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31 Cards in this Set

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Smile stimulation fails to properly activate the muscles around the eyes. This may be because the lower facial muscles are controlled by voluntary motor cortical inputs whereas the upper facial muscle are extrapyramidal and controlled by the __________.
anterior cingulate

When extrapyramidal inputs are spared, person can smile in response to humor.
If lesioned, descending pyramidal and extrapyramidal projections from the [ motor cortex and brainstem / medial forebrain and hypothalamus ] produce pyramidal smile due to voluntary facial paresis.
motor cortex and brainstem
If lescioned, descending pyramidal and extrapyramidal projections from the [ motor cortex and brainstem / medial forebrain and hypothalamus ] produce Duchenne smile and emotional facial paresis.
medial forebrain and hypothalamus
A pyramidal smile is associated with [ emotional / voluntary ] facial paresis.
voluntary facial paresis
A Duchenne smile is associated with [ emotional / voluntary ] facial paresis.
emotional facial paresis
True or False:

The hypothalamus primarily produces its effect by controlling nuclei in the reticular formation of the brainstem.
True
Found in anterior medial aspect of the cerebral hemispheres. Involves which two gyri?
the cingulate gyrus and parahippocampal gyrus
Just for fun:

Limbic system's name comes from the latin "rim"....
It rims around the corpus callosum and diencephalon (thalamus and hypothalamus).
Which of the following plays little to no role in emotion processing?

A. amygdala
B. hippocampus
C. mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus
D. orbital and medial prefrontal cortex
E. ventral parts of the basal ganglia (nucleus accumbens)
B. hippocampus
Name important regions for emotional information processing in the modern limbic system.

(hint: 4)
- amygdala
- hypothalamus
- mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus
- prefrontal cortex
ventral basal ganglia

NOT hippocampus
Signs and symptoms of lesion to this area include:
- inability to recognize people
- lack of fear reaction and rage reaction
- emotional flatenning
- short term memory loss
- hypersexuality
- socially inappropriate licking or touching
- seizures
- hyperphagia
- bulimia
-weight gain
Amygdala lesion/ deletion
Which of the three parts of the amygdala does the following describe: "processes information regarding the sense of smell"

A. basal-lateral complex
B. central nucleus
C. medial group
C. medial group
Which of the three parts of the amygdala does the following describe: "processes highly processed information from prefrontal cortex and associational temporal cortex"

A. basal-lateral complex
B. central nucleus
C. medial group
A. basal-lateral complex
Which of the three parts of the amygdala does the following describe: "controls nuclei in the hypothalamus and reticular formation involved in emotional expression"

A. basal-lateral complex
B. central nucleus
C. medial group
B. central nucleus

note: The basal-lateral complex innervates the central nucleus.
Regarding pathways in the rat brain that mediate the association of auditory and aversive somatic sensory stimuli, what components are NECESSARY for the rat to show fear?
So, need:
- Medial geniculate nucleus
- Amygdala and its direct projections (Central nucleus of amygdala to hypothalamus , Central nucleus of amygdala to reticular formation )
Regarding pathways in the rat brain that mediate the association of auditory and aversive somatic sensory stimuli, what is in charge of increases in blood pressure?

A. medial geniculate nucleus to amygdala
B. central nucleus of amygdala to hypothalamus
C. central nucleus of amygdala to reticular formation
B. central nucleus of amygdala to hypothalamus
Regarding pathways in the rat brain that mediate the association of auditory and aversive somatic sensory stimuli, what is in charge of freezing?

A. medial geniculate nucleus to amygdala
B. central nucleus of amygdala to hypothalamus
C. central nucleus of amygdala to reticular formation
C. central nucleus of amygdala to reticular formation
True or False:

Patients with dysfunctioning amygdala are compromised by their inability to respond appropriately in social situations.
True

Ex. patients cannot appropriately distinguish a trustworth face from an untrustworthy face.
True or False:

Prefrontal cortex has an important role in making cognitive conscious decisions about how to behave. It is involved in the emotional regulation process from the point of view of self control.
True

ex. Phineas Gage
Working memory in the prefrontal cortex integrates what things in order for us to experience immediate conscious experience of emotional feelings?
- Amygdala will tell you what’s emotionally of value in your daily life.
- Hippocampal dependent explicit memory will bring what you have experienced in the past.
- triggering ongoing daily cues
Regarding lateralization of emotions, damage to the [ left / right ] cortical regions may cause people to lose the ability to inflect emotion in their speech.
right cortical region can lead to loss of emotion in speech
Patients with lesions in the left hemisphere frequently have more severe depression and patients with right hemisphere damage are often described as unduly cheery. Why?
This is because the left hemisphere is more involved with positive emotions and the right hemisphere is more involved with negative emotions.
Sensory information (visual or auditory) is more accurately assessed for emotional content by the [ left / right ] hemisphere
right hemisphere
Regarding the limbic loop, emotional and motivational information is relayed through the ______________.

A. nucleus accumbens
B. ventral pallidum
C. ventral striatum
A. nucleus accumbens
True or False:

Similar to the dorsal caudate and putamen, information in the nucleus accumbens (NA) is modulated by dopamine.
True
The dopamine projection to the nucleus accumbens arises from the ventral tegmental area, which lies dorsal and medial to the substantia nigra pars compacta. It is this VTA to NA connection that contributes to encoding rewarding stimuli and is high-jacked in addiction.
What connection contributes to encoding rewarding stimuli and is high-jacked in addiction?

(hint, similar to the dorsal caudate and putamen, this is modulated by dopamine...)
It is this VTA to NA connection that contributes to encoding rewarding stimuli and is high-jacked in addiction.
Changes in the activity of dopamine neurons in the ____ occur during stimulus–reward learning.
Ventral tegmental activity neurons.

If you give the monkey a reward, the VTN increase immensely. If you pair a tone prior to giving reward, the actual reward no longer induces the burst of activity- the tone induces the burst of activity! If you sound the tone, but then don’t give the reward anymore, the condition stimulus produces the barrage of activity, but when the reward time passes, the number of firing actually goes down.

THUS, the dopamine cells don’t actually encode the rewarding process. It is instructional and tells whether the environment you’re in is conducive to you receiving a reward or not.
Drugs of abuse affect dopamine projections from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens. What are opiates' effects?
Opiates will supress these GABAergic cells, thus allowing dopamine cells to fire more, making person feeling like he has a reward.


Bottom line is you increase the amount of dopamine being released into the NA or you increase the firing of the NA’s spiny neurons independent of dopamine.
Drugs of abuse affect dopamine projections from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens. What is nicotine's and cannabinoids' effects?
Nicotine can influence the activity of the nucleus accumbus neurons by facilitating the release of glutamate from the prefrontal cortex. Cannabinoids do the same thing.

Bottom line is you increase the amount of dopamine being released into the NA or you increase the firing of the NA’s spiny neurons independent of dopamine.
Drugs of abuse affect dopamine projections from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens. What are cocaine and amphetamines' effects?
They block the uptake of dopamine, NE, and epinephrine into the post-synaptic terminals, thus allowing the chemicals to be free and active, increasing the release.

Bottom line is you increase the amount of dopamine being released into the NA or you increase the firing of the NA’s spiny neurons independent of dopamine.
Drugs of abuse affect dopamine projections from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens. What happens with usage over an extended period of time?
You are essentially depleting the dopamine / NE / epinephrine due to increased activity. Tyrosine hydroxylase expression will change (increase) , the enzyme involved in making these chemicals. Bottomline is there is a change in the metabolic processing in the neuron. If GluR1 goes up, there will be more receptors on the cell, a bigger response will occur. So you feel more crappy normally but then when you get the drug, you feel super duper great. That is possibly what is involved in the addiction process here.