwann cells
NAME
there are (3)types of these cells: astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and schwann cells
marcogila
What are the functions of astrocytes (3)?
(1)are star shaped cells that make connections btwn capillaries (2)regulates the neurons diet (3)maintain the BBB
NAME
these are star shaped cells that make connections btwn capillaries and neurons,regulates the neuron's diet, and maintian the BBB
astrocytes
What are do astrocytes look like?
they are star shaped
Astrocytes make connnections btwn (1)and (2)
capillaries and neurons
(1)is found in capillaries
O2
What is hemoglobin?
transports O2
NAME
these transports O2
hemoglobin
red blood cells transport (1)
O2
What is the major nutrient of the cell?
glucose
NAME
this is the major nutrient of the cell
glucose
When the body it out of glucose, it uses (1)then for (2)energy
(1)body ketone bodies (2)protien and fat
What is the difference btwn oligodendroycytes and schwann cells?
(1)oligodendrocytes found in the CNS (2)schwann cells found in the PNS (3)all produce mylein
What are oliogdendrocytes?
are found in the CNS and produce mylein
NAME
these are found in the CNS and produce mylein
oligodendrocytes
What are Schwann cells?
are found in the PNS and produce mylein
NAMe
these are found in the pNS and produce mylein
Schwann cells
What are marcogilla?
are phagocytic and eat debris
NAME
these are phagocytic and eat debris
marcogilla
What is myelin like in the CNS?
each myelin has a axon w multiple oligodendrocytes covering a single axons (2)each one has gap called the node of Ranvier
NAME SYSTEM
each myelin has a axon w multiple oligodendrocytes covering a single axon and bc of this you have gaps called the node of Ranvier
CNS
What is myelin like in the PNS?
myelin can have a single schwann cells covering multiple axons
NAME SYSTEM
myelin can have a single Schwann cells covering multiple axons
PNS
What is the difference btwn myelin in the CNS and PNS? (2)
(1)CNS=myelin has an axon w multiple oligodendrocytes covering a single axon and has node of Ranvier (2)PNS=myelin cna have one single Schwann cells covering multiple axons
What is the difference btwn myelin in the CNS and PNS? (2)
(1)CNS=myelin has an axon w multiple oligodendrocytes covering a single axon and has node of Ranvier (2)PNS=myelin cna have one single Schwann cells covering multiple axons
What are nodes of Ranvier?
are gaps btwn the oligodenrycotes in the CNS
NAME
these are gaps btwn the oligodendrocytes in the CNS
nodes of Ranvier
What is the Guillain-Barre syndrome?
is a demyelinating process of Schwann cells
NAME
this is a demyelinating process of Schwann cells
Guillan-Barre syndrome
NAME
this is the most form of peripheral neuropthy
Guillian Barre syndrom
What is the most common of form of periphral neuropathy?
Guillan-Barre syndrome
Guillan Barre syndrome is the most common form of (1)
periphral neuropthy
What is periphral neuropthy?
is the lack of nerve supply to the extermeties
NAME
this is the lack of nerve supply to the extermeties
periphral neuropthy
NAME
you can get this from advance diabetes
peripheral neuropathy
peripheral neuropathy can result from (1)
advance diabtes
Diabetes results in (1)and (2)
poor circulation and nerve supply in the feet
Describe some other things about diabetes that people should be aware of ?
(1)results in poor circulation and nerve supply to the feet
NAME
this results in poor circulation and nerve supply to the feet
diabetes
People w diabtes can easily (1)and not know it.
injury their feet
Why do people w diabtes need to inspect their feet regularly? (2)
bc people have poor circulation and nerve supply in their feet. they can cut/injury their feet and not be aware of it. (2)this increases their risk of infections which can lead to gan greene
GB syndrome is an (1)
autoimmune syndrome
What are the symptoms of GB syndrome?
see sudden onset of symptoms (2)see a lack of motor control, weakness, paralysis, and sensory loss
NAME
this has suddent onset of smyptoms such as lack of mtor control, weakness, paralysis, and sensory loss
GB syndrome
GB syndrome is usally happens after a (1)
cold or flu when the body is weakneded
NAME
this usally happens after a flu or cold when the body is weakened after a infection
GB syndrome
peripheral nerves goes to (1)
extermeties
(1)go to the extermeties
Peripheral nerves
Who does GB syndrome affect?
young people but has no preferenace for sex and age
Can you recover from GB syndrome?
yes
T or F
you can recover from GB syndrome
true
Why can people recover from GB syndrome?
bc it affects the periphral nerve which can regenerate
T or F
some people do die from GB syndrome
true
What group of people does MS usually attack?
women around 35 in the Northern part of the country
NAME
this usually attacks women around 35 in the Northern part of the country
MS
What does MS stand for?
multiple sclerosis
what is MS?
is a demyelinated process of the CNS
NAME
this is a demyelinated process of CNS
MS
What is the differ btwn the GB syndrome and MS?
(1)GB syndrome is a demyelinated process of the schwann cells (2)MS=is a deymelinating process of the CNS
What part of the CNS does MS affect?
the ventral horns and cartiospinal tract of the spinal cord
NAME
this affects the ventral horns and cartiospinal tract of hte spinal cord
MS
MS affects the (1)and (2)of the CNS
(1)ventral horns and cartospinal tract
MS has periods of (1)
remission
What are the symtpoms of MS like? (3)
mostly motor deficits(2)its progressive (3)has periods of relapse and remission
NAME
this is progressive, has periods of relapse and remission and symptoms are mostly motor deficits
MS
What is one of the biggest problems w that people w MS suffer from?(2)
they muscles get spastic or hypertonic (2)ex;try to extend the elbow and it goes back
What is petrograde mean?
is anything that is recycleable
NAME
this is anything that can be recycled
petrograde
the terminal stays the same bc (1)
excess waste gets recycled
What is the nucleus of the a neuron like?
it is the center to the neuron that genetic info (2)however, the genetic info does not replicate
NAME
this is the center of the neuron that contians gentic info. however, the gentic info is not replicated
nucleus
T or F
in the CNS, the neuclues of an neuron contians gentic info that is regenerated
false
What is the ER?
synthesis protien
NAME
this synthesis protien
ER
What are (2)types of ER?
smooth and rough
NAME
there are two types of ER:smooth and rough
ER
Where are ribosomes found?
in the rough ER
NAME
these are found in the rough ER
ribosomes
What is the smooth ER?
synthesis and stores of lipids and detoxifies
NAME
this synthesis and stores lipids and detoxifies
smooth Er
What is the differ btwn smooth and rough ER? (2)
rough=ribosomes are found here (2)smooth-synthesis and stores lipids and detoxifies
What is the Golgi Appartus?
packs and modies vesscles from rough ER to be transported
NAME
this packs and modifies vesscles from rough ER to be transported
golgi apparatus
What is the mitochondria?
is the powerhouse of the cell
NAME
this is the powerhouse of the cell
mitcochondria
NAME
cellular repsiration occurs here
mitochondria
Where does cellular respiration occur?
mitochondria
(1)occurs in the mitochondria
cellular respiration
ER is also called (1)
Nissl substance or Nissl bodies
(1)is also called the Nissl substance or Nissl bodies
ER
What is the soma?
is the body of the neuron
NAME
this is the body of the neuron
soma
What is a dendrities?
are the input of the cell
NAME
this is the input of the cell
dendrites
What is the axon?
is output of cell that conducts nerve impulses
NAME
this is the output of the cell that conducts nerve impulses
axon
What is the differ btwn an dendrites and axon?
(1)dendrites=is the input of the cell (2)axon=output of cell that conducts nerve impulses
What is the presynaptic terminal?
is the distal end of the axon
NAME
this is the distal end of the axon
presynaptic terminal
What is retrograde?
is the transportation from the terminal to the soma
NAME
this transportion from the terminal to the soma
retrograde
WHat is anterograde transport?
is transportion from the soma to the terminal
NAME
this transportation from the soma to the terminal
anterograde
What is the differ btwn retrograde and anterograde?
(1)retrograde=is the transportation from the terminal to the soma (2)anterograde= is the transportation from the soma to the terminal
Which transportation is used the most, retrograde or anterograde?
anterograde
Which transportation is used the most, retrograde or anterograde?
anterograde
How are neurons classifed according to shape? (2)
(1)bipolar (2)multipolar (3)pseudonipolar cells
NAME
there are two types of these: bipolar and multipolar
neurons
What are some examples of bipolar neurons?
neurons of the retina
NAME
a example of this are the neurons of the retina
bipolar neurons
What are bipolar neurons?
they have an axon and dendrite emerging from opposite ends
NAME
they have an axon and dendrite emerging from opposite ends
bipolar neurons
What is convergence?
is observed when mulitple neurons make connections w one neuron
NAME
this is observed when multiple neurons make connections w one neuron
convergence
What is divergence?
is when one neuron makes connections w multiple neurons
NAME
this is when one neuron makes connections w multiple neurons
divergance
What is the difference btwn convergence and divergence? (2)
(1)convergence=is observed when multiple neurons make connections w one neuron (2)divergence=is when one neuron makes connections w multiple neurons
What are some ways info is transmitted in the NS? (4)
(1)non-gated (2)modality gated (3)ligand-gated (4)voltage gated
What are some ways info is transmitted in the NS? (4)
(1)non-gated (2)modality gated (3)ligand-gated (4)voltage gated
What are pseudounipolar neurons?
have both an axon and dendrite coming from a common stem
NAME
these have both an axon and dendrite coming from a common stem
pseudunipolar neuron
What is a multipolar neuron?
have a big cell w 1 axon and multiple dendrites
NAME
this has a big cell 1 axon and multiple dendrites
multipolar neuron
What is the differ btwn the different types of neurons classifed by shape? (3)
(1)bipolar=has an axon and dendrite emerging from opposite ends (2)pseudounipolar cell=have both an axon and dendrite comming from one common stem (3)multipolar=have a big cell w 1 axon and multiple dendrites
give an example of a pseudounipolar neuron?
found in the dorsal root ganglion
NAME
these are found in the dorsal roote ganglion
pseudounipolar neuron
Describe a non-gated channel
(1)have a protein that acts as a channel in cell membrane (2)open at all times (3)ions can freely pass in and out of the cell
neurons transmit info through (1)
channels
NAME
this channel has protiens that acts as channel in cell membranes, open at all times, and ions can freely pass in and out of the cell
non-gated channel
What are modality gated channels?(3)
(1)are more selective (2)open and close depending on stimulation such as stretch, touch, pressure, temperature (heat and cold), or chemicals (3)ions are going through channels
NAME
these are more selective, open and close depending on stimulation such as stretch, touch, pressure, temperature,(heat and cold) or chemicals and ions are going through channels
modality gated channels
What are ligand gated channels?
has a molecule that binds to the channel to open or close it to allow ions out or in
NAME
this has molecule that binds to the channel to open or close it to allow ions out or in
ligand gated channels
What is a voltage gated channel?
the difference in electric currents makes the channel open or close
NAME
the difference in electric currents makes this channel open or close
voltage gated channel
What is the resting membrane potential?
is the cell's electrical potential across the cell membrane
NAME
this is the cell's electrical potential across the cell membrane
resting membrane potential
What is the average resting membrane potential?
70 m volts
the average resting membrane potential is (1)
70 m volts
Describe the charge of the cell
the cell is more negative on the inside than on the ouside
T or F
the cell is more postive on the inside than on the outside
false
the cell is more (1)than on the inside than on the outside
negative
What is depolarization?
is when the cell goes from a negative charge to a postive charge
NAME
this is when the cell goes from negative charge to a positive charge
depolarization
When depolarization occurs then (1)
an action potential is generated
NAME
when this occurs an action potential is generated
depolarization
What happens during depolorazation? how does the resting membrane potential change?
Na+ channels open and Na moves into the cell...thus making the inside of the cell more negative than the outside
what is local potential?
is when the action potenital is generated in a small part of the cell
NAME
this is when the action potential is generated in a small part of the cell
local potential
What happens during repolarization?
K+ already in the cell moves outside of it...thus makng the cell more negative (returning it to normal)
NAME
when this happens N+ moves inside the cell
depolarization
NAME
when this happens K+ moves outside of the cell
repolarization
you can need (1)to generate a action potential that passes the thershold
multiple action potential
What is temporal summation?
is the summed up/affects of all the series of depolarization
NAME
this is the summed up/effects of all the series of depolarization
temporal summation
the affect of (1)is more drastic than one action potential
temproal summation
What does the NMJ stand for?
neuromuscular junction
What is the NMJ?
is a connection btwn the brain and TMJ
NAME
this is a connection btwn the brain and TMJ
NMJ
What are (3)componets of the chemical synapse?
(1)presynaptic membrane (2)postsynpatic membrane (3)synaptic cleft
NAME
this has three components: presynpatic membrane, postsynpatic membrane, and synpatic cleft
components of the chemical synapse
What are (2) nerve cells in the chain of transmiting the chemical synapse?
presynaptic (2)postsynpatic cell
What is the presynaptic neuron?
is recieving the info in the chemical synapse
NAME
this is recieving the info in the chemical synapse
presynaptic neuron
What is the postsynaptic cell?
is sending the info in the chemical synapse
NAME
this is the sending the info in the chemical synapse
postsynaptic cell
What is the differ btwn the presynaptic and postsynaptic cell?
(1)presynaptic inf0-receiving info (2)postsynpatic-sends info
What does EPSP stand for?
Exhibitory post synaptic potential
What is the EPSP?
when the released nt will depolarize the post synaptic cell-- making the cell more negative
NAME
this is when the released nt will depolarize the post synaptic cell--making the cell more negative
EPSP
What does IPSP?
inhibitory post synaptic potential
WHat is the IPSPs?
when nt being released will hyperpolarize the post synaptic cell
NAME
this is when the nt being released will hyperpolarize the post synpatic cell
IPSP
What is the differ btwn the EPSP and IPSP?
(1)EPSP=is when the released nt will depolarize the post synaptic cell (2)IPSP=is when the released nt will hyperpolarize the post synaptic cell
What is presynaptic facilitation?
is the partial release of excitatory nt
NAME
this is the partial release of exictatory nt
presynaptic facilitation
What is presynaptic inhibition?
think i for inhibitory effect



is the partial release of a inhibitory nt
NAME
this is the partial release of a inhibitory nt
presynaptic inhibition
What is the differ btwn presynaptic inhibition and presynpatic facilitation/
(1)presynaptic inhibition=is the partial relase of inhibitory nt (2)presynaptic faciliation= is the partial release of exictatory nt
Neurotransmitters are also called (1)
neuromodulators
(1)are also called neuromodulators
neurotransmitters
WHat is the synapse?
space btwn two neurons
NAME
this is the space btwn two neurons
synapse
What are receptors?
is a protein on the surface of or w/in a cell that binds w a specific molecule
NAME
this is a protein on the surface or w/in the cell that bind a specfic molecule
receptors
Where are receptors located?
all over the body
WHat are agonist?
is a substance that fits into receptor and exerts an effect
NAME
this is a substance that fits into a receptor and exerts an effect
agonist
What is antagonist?
is a substance that fits into the receptor and prevents the agonist from binding
NAME
this is a substance that fits into the receptor and prevents the agonist from binding
antagonist
What is the differ btwn the agonist and the antagonist in receptor actions?
(1)agonist=is a substance that fits into a receptor and exerts an effect (2)antagonist=is a substance that fits into the receptor and prevents the agonist from binding
Describe actions at the chemical synapse? (5)
(1)nt synthesized and stored in vescles (2)action potential goes down axon of neuron to axon terminal (depolarzing the nerve's plasma membrane) (3)synaptic vescles containing nt fuse to axon membrane (4)nt is released into synapse (5)nt binds to postsynaptic receptor exerting an effect (either exictory or inhibitory) on the postsynaptic cell
Describe actions at the chemical synapse? (5)
(1)nt synthesized and stored in vescles (2)action potential goes down axon of neuron to axon terminal (depolarzing the nerve's plasma membrane) (3)synaptic vescles containing nt fuse to axon membrane (4)nt is released into synapse (5)nt binds to postsynaptic receptor exerting an effect (either exictory or inhibitory) on the postsynaptic cell
Describe actions at the chemical synapse? (5)
(1)nt synthesized and stored in vescles (2)action potential goes down axon of neuron to axon terminal (depolarzing the nerve's plasma membrane) (3)synaptic vescles containing nt fuse to axon membrane (4)nt is released into synapse (5)nt binds to postsynaptic receptor exerting an effect (either exictory or inhibitory) on the postsynaptic cell
What is the vesicles?
is where nt are synthesized and stored
NAME
this is where nt are synthesized and stored
vesicles
action potential goes down the (1)of the neuron to the (2)
(1)axon (2)axon terminal
nt binds to the postsynaptic receptor exerting either a (1)or (2)
excitatory or inhibitory
How do you stop the chemical synapse? (3)
(1)reuptake of nt into the presynaptic cell (2)enzymes break down nts (3)diffusion of nt
How do you stop the chemical synapse? (3)
(1)reuptake of nt into the presynaptic cell (2)enzymes break down nts (3)diffusion of nt
What causes the vesciles to release nt from the presynaptic neuron into the synapse?
electrical signal
NAME
this causes the vesicles to release nt from the presynaptic neuron into the synpase
electrical signals
electrical signals causes the vesicles to release nt from the presynaptic neuron into the (1)
synapse
How can drugs modify nerve impulses? (4)
1. Affect synthesis of neurotransmitter
2. Affect release of neurotransmitter
3. Affect binding of nt with receptors on postsynaptic membrane by binding with receptors or blocking receptors
4. Affect termination by either destroying enzymes that breakdown neurotransmitters or by blocking the reuptake of neurotransmitters
How can drugs modify nerve impulses? (4)
1. Affect synthesis of neurotransmitter
2. Affect release of neurotransmitter
3. Affect binding of nt with receptors on postsynaptic membrane by binding with receptors or blocking receptors
4. Affect termination by either destroying enzymes that breakdown neurotransmitters or by blocking the reuptake of neurotransmitters
What are nt?
is any chemical substance that binds to a receptor located in a neuron or muscle fiber that will elicit a excitatory or inhibitory
NAME
is any chemical substance that binds to a receptor located in a neuron or muscle fiber that will elicit a excitatory or inhibitory
nt
How many nt are there?
hundreds
NAME
this causes the vesicles to release nt from the presynaptic neuron into the synpase
electrical signals
What is Ach?
elicts a excitatory effect that starts the contraction of muscles fibers
electrical signals causes the vesicles to release nt from the presynaptic neuron into the (1)
synapse
NAME
this nt elicts a excitatory effect that starts the contraction of muscle fibers
Ach
How can drugs modify nerve impulses? (4)
1. Affect synthesis of neurotransmitter
2. Affect release of neurotransmitter
3. Affect binding of nt with receptors on postsynaptic membrane by binding with receptors or blocking receptors
4. Affect termination by either destroying enzymes that breakdown neurotransmitters or by blocking the reuptake of neurotransmitters
How can drugs modify nerve impulses? (4)
1. Affect synthesis of neurotransmitter
2. Affect release of neurotransmitter
3. Affect binding of nt with receptors on postsynaptic membrane by binding with receptors or blocking receptors
4. Affect termination by either destroying enzymes that breakdown neurotransmitters or by blocking the reuptake of neurotransmitters
Where can you find Ach?
in the neuromuscluar junction
What are nt?
is any chemical substance that binds to a receptor located in a neuron or muscle fiber that will elicit a excitatory or inhibitory
NAME
you find this nt in the NMJ
Ach
NAME
is any chemical substance that binds to a receptor located in a neuron or muscle fiber that will elicit a excitatory or inhibitory
nt
How many nt are there?
hundreds
What happens if the NMJ is damaged?
the patient will expereince partial loss of movement or paralysis bc Ach is found there
What is Ach?
elicts a excitatory effect that starts the contraction of muscles fibers
NAME
if this is damaged then the patient will experience partial loss of movement or paralysis
NMJ
NAME
this nt elicts a excitatory effect that starts the contraction of muscle fibers
Ach
What is curae? (5)
comes from a plant in the Amazon (2)the indians put it on the arrows (3)it has a strong infinity to receptors for Ach...therefore, Ach cannot bind (4)the person becomes paralized (5)eventually, stops the muscle respiration and the person
Where can you find Ach?
in the neuromuscluar junction
What is curae? (5)
comes from a plant in the Amazon (2)the indians put it on the arrows (3)it has a strong infinity to receptors for Ach...therefore, Ach cannot bind (4)the person becomes paralized (5)eventually, stops the muscle respiration and the person
NAME
you find this nt in the NMJ
Ach
What happens if the NMJ is damaged?
the patient will expereince partial loss of movement or paralysis bc Ach is found there
NAME
if this is damaged then the patient will experience partial loss of movement or paralysis
NMJ
What is curae? (5)
comes from a plant in the Amazon (2)the indians put it on the arrows (3)it has a strong infinity to receptors for Ach...therefore, Ach cannot bind (4)the person becomes paralized (5)eventually, stops the muscle respiration and the person
What is curae? (5)
comes from a plant in the Amazon (2)the indians put it on the arrows (3)it has a strong infinity to receptors for Ach...therefore, Ach cannot bind (4)the person becomes paralized (5)eventually, stops the muscle respiration and the person
What are some of the different types of nt? (6)
(1)amino acids (2)amines (3)peptides (4)nitric oxide (5)receptors (6)neuromuscular junction
What does nt stand for?
neurotransmitters
NAME
there are 6 types of these: amino acids, amines, peptides, nitric oxide, receptors, and neuromuscular junction
nt
What are the some examples of nts that are amino acids? (4)
(1)Glutamate (2)Aspartate (3)glycine (4)GABA
NAME
some examples of these type of nt include Glutamate, aspartate, glycine, and GABA
amino acids
What are some examples of nts that are amines? (3)
(1)dopamine (2)noreinephrine (3)serotonin
NAME
some examples of this type of nt include dopamine, noreinephrine, and serotonin
amines
What are some examples of nts that are peptides? (2)
(1)substance P (2)endogenous opiods
NAME
some examples of these types of nts include substance P and endogenous opiods
peptides
What are some examples of nts that are nitric oxides?
viagra
NAME
an example of this type of nt is viagra
nitric oxide
What are some examples of nt that are receptors? (4)
(1)ligand-gated channels (2)G-protein mediated receptors (3)agonist (4)antagonists
NAME
some examples of this type of nt include ligand-gated channels, G-protien mediated receptors, agonist, and antagonists
receptors
How do muscle fibers contract? describe this process
Ach starts the reaction by contracting muscle fibers
NAME
this nt starts the contraction of muscle fibers
Ach
What does ACh stand for?
acetylcholine
if you have no contact w (1)then there is no contraction of the muscle
ACh
What are amino acids?
are the building blocks of protients
NAME
these are the building blocks of protiens
amino acids
How many amino acids are there?
20
How many amino acids are essential?
8
there nts that are (1)that are amino acids
4
(1)amino acids are nts
4
(1)amino acids are essential
8
There are (1)amino acids
20
What is Glu stand for?
glutatmate
What does Gly stand for?
glycine
What does GABA stand for?
gamma-ammino-butryric acid
What is Glu?
is a major excitary nt found all over the CNS
NAME
this is a exictary nt found in all over the CNS
Glu
What is Gly?
is one of the most basic inhibitory nt found in the spinal cord
NAME
this is one the most basic inhibitory nt found in the spinal cord
Gly
What is GABA?
is a inhibitory nt found mostly in the brain stem and brain
NAME
this is a inhibitory nt found mostly in the brain and brain stem
GABA
Compare and contrast the differ types of nts that are amino acids (3)
(1)Glu=is a major excitary nt found all over the CNS (2)Gly=is one of the most basic inhibitory nt found in the spinal cord (3)GABA=is a inhibitorty nt found mostly in the brain and brain stem
What does DA stand for?
dopamine
Compare and contrast the differ types of nts that are amino acids (3)
(1)Glu=is a major excitary nt found all over the CNS (2)Gly=is one of the most basic inhibitory nt found in the spinal cord (3)GABA=is a inhibitorty nt found mostly in the brain and brain stem
Compare and contrast the differ types of nts that are amino acids (3)
(1)Glu=is a major excitary nt found all over the CNS (2)Gly=is one of the most basic inhibitory nt found in the spinal cord (3)GABA=is a inhibitorty nt found mostly in the brain and brain stem
What is tyrosine?
nt that becomes DA, noreinephrine and serotonin
NAME
this nt that becomes norenephrine, and serotonin and DA
tyrosine
What does tyrosine become? (3)
(1)DA (2)noreinephrine (3)serotonin
How does cocaine affect the brain?
removes the DA from the binding sites
NAME
if you do this it will remove the DA from the binding sites
cocaine
NAME
DA, noreinephrine, and serotonin are all syntheized from this
tyrosine
Where is DA found?
in the midbrain and basal ganglia
Where is GLu found?
all over the CNS
Where is Gly found?
spinal cord
Where is GABA found?
the brain and brain stem
NAME
this disease has been linked to a deficiency in DA
Parkinsons disease
Parkinsons disease has been linked to (1)
a deficiency in DA
What is DA?
related to faciliation of movement and plays important role in coginition
NAME
this is related to faciliation of movement and plays an important role in coginition
DA
What are (3)characteristics of Parkinsons disease?
(1)resting tremor (2)inability to initiate movement (3)cogwheel rigidity
NAME
this has three characeristics: resting tremor, inability to intitate movement, and cogwheel regidity
Parkinson disease
What is cogwheel rigidity?
is deconstruction of movement (all choppy)
NAMe
this refers to the deconstruction movement (all choppy)
cogwheel rigidity
Why cannot people be given DA who have Parkinson's disease?
DA cannot cross the BBB
People who have parksinon disease may be given (1)
L-DOPA
L-DOPA may be given to people who have (1)
Parkinsons disease
What is one catch 22 of L-DOPA? (2)
only small amount gets to brain (2)affects are min
How do amphetamines affect the brain?
increase DA uptake and block release
NAME
this affects the brain by increases DA uptake and blocking relase
apmphetamines
Where is noreinephrine found?
mostly found in the ANS
What is noreinephrine?
nt mostly found in the ANS that activates sympathic NS
NAME
this nt acitivates the sympathic NS
noerinephrine
NAME
this drug blocks the reuptake of Serationin
prozac
How does Prozac work?
drug blocks the reuptake of Serotnin
What are some of the effects of noneinephrine? (4)
(1)increases the bronchi diamter so you can breath better (2)increase the blood flow to the extermeties (3)dilation of pupils (4)increase heart rate and blood pressure
What are some of the effects of serotonin? (4)
(1)increases the bronchi diamter so you can breath better (2)increase the blood flow to the extermeties (3)dilation of pupils (4)increase heart rate and blood pressure
What are some of the effects of nonephrine? (4)
(1)increases the bronchi diamter so you can breath better (2)increase the blood flow to the extermeties (3)dilation of pupils (4)increase heart rate and blood pressure
NAME
some of the effects of this nt include increase in bronchi diamter so you breath better, increase in blood flow to the extermeties, dilation of pupils, and increase in heart rate and blood pressure
noreinephrine
What is Serotonin?
is the feel good nt that affects mood and in the CNS, prepares you for sleep,
NAME
this is the feel good nt that affects your mood and in the CNS, prepares you for sleep
serotonin
What are some things people who have decreased amounts of Serotonin might experience? (3)
(1)lack of sleep (2)depression (3)sucidal
What are peptides?
are long chains of amino acids that serve moslty as modulators
NAME
these are long chains of amino acids that serve mostly as modulators
peptides
What is substance P?
nt that when released causes pain
NAME
this is a nt that when released that causes pain
substance P
After cell injury, the nt (1)is released
substance P
Substance P initiates the (1)
pain pathway
Describe the path fibers and how substance P works (3)
(1)substance P initiate the pain pathway (2)afferent fibers reach spinal cord asced to sensory cortex (3)when fibers reach the sensory cortex you know that you are in pain
Describe the path fibers and how substance P works (3)
(1)substance P initiate the pain pathway (2)afferent fibers reach spinal cord asced to sensory cortex (3)when fibers reach the sensory cortex you know that you are in pain
What is endogenous opids?
nt created by the body that acts like morphine to relieve pain
NAME
this is a nt created by the body that acts like morphine to relieve pain
endogenous opids
NAME
this nt can give you a runners high
endogenous opids
endogenous can give a (1)
runner high
T or F
you body cannot create endogenous opids
false
What does endogenous mean?
latin for body produce
NAME
this means the body produces
endogenous
What is nitric oxide?
is a minor nt that affects the cardiovascular system by promoting dilation of vessels
NAME
this is a minor nt that affects the cardiovascular system by promoting dilation of vessels
nitric oxide
NAME
this nt promotes dilation of vessels
nitric oxide
if you are blood medication should not be taken w (1)
viagra
What is ligand ?
is anything that is binds to receptors
NAME
this is anything that is binds to receptors
ligand
What are ligand gated channels?
are ion channels that bind to that can cause ion channels to open
NAME
are ion channels that bind to that can cause ion channels to open
ligand gated channels
What is the G protien?
iniates the 2nd messegner
NAME
this initiates the 2nd messenger
G protien
What is a 2nd messegner?
is a subunit receptor that deattaches travels to the ion channel causing it to open
NAME
this is a subunit receptor that deattaches travels to the ion channel causing it to open
2nd messenger
Draw a picture of the neuromuscular junction
see notes
Draw a picture of the neuromuscular junction
see notes
Draw a picture of the neuromuscular junction
see notes
Draw a picture of the neuromuscular junction
see notes
Describe the G-protein mediated receptors
the nt binds to the G protien then 2nd messenger causes the channel to open/or close
NAME
for this type of gate, the nt binds to the G protien 2nd messenger causes the channel to open/close
G-protein mediated
What is MG disease?
is an autoimmune disease in which the person's anitbodies prevent binding of Ach to Ach receptors and thus preventing depolarization and the contraction of hte muscles
NAME
this is an autoimmune disease in which the person's anitbodies prevent binding of Ach to Ach receptors and thus preventing depolarization and the contraction of hte muscles
MG
What does MG stand for?
myasthenia Gravis
nt are any chemical substances that binds a receptor located in a (1)or (2)
neuron or muscle fiber
nt are any chemical substances that binds a receptor located in a (1)or (2)
neuron or muscle fiber
Nodes of Ranvier are found in the (1)
CNS
What are some ways that sensory tracts protect against injury?
fast pain
What protects you against injury?
fast pain
What are some examples of somatosensation? (4)
(1)touch (2)procrioception (3)pain (4)temperature
NAME
examples of this include touch, propricoception, pain, and temperature
somatosensation
touch, propricoception are all examples of (1)and (2)
somatosensation and modulaties
touch, propricoception are all examples of (1)and (2)
somatosensation and modulaties
What does ALS stand for?
anterlateral system (LOOK UP SPELLING)
What does the DCS transmit? (2)
touch (2)proprioception
NAME
this tract transmits touch and proprioception
DCS
What does ALS transmit?
(1)touch (2)pain (3)temperature
NAME
this tract transmits touch, pain, and temperature
ALS
What does the spinocerebellar tract transmit?
proprioception
NAME (2)
these tracts transmits proprioception
(1)DCS (2)spinocerebellar
What tracts transmit pain?
AL system
What tract transmits touch? (2)
(1)AL system (2)dorsal column system
What tracts transmit proprioception? (2)
(1)dorsal column system (2)spinocerebeullar
What tracts transmit proprioception? (2)
(1)dorsal column system (2)spinocerebeullar
What is the difference in how proprioception is transmited in the DCS and the spinocerebeullar tract? (2)
(1)the spinocerebellar tract ends in cerebellum (2)LOOK UP IN BOOK ends in the post central gyrus in the cerebral cortex
the post central gyrus is also called the (1)
somatosensry cortex
(1)is also called the somatosensry cortex
post central gyrus
How would you do a quick screening of someone who has a problem w his or her right hand?
and what are you testing when you do this? (3)
(1)have them close their eyes and differ parts of their body (2)for instance, you might have them ask to tell u what side (right or left) arm you touch (3)cogintion, light tough, prioception, dermatomes, and ascending tracts
When would you test for deramtomes?
if you suspect spinal cord injuries such as from a herniated dics
What are some ways to do complete sensory assessment? (8)
(1)tactile threshold (2)2-point discrimination (3)graphetestia (4)joint movement (5)vibration (6)sterognosis (7)sharp pain (8)temperature
What are some ways to do complete sensory assessment? (8)
(1)tactile threshold (2)2-point discrimination (3)graphetestia (4)joint movement (5)vibration (6)sterognosis (7)sharp pain (8)temperature
What is the tactile thershold assesment?
if when you do light touch test w the tipi of your fingers
NAME
this assesment is when you do a light touch test w the tip of your fingers
tactile thershold
What is the 2 point discrimination test? (2)
for this test you ned at least 2 pointy structures to test for sharp pain (2)place the two objects on the person's skin and bring 2 objects closer until the person feels them as one object
NAME
this test tells you how close the 2 objects are before the patient feels them as one object
2 point discrimination test
What is one safety hazard you should consider w the 2 point discrimination test?
that the sharp objects can pierce the skin....therefore, follow standard procedures
What does DCS stand for?
dorsal column system
What is graphestesia?
is the ability to know numbers and letters by mimicking the writing on the skin
NAME
this is the ability to know numbers and letters by mimicking the writing on the skin
graphestesia
NAME
an example of this test is writing something on the person's hand and back and asking them what you wrote
graphestestis
Give an example of how you would test graphestestia?
is writing something on the person's hand and back and asking what you wrote
What does graphestesia test for? (3)
(1)graphestesia (2)ligth touch and (3)priopection
What does the joint movement test for?
(1)cogintiion (2)prioception (3)what joint you are moving
What is the vibration test?
use a tuning fork and placing it on the patient skin
NAME
for this test you can use a tuning fork...placing it on the skin and testing to see if they feel the fork
vibration test
What is the joint movement test?
this test involves having the patient close their eyes and ask theming what joint you are moving
NAME
this test involves having the patient close their eyes and asks them what joint you are moving
joint movement test
How can you test for temperature?
use hot or cold
What is the best object to use for the 2 point discrimination test?
paper clips
What is the best way to test for temperature?
use cold instead of hot bc each person's pain tolerance is different
if you need a more advance test than the complete sensory assessments use the (1)or (2)tests
nerve conduction studies (2)somatosensory evoked potentials
What is stereognosis?
is the ability to know what holding in hand/w out seing it
NAME
this is the abiltiy to know what holding in hand w out seeing it
stereognosis
what systems are you using when w stereognosis?
(1)ALS (2)DCS
What is the nerve conduction studies?
involves placing electrodes on skin following the path of the nerve. the electrodes send electric stimulation to the nerve and calculates the speed of the nerve conduction
NAME
this involves placing electrodes on skin following the path of the nerve. the electrodes send electric stimulation to the nerve and calculates the speed of the nerve conduction
nerve conduction studies
When is nerve conduction studies usally used?
it is usally performed when their is a possibility of progressive neurological disorders
NAME
this test is usally performed when their is a possibility of progressive neurological disorders
nerve conduction studies
WHat is the somatosensory evoked potential test?
does the same thing as the nerve conduction studies but has differ frequencies
NAME
this does the same thing as the nerve conduction studies but has differ frequencies
somatosensory evoked potential test
What is paraestheisa?
is when a person has decreased or no sensory integration
NAME
this is when a person has decreased or no sesnory integration
parasthesia
Give an example of paraesthesia? (3)
(1)fantom limb (2)diabtes (3)people who have surgury
People w fantom limb, diabtes, or people who have surgury may expereince this (1)
paresthesia
inflammation changes (1)
sensation
What is dysethia?
is an abnormal sensation after a normal stimulus
NAME
this an abnormal sensation after a noramal stimulation
dysethia
What is the differ btwn paresthesia and dysethia? (2)
(1)paraesthesia= is the whe nthe person has decreased or no sensory integration (2)dysethia is an abnormal sesnation after a normal sesnation
What is the differ btwn paresthesia and dysethia? (2)
(1)paraesthesia= is the whe nthe person has decreased or no sensory integration (2)dysethia is an abnormal sesnation after a normal sesnation
What is the differ btwn paresthesia and dysethia? (2)
(1)paraesthesia= is the whe nthe person has decreased or no sensory integration (2)dysethia is an abnormal sesnation after a normal sesnation
What is allodynia?
is an increased pain followed to secondary to normal stimulation
NAME
this an increased pain followed to secondary to normal stimulation
allodynia
Give an example of allodynia?
you have sunburn on your shoulder and when you put your shirt on it hurts. normalyl puting on your shirt would not hurt your shoulder
tissue damage and nerve damage can cause (1)
pain
What is hyperalgesia?
is when there is a decrease of the pain thereshold
NAME
this is when there is a decrease of the pain thereshold
hyperalgesia
NAME
this is a subjective personal expereince
pain
NAME
no one knows how much this hurts
pain
Describe pain
is a subjective personal expereince that is differ for each person and no one knows how much it hurts
What is it important to document pain?
(1)bc some people have differ reasons for faking pain such as for insurance money, attention, or to be a drama queen
NAME
it is importatnt to document this
pain
It is important to document (1)
pain
What is ataxia?
is incoordination or disorganized movments
NAME
this is incoordination or disorganized movemnts
ataxia
What can ataxia result from?
anything but muscle weakness
NAME
this can result from anything but muscle weakness
ataxia
Ataxia can results from anything but (1)
muscle weakness
What can ataxia result from?
anything but muscle weakness
T or F
ataxia can result from muscle weakness
false
Most ataxic patients have a (1)problem affecting the (2)tract and (3)
cerebellum (2)spinocerebeullar (3)proprioception
NAME
most of these patients have a cerebeullum problem affecting the spinocerebeullar tract and proprioception
ataxic patients
What do most patients w ataxia have a cerebellum problem?
bc the cerebellum coordinates movement
How do you test for ataxia?
the Romberg test
What is the Romberg test?
tests for ataxia
NAME
this tests for ataxia
Romberg test
How would you perform the Romberg test?
you would have the person close his or her eyes, place the hands at their side, and put feet together and stay there......you can make it more challenging for them by having them raise a foot.
the most commom ataxia (1)
cerebeullar
NAME
this is the most common ataxia
cerebullar ataxia
What senses do you for balance during the Romburg test? (3)
(1)vision (2)Propricetion (3)vestibular system
NAMe
this can results from a direct nerve injury or diabtes
periphral neuorpathy
peripheral neuropathy can results from (1)or (2)
diabtes or nerve injury
What is Brown sequard syndrome?
is the hemisection of the spinal cord
NAME
this when there is a hemisection of the spinal cord
Brown sequard syndrome
Whta does it mean to have a hemisection of the spinal cord?
it means that the patient has lost either the right or left side of their spinal cord
NAME
this means that the patient has lost either the right or left side of their spinal cord
hemisection of the cord
Draw a pic and describe what it would be like if the patient
has a Brown Sequard syndrome at on the right side at C5
see notes
Draw a pic and describe what it would be like if the patient
has a Brown Sequard syndrome at on the right side at C5
see notes
Draw a pic and describe what it would be like if the patient
has a Brown Sequard syndrome at on the right side at C5
see notes
Draw a pic and describe what it would be like if the patient
has a Brown Sequard syndrome at on the right side at C5 include sensory deficits
see notes
What are some sensory deficits you would see if the person had Brown Sequard syndrome at C5 (4)
AL System would be affected contralaterally below the site of the lesion
(2)affecting light touch, pain, and temperature (3)the DCS would be affected ipsilaterally below the site of the lesion (4)affecting proprioeception, light touch, and vibration
What are some sensory deficits you would see if the person had Brown Sequard syndrome at C5 (4)
AL System would be affected contralaterally below the site of the lesion
(2)affecting light touch, pain, and temperature (3)the DCS would be affected ipsilaterally below the site of the lesion (4)affecting proprioeception, light touch, and vibration
What are some sensory deficits you would see if the person had Brown Sequard syndrome at C5 (4)
AL System would be affected contralaterally below the site of the lesion
(2)affecting light touch, pain, and temperature (3)the DCS would be affected ipsilaterally below the site of the lesion (4)affecting proprioeception, light touch, and vibration
Where is the brachial plexus start and end?
from C5-T1
NAME
this goes from C5-T1
brachial plexus
the brachial plexues goes from (1)to (2)
C5- to T1
the brachial plexues goes from (1)to (2)
C5- to T1
Draw a picture of a posterior lesion at C7 would look like be sure to include sensory defects
see notes
Draw a picture of a posterior lesion at C7 would look like be sure to include sensory defects
see notes
Draw a picture of a posterior lesion at C7 would look like be sure to include sensory defects
see notes
Draw a picture of a posterior lesion at C7 would look like be sure to include sensory defects
see notes
NAME
you can get this from the 3rd stage of syphillis or varicella zoster
posterior column lesion
What can you get a posterior column lesion from ? (2)
(1)the 3rd stage of syphillis (2)varicella zoster
Varicella zoster is also called (1)
chicken pox
(1)is also called chicken pox
varicella zoster
What are some sensory defects you would expect if a person has a posterior colulmn lesion? (3)
affects the DCS (1)propricoception (2)light touch (3)vibration
What are some sensory defects you would expect if a person has a posterior colulmn lesion? (3)
affects the DCS(1)propricoception (2)light touch (3)vibration
What are some sensory defects you would expect if a person has a posterior colulmn lesion? (3)
affects the DCS(1)propricoception (2)light touch (3)vibration
What is a thalamic lesion?
is when the person's receptors and tracts are workint but the info is not being transmited to the cortex and there is a lack of proception of the sense receptors and tracts
NAME
this is when there is when the person's receptors and tracts are workint but the info is not being transmited to the cortex and there is a lack of proception of the sense receptors and tracts
thalamic lesion
What is the differ btwn the an Brown- squard lesion, posterior column lesion, and the thalamic lesion? (3)
(1)Brown squard lesion- is when there is hemisection of the cord(2)posterior column lesion- the posterior side is damaged(3)thalamoic lesion-is when the person's receptors and tracts are workint but the info is not being transmited to the cortex and there is a lack of proception of the sense receptors and tracts
What is the differ btwn the an Brown- squard lesion, posterior column lesion, and the thalamic lesion? (3)
(1)Brown squard lesion- is when there is hemisection of the cord(2)posterior column lesion- the posterior side is damaged(3)thalamoic lesion-is when the person's receptors and tracts are workint but the info is not being transmited to the cortex and there is a lack of proception of the sense receptors and tracts
What is the differ btwn the an Brown- squard lesion, posterior column lesion, and the thalamic lesion? (3)
(1)Brown squard lesion- is when there is hemisection of the cord(2)posterior column lesion- the posterior side is damaged(3)thalamoic lesion-is when the person's receptors and tracts are workint but the info is not being transmited to the cortex and there is a lack of proception of the sense receptors and tracts
What defects would you expcet to see if a person has a thalamic lesion?
the same ones for the hemisection (1)light touch (2)pain (3)termpatures (4)propripcoception (5)light touch (6)vibration
if the person has a hemisection the (1)system is affected contralaterally below the site of the region
ALS
if the person has a hemisection, the ALS is affected (1)
contralaterally below the site of the region
If the person has a hemisection, the DCS is affected (1)
ipsilatarally below the site of the region
if the person has a hemisection, the (1)is affected ipsilaterally below the site of the region
DCS
What is the difference in how the ALS and the DCS is affected in a hemisection of the cord?(2)
(1)ALS-is affected contralaterally below the site of the regio n(2)DCS-is ffected ipsilaterally below the site of the region
What is the difference in how the ALS and the DCS is affected in a hemisection of the cord?(2)
(1)ALS-is affected contralaterally below the site of the regio n(2)DCS-is ffected ipsilaterally below the site of the region
What is the difference in how the ALS and the DCS is affected in a hemisection of the cord?(2)
(1)ALS-is affected contralaterally below the site of the regio n(2)DCS-is ffected ipsilaterally below the site of the region
Draw a pic and explain the gate theory of pain
see notes
Draw a pic and explain the gate theory of pain
see notes
What are some types of sensory syndromes? (2)
(1)paraesthesia (2)dysehteisa
NAME
this has two types: paraesthesia and dysetheisa
sensory syndromes
What is paraethesia?
is the abscence or decrease in sensory intervation
NAME
this is the the sensory intervention is decreased or abscence
paraethesia
Give an example of paraethesia? (3)
(1)fantom limb (2)diabtes (3)surgury
NAME
some examples of this include fantom limb, diabetes, and surgury
paraethesia
inflammation can change (1)
sensation
What is dysethia?
is an abnormal sensation after a normal stimulus
NAME
this is an abnormal sensation after a normal stimulus
dysethia
What is allodynia?
is an increased pain followed secondary to normal stimulation
NAME
this is an increased pain followed secondary to normal stimulation
allodynia
Give an example of allodynia
when you have sunburn on your shoulder and hurts to put on your shirt
NAME
an example of this is when you have a sunburn on your shoulder and it hurts to put on ure shirt
allodynia
(1)and (2)can cause pain
tissue and nerve damage
What is hyperalgesia?
is when there is a decrease in the pain thereshold
NAME
this is when there is a decrease in the pain thereshold
hyperalglesia
What are (2)types of dysethesia?
(1)allodynia (2)hyperaglesia
NAME
there are two types of this allodynia and hyperaglesia
dysethesia
What are symptoms of neuropathy? give symptoms in order that they appear (5)
(1)fallen asleep limb (2)cold (3)fast pain (4)heat (5)slow pain
What are symptoms of neuropathy? give symptoms in order that they appear (5)
(1)fallen asleep limb (2)cold (3)fast pain (4)heat (5)slow pain
What are symptoms of neuropathy? give symptoms in order that they appear (5)
(1)fallen asleep limb (2)cold (3)fast pain (4)heat (5)slow pain
NAME
the symptoms of this occur in the following order: (1)fallen asleep limb (2)cold (3)fast pain (4)heat (5)slow pain
neuropathy
Pain is a (1)expereince
subjective
Describe pain for people (2)
(1)subjective (2)personal and know what knows what it feels like
What is ataxia?
is in coordination or disoraginzed movement
nAME
this is in coordination or disorganized movement
ataxia
What is the gate theory of pain?
says that only one fiber can go through that gate at once--either the pain or touch fiber
NAME
this says taht only one fiber can go through the gate at once--either the pain or touch fiber
gate theory of pain
the gate theory of pain says that only one fiber can through the gate at once--either the (1)or (2)fiber
(1)pain (2)touch
pain has (1)parts
cogintive
What are analgesic centers?
has the capacity to synthesize some endorphins for pain relieve
NAME
this has the capacity to synthesize some endoprhins for pain relieve
analgesic centers
(1)and (2)are agonist to endorphins
morphin and horin
morphin and horin are agonist to (1)
endorphins
Morphin and horin are (1)to endorphins
agonist
Give example of referred pain?
a heart attack (2)appendixices
NAME
some examples of this include a heart attack and appendixces
referred pain
What are (3)types of chronic pain?
(1)neososeptic (2)neuropathc (3)chronic pain syndrome
NAME
there are three types of this: neososeptic, neuropathic, and chronic pain syndrome
chronic pain
chronic pain can result from (1)and (2)
direct issue damage or compression of anerve
What can cause chronic pain?
(1)direct tissue damage (2)nerve compression
NAME
this can be caused by direct tissue damage or nerve compression
chronic pain
What is the average nerve recovery time?
1 yr
The average nerve recovery time is (1)
1 yr
higher frequency = (1)
higher pitch
(1)= higher pitch
higher frequency
What is the cochlea?
is snail shaped organ formed by a spiraling fluid-filled tube
NAME
this is a snail shaped organ formed by a spiraling fluid filled tube
cochlea
Where is the organ of Corti located?
in the cochlea
the (1)is located in the cochlea
organ of Corti
Describe the process of how sound is converted in the ear?

follow picture(4)
(1)sound waves strike ear drum (2)ossicles move causing vibration of membrane at opening of upper chmaber (3)vibration cause movement of fluid into upper chamber and hairs in the basilar membrane to bend (4)hair cells depolarize--activating the cochlear nerve endings
Describe the process of how sound is converted in the ear?

follow picture(4)
(1)sound waves strike ear drum (2)ossicles move causing vibration of membrane at opening of upper chmaber (3)vibration cause movement of fluid into upper chamber and hairs in the basilar membrane to bend (4)hair cells depolarize--activating the cochlear nerve endings
Describe the process of how sound is converted in the ear?

follow picture(4)
(1)sound waves strike ear drum (2)ossicles move causing vibration of membrane at opening of upper chmaber (3)vibration cause movement of fluid into upper chamber and hairs in the basilar membrane to bend (4)hair cells depolarize--activating the cochlear nerve endings
NAME
this is housed in the inner ear
organ of Corti
Cochlea is also called the (1)
inner ear
(1)is also called the inner ear
Cochlea
Pinna is also the (1)
external ear
(1)is also called the external ear
Pinna
What are the differ parts of the ear? (3)
(1)Cochlea (2)middle ear (3)Pinna
Sound waves travel down the (1)til they hit the (2)
(1)auditory canal (2)ear drum
The ear drum is also called the (1)
tympanic membrane
(1)is also called the tympanic membrane
ear drum
What makes the membrane of the ear vibrate?
compressed air
Compressed air makes the membrane of the ear (1)
vibrate
sound waves are converted into (1)
mechanical energy
Sound waves are converted into (1)
mechanical energy
What are the osscicles?
are 3 ear bones located in the middle ear
NAME
these are 3 ear bones located in the middle ear
osscicles
the Eustachian tube is also called the (1)
ostonic tube
(1)is also called the ostonic tube
Eustachian tube
What are the actually 3 bones of the ossicles? (3)
(1)malleus (2)incus (3)stapes
What are the actually 3 bones of the ossicles? (3)
(1)malleus (2)Incus (3)stapes
what are the (3)ear bones?
(1)malleus (2)incus (3)stapes
NAME
these include the malleus, incus, and stapes
ossicles
the malleus is also called the (1)
hammer
(1)is also called the hammer
malleus
the incus is also called the (1)
anvil
(1)is also called the anvil
incus
stimp is also called the (10
stapes
stapes is also called the (1)
stimp
How do you equalize the pressure in your ear on a airplane/
by chewing gum and intimating chewing
What is the Eustachian tube?
is a decompressing mechanism for the ear
NAME
this is a decompressing mechanism for the ear
Eustachian tube
NAME
this is a potenital site for infection
Eustachian tube
What is Otisis medis?
a ear infection
NAME
this is an ear infection
Otisis medis
How can people get ear infections?
the bacteria migrates from the pharynx to the Eustachian tube to the middle ear
What is the pain from ear infection caused by?
inflammation that does not allow ossicles to vibrate
What is Endolymph?
is fluid found inside the cohclea
What CN is involved in hearing?
CN VIII
NAME
this is fluid found inside the cochlea
endolymph
the auditory cortex is located in the (1)
temporal lobe
(1)is located in the temproal lobe
auditory cortex
Draw a chart of the auditory pathways
see chart
Draw a chart of the auditory pathways
see chart
Draw a chart of the auditory pathways
see chart
Draw a chart of the vision pathway
see chart
Draw a chart of the vision pathway
see chart
Draw a chart of the vision pathway
see chart
Where are auditory receptors founds?
in the cochlea
WHat are (2)muscles in the middle ear?
(1)tensor tympani (2)stapedius
WHat are (2)muscles in the middle ear?
(1)tensor tympani (2)stapedius
NAME
this has two muscles: tensor tympani and stapedius
muscles of the middle ear
WHat is the tensor tympani?
provides tension for the middle ear
NAME
this muscle provides tension for the middle ear
tensor tympani
What is the stapedius?
is located on the stapes bone
NAME
this is located on the stapes bone
stapedius
What are the scalas?
are the 3 chambers of the cochlea
NAME
these are 3 chambers of the cochlea
scalas
What are the (3)scalas of the cochlea?
(1)scala vestibuli (2)scala media (3)scala tympani
NAME
these include the scala vestibuli, scala media, and scala tympani
scalas of cochlea
What are the (3)scalas of the cochlea?
(1)scala vestibuli (2)scala media (3)scala tympani
What are the (3)scalas of the cochlea?
(1)scala vestibuli (2)scala media (3)scala tympani
Describe the order of the scala
(1)scala vestibuli (outer) (2)scala media (middle (3)scala tympani (inner)
What is the scala vestibuli?
is outer scala that filled w paralypmh
NAME
this is the outer scala and is filled w paralymph
scala vestibuli
What is scala media?
is the middle part of the scala filled w endolymph
NAME
this is the middle part of the scala filled w endolypmh
scala media
what is the scala tymponi?
is the inner scala and is filled w paralypmh
NAME
this is the inner scala and is filled w paralymph
scala tymponi
the lower the frequency the distal fro m the (1)ear
base
the (1)frequency the distal from the base of the ear
lower frequency
the lower the frequency the more (1)it is from the base of the ear
distal
the (1)frequency the closer it is to the base of the ear
higher
the higher frequency the (1)it is to the base of the ear
closer
Where would you perceive high pitch?
close the the base
hair cells send axons to the (1)
CN VIII
the organ of COrti has (1)emmbeded in is basilar membrane
4 rows (1 inner and 3 outer) of hair
Where are the hair cells in the ear located?
they are embeded in the basilar membrane near the oragan of Corti
How does the cell depolarize in the ear?
when all the smaller hair cells bend toward the tallest hair cell
NAME
this happens when all the smaller hair cells bend toward the tallest hair cell
depolarization
How does the cell hyperpolarize in the ear?
when all the smaller hairs bend away from the tallest hair cell
NAME
this happens when all the smaller hairs bend away from the tallest hair cell
hyperpolarization
if the small hair cells bend (1)the tallest hair cell the cell will depolarize
towards
if the small hair cells bend (1)the tallest hair cell the cell will hyperpolarize
away
depolarization of the cells in the ear activates the (1)
K+ mechnical gated channels
deppolarization of cells in the ear activates the (1)
K+ mechnical gated channels
depolarization of cells in the (1)activates the K+ mechnical gated channels
ear
What is sound?
is a combo of waves, compressed air, and referred air
NAME
this is a combo of waves, compressed air, and referred air
sound
Draw a pic of where all of the tastes are on your tongue
see chart
Draw a pic of where all of the tastes are on your tongue
see chart
What are papillae?
taste buds
NAME
these are taste buds
papillae
What are (4)kinds of taste buds?
(1)bitter (2)sour (3)sweet (4)saltness
NAME
these include bitter, sour, sweet, and saltness
taste buds
taste has to be (1)stimualted
chemical
Taste is (1)stimualted
chemimical
How is taste stimulated?
by chemicals
Describe how chemicals stimulate taste (3)
(1)chemicals are dissolved into the saliva (2)they enter the taste pores to be absorbed by microvilla into the taste cells (3)tatse cells fire up sending action potentials to CN VII, CN IX CN X
Describe how chemicals stimulate taste (3)
(1)chemicals are dissolved into the saliva (2)they enter the taste pores to be absorbed by microvilla into the taste cells (3)tatse cells fire up sending action potentials to CN VII, CN IX CN X
What CNS are involved in taste? (3)
CN VIII (2)CN IX (3)CN X
NAME
CN VIII,CN IX, and CN X are involved in this
taste
What are (3)types of papillae?
(1)vallate (2)follate (3)fungiform
NAME
there are three types of these: vallate, follate, and fungiform
papillae
What part of the tongue does CN VII supply?
the anterior 2/3 of the tongue
nAME
this CN supplies the anterior 2/3 of the tongue
CN VII
What part of the tongue does CN IX supply?
posterior 3rd of tongue
NAME
this supplies the posterior 3rd of the tongue
CN IX
What part of the tongue does the CN X supply?
the epiglottis and the back of the tongue
NAME
this supplies the epiglottis and the back of the tongue
CN X
What is the differ btwn CN VII, CN IX, and CN X? (3)
(1)CN XII= anterior 2/3 of the tongue (2)CN IX=posterior 3rd of of the tongue (3)CN X= supplies the epiglottis and back of the tongue
Salt is (1)
NaCL
(1)is NaCL
salt
Quinne is (1)
bitter
(1)is bitter
Quinne
HCL is (1)
sour
(1)is sour
HCL
sucurose is (1)
sweet
Sweet is (1)
sucrose
(1)always fires up first bc its close to the tip of tongue
sweet
Salt activates the (1)
ion gated channels (Na+)
(1)taste activates the ion gated channel (Na+)
salt
sour activates the (1)
proton pump
(1)activates the proton pump
sour
What are (2)ways bitter mechanisms can be activated?
(1)ion gated channels K+ (2)ligand gated channels w IP3 as 2nd messenger
NAME
this can be activated through ion gated channels K+ and ligand gated channels w IP3 as 2nd messenger
bitter
all taste buds stimulate the (1)
gustary afferent axon
All (1)stimulate the gustatory afferent axons
taste buds
draw the gastatory taste pathway
see notes
draw the gastatory taste pathway
see notes
What stimulates smell?
odorants
odorants stimulate (1)
olfacotry
vestibular system is also called (1)
hearing
(1)jst refers to hearing
vestibular systems
How do odorants trigger smell? (2)
(1)first they are dissolved in mucus then absorbed by the olfactory receptor cells located on the roof of the nasal cavity (2)stimulus travels from the roof to ethamoid bone through the cribnform plate to collect in the olfactory bulb traveling posterior to the olfactory nerve
How do odorants trigger smell? (2)
(1)first they are dissolved in mucus then absorbed by the olfactory receptor cells located on the roof of the nasal cavity (2)stimulus travels from the roof to ethamoid bone through the cribnform plate to collect in the olfactory bulb traveling posterior to the olfactory nerve
How do odorants trigger smell? (2)
(1)first they are dissolved in mucus then absorbed by the olfactory receptor cells located on the roof of the nasal cavity (2)stimulus travels from the roof to ethamoid bone through the cribnform plate to collect in the olfactory bulb traveling posterior to the olfactory nerve
What is speacil about olfactory?
is the only sense that does not need to stop at the thalamus
NAME
this is a speacil sense bc it is the only sense that does not need to stop at the thalamus
olfactory
Why is it believed that the olfactory pathway does not need to stop at the thalamus?
bc it a primitive sense...that was developed before the thalamus
What stimulates the central vision pathway?
electromagnitic waves
NAME
this sense is stimulated by electromagnitic waves
central vision pathway
electromaginitc waves are also called (1)
light
(1)is also called light
electromagnitic waves
What is Amplitude?
is the height of the wave
NAME
this is the height of the wave
Amplitude
You can only see (1)waves
ultra violet rays
What are the only kind of waves you cane see ?
ultra violet rays
What is the range of ultra violet rays a person can see?
400 to 700 nm
A person can only see from (1)to (2)
400 to 700 nm
What is light?
is a combo of particles and waves
NAME
this is a combo of particles and waves
light
Light can be (1),(2), and (3).
reflected, refracted, or absorbed
NAME
this can be reflected, refracted, or absorbed
light
What is sclera?
is the white part of your eyes
NAME
this is the white part of the eyes
sclera
What is the iris?
is the ring of color around the eyes
NAME
this is a ring of color around the eyes
iris
What is pupil?
is the center of the iris
NAME
this is the center of the iris
pupil
T or F
the pupil is not just a structure but a a hole
true
What is conjunctiva?
is the inside of the eyelid
NAME
this is the inside of the eyelid
conjunctiva
What is the cornea?
is avascular transparent layer that sits atop the conjunctive
NAME
this is avascular transparent layer that sits atop the conjunctive
cornea
the optic disk is the (1)
blind spot
(1)is the blind spot
optic disk
What is optic disk?
have no blind spots here
NAME
this is your blind spot
optic disk
WHat is the fovea?
this is the area where your vision is the most acurate
NAME
this is the area where your vision is the most acurate
fovea
What is macula degeneration?
is the degeneration of the photoreceptors in the macula....resulting in the lose of the fovea and the person's best vision
NAME
this is the degeneration of the photoreceptors in the macula....resulting in the lose of the fovea and the person's best vision
macula degeneration
light can only enter through the (1)
pupil
what happens as light enters the pupil?
it refracted through the cornea
light is refracted through the (1)
cornea
light is (1)through the cornea
refracted
What are zonule fibers?
are ligaments that suspend the lens and the zonules muscles
NAME
these are the ligaments that suspend the lens and zonules muscles
zonule fibers
if the zonule muscle relaxes then the lens gets (1)
fat
if the zonule muscles (1)than the lens gets fat
relaxes
if the zonule muscles (1)than the lens gets lighter--allowing you to better focus on objects
pull tighter
if the zonules muscles pull tighter than the lens gets (1)
lighter allowing you to better focus on objects
Your eyes (1)
invert everything double
What is myopia?
is when you cannot see things far away
NAME
this is when you cannot see things far away
myopia
What is hyperopia?
is when you cannot see things close to you
NAME
this is when you cannot see things close of you
hyperopia
What is the differ tbwn hyperopia and myopia? (2)
(1)myopia-is when you cannot see things far from you (2)hyeropia-when you cannot see thing close to you
What are (2)types of photoreceptors?
cones and rods
NAME
there are two types of these: rods and cones
photoreceptors
Ganglian cells form (1)
optic nerves
(1)form the optic nerve
Ganglian cells
Vision is perceived by the (1)
2nd messenger system
photoreceptors only get depolarized at (1)
night
When do photorecptors only get depolarized?
at night
What are (3)types of cones?
(1)red (2)green (3)blue
NAME
there are three of these:red, green, and blue
cones
What is area 17?
is where we interpet what we are look at
NAME
this is where we interpret what we are looking at
area 17
What is the orientation columns?
is the area where group of cells only get triggered if light travels in a certain way
NAME
this is the area where the group of cells only get triggered if light travels in a certain way
orientation columns