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53 Cards in this Set

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Lateral Vestibular Nucleus
Tract: Later vestibulospinal Tract
Function: ipsilater extensor for AXIAL MUSCLES part of Antigravity Reflex
Also: the only UMN with direct input to LMN
Reticularis Pontis Oralis
Reticularis Pontis Caudalis
Tract: Pontine Reticulospinal Tract
Function: Ipsilateral Extensor part of antigravity reflex
Reticullogigantocellularis
Tract: Medullary Reticulospinal Tract
Function: bilateral flexor
Red Nucleus
Part of mesencephalon
Tract: Rubrospinal Tract
crosses over at Ventral Tegmental Decussation
Function is Contralateral Proximal Limb Flexion
Corticospinal Tract
UMN is cerebral cortex
from Brodman areas to LMN
Arises from area 4, 6, (3,1,2)
Efferents leave from Lamina 5 Area 4, arise from Betz Cells
Internal Capsule
fibers from Corona Radiata come together here and join at the POSTERIOR LIMB.
V-Shaped, ant limb divides Caudate N. and Lentiform N
Post limb divids Thalamus and Lentiform N.
Lateral Corticospinal Tract
crosses at lower Medulla at Pyramidal Decussation
Function: Distal Limb flexion esp Upper limb, curls fingers toes ie. piano
Anterior Corticospinal tract
15% that stays ipsilateral at Pyramidal Decussation, but crosses over at Anterior White Commissure at level of LMN
Function: Head and Neck movements
Superior And Inferior Colliculi
Superior for Visual
Inferior for auditory
This is done via Tectospinal tract and Medial Longitudinal fasciculus
Tectospinal Tract
Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus
TST crossed descending pathway, coordinates head and neck movements
MLF is bidirectional, bilateral, coordinates eye movement
Area 4
found in telencephalon
final output for voluntary motor movement
Area 6
area where voluntary motor behavior is initiated
Divided into: Supplemental motor cortex (Superior)
and Premotor Cortex (lateral)
Supplemental Motor Cortex
Superior part of Area 6, controls motor movement of volunatary motor action
Premotor Cortex
Lateral part of Area 6
Orients body in position for action to occur
Decebrate Rigidity
midcollicular lesion
All 4 limbs Extended
Decorticate Rigidity
lesion superior to both colliculi
Upper proximal flexion (Red Nucleus)
Lower limb extension (LVN)
LMN lesion
signs include fasciculations, flaccid paralysis, hyporeflexia.
Above lesion, LMN signs, below lesion, UMN signs
UMN lesion
signs include spastic paresis, hyperreflexia, clonus, spasticity, Positive Babinski
Amyotropic Lateral Scleroris
UMN and LMN symptoms
alternating hemiplegia
ipsilateral losses in face
contralateral losses in body
alternating hemiplegia of cn3(oculomotor)
mesencephalic lesion
laterally deviated eye(abducted) ipsilateral to lesion
Alternating Hemiplegia of cn6
Abducens
pontine lesion
medially deviated eye (adducted)
left eye adducted, right body messed up, lesion in left area of pons
Alternating hemiplegia of CN12
medullary lesion,
tongue deviation towards lesion
CVA Stroke in Middle Cerebral Artery
contralateral UMN signs in Arm>leg
CVA stroke in Anterior Cerebral Artery
contralateral UMN signs in Leg>arm
In posterior capsule, supplied by middle cerebral artery, stroke here leads to complete hemiplegia
Corticobulbar Tract
run through genu of internal capsule
UMN tracts sent to LMN's located in Brain Stem, all proejctions are BILATERAL, except cn 7.
ie. No smile on right, Genu lesion on left
Bell's Palsy CN 7
mydriasis, ptosis, lacrimal and salivary gland loss, hyperacousia.
Ipsilateral LMN signs
Striatum
Caudate Nucleus
Putamen, telencephalic
Athetosis
Constant involuntary worm-like movements
Due to lesion in Basal Ganglia
Unilateral
Striatal lesion (esp. Putamen)
Trouette's Syndrome, not supressing unwanted motor behavior
Striatal Lesion ( esp. caudate N)
leads to Chorea (constant, involuntary slow movements)
Sydenham's Chorea
Chorea in right limb means lesion in left striatum
Wilson's disease
copper in striatum, leads to chorea, Keiser fleishcher Rings
Hemiballismus
Sudden flailing of one arm,
lesion is in contralateral subthalamic Nucleus
Parkinsons Disease
symptoms: Akinesia (movement loss) , Bradykinesia (slow movements) , festinating Gait
(shuffling steps)
Lesion in Substantia Nigra
deficiency of D2 Receptors
Rigidity Vs Spasticity
Rigidity is Biidirectional, Basal Ganglia
Spasticity unidirectional, UMN
Basal Ganglia
Suppress unwanted behavior, If lesion, leads to hyperkinetic syndrome
Basal Ganglia Function
cortex -->+striatum-->-GPi--> disinhibits Thalamus-->+cortex

so thalamus wants to inhibit cortex, but GPi wont let it
Three areas of Brainstem w/ NT's
Raphe- Serotonin
Locus Ceruleus- norepi
midbrain tegmentum- Dopamine
all three are reqd cognitive and emotional behavior
block d2 receptors
Striatal nigro is favored, leads to acute parkinsons
Antipsychotic Drugs
Target D4 receptors, cuz there are no d4 receptors in the striatum, no extrapyramidal side effects
SSRI
Selective Serotonin Reuptake inhibitors, used for treatment for depression, increase serotonin. ie. Prozac
Tracts that run from GPi to Thalamus
There are 2 of them.
Lenticular fasciculus- runs through internal capsule
Ansa lenticularis- hooks around internal capsule
they both go to all 4 nuclei of thalamus
Nuclei in Thalamus
Recieving input from GPi,
VL- ventralis lateralis (go to 4) purely motor. Putamen
VA- cognitive motor, go to 6, Caudate
CM-central medialis to striatum
MD- medial dorsalis. From n. accumbens to Dorsal medial nucleus of thalamus to prefrontal lobe (limbic)
Symptoms of Cerebellar Dysfunction
Dysmetria
Rebound Phenomenon
Dysdiadokinesis
Intention Tremor
Gait Disturbance
Nystagmus
Ataxia of speech
Vermis
part of cerebellum, coordination of axial muscles, nucleus associated w/ this is the Fastigial Nucleus. UMN's involved are RGC, RPO, RPC, LVN
Paravermis
part of cerebellum, coordination of limb muscles, contains the INTERPOSED nucleus--> which is hte emboliform and the globose combined. UMN's involved here are the Red N and Area 4
Cerebellum
contains the vermis, paravermis, lateral, and floccular lobe.
lateral lobe is import for programming of voluntary muscle
Flocculus imp for muscle tone, equilib. and balance. Associated w/ LVN, not w/ any Deep Nuclei!
Lesion of the Vermis
difficulty maintaining posture and have a motor ataxic gait
ataxic gait
usually a result of anterior lobe of cerebellum. patients will sway and lose theirbalance w/ their eyes open or closed-->motor ataxia
lesion of floculonodular lobe
patients have scanning dysarthria--> dividing words
lesion of basal ganglia
tremor at rest, dyskinesia
obsessive compulsie disorder
results from overactivity in the striatal part
holonprosencephaly
failure of prosencephalon to seperate into diencephalon, 4th week of development