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147 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
main cell type in layers III and IV
pyramidal cells
what are Betz cells?
where are they found?
the largest pyramidal cell (neurons) found in layer V of the motor cortex

give rise to corticobulbar and corticospinal fibers

pyramidal in shape with an apical dendrite that extends all the way to layer I and several basal dendrites projecting laterally from the base
molecular layer, containing few neurons
Layer I
external granular layer
Layer II
external pyramidal layer
layer III
layer IV
internal GRANULAR layer
layer V
internal PYRAMIDAL layer
layer VI
multiform or fusiform layer
supragranular layers
Layer I (molecular)
Layer II (external granular)
Layer III (external pyramidal)
what areas constitute the allocortex

and with what functions is it involved?
more primitive areas located in the medial temporal lobes

involved with olfaction and survival functions such as visceral and emotional reactions
two components of the allocortex
PALEOCORTEX (primiform lobe {olfaction} and the entorhinal cortex)

ARCHICORTEX (hippocampus)
a three layered cortex dealing with encoding declarative memory and spatial functions
HIPPOCAMPUS (which makes up the ARCHICORTEX component of the ALLOCORTEX)
stellate (aka granule) cells are most prominent in what cortical layer?
Layer IV
Cell types of the cortex
also horizontal, fusiform, and cells of Martinotti
this portion of the cortex is highly developed in humans and permits communication between one portion of the cortex and other regions
layer IV receives what kind of connections?
especially from where?
receives thalamocortical connections, especially from specific thalamic nuclei

most prominent in the primary sensory cortices
most prominent layer in the primary sensory cortices
layer IV
receiving lots of input from thalamic nuclei
Brodman's areas are based on
cellular composition of the cortex (and cortical layers)
what is the SI?
where is it located?
what areas does it include?
Primary Somatosensory Cortex
areas 3, 1, 2
located in the post central gyrus
receives somatotopic input from VPL and VPM of the thalamus
histologically, the SI would consist of what type of cortex?
damage to the sensory cortex results in
decreased sensory thresholds, an inability to discriminate the properties of tactile stimuli or id objects by touch
what is SII?
where is it located?
what areas does it include?
Secondary somatosensory cortex
lower parietal lobe
area 40
SII receives connectiosn from:
SI and also less specific thalamic nuclei
lesions to SII may result in
impairments of some elements of sensory discrimination
somatosensory association cortex is comprised of areas:
5 and 7
(located directly posterior to the senosry cortex in the superior parietal lobes)
somatosensory association cortex receives synthesized connections from:
the primary and secondary sensory cortices
damage to the somatosensory association cortex results in:
tactile agnosia
what kind of damage can result in neglect of the contralateral side of the world
cortical damage to non-dominant hemisphere
(particularly to the area where the posterior parietal lobe meets the anterior occipital and the posterior, superior temporal lobe)
Primary Visual Cortex (VI)
area 17, surrounds the CALCARINE SULCUS
organization of VI (primary visual cortex)
large granular layer
with OCULAR DOMINANCE COLUMNS (dense columns of neurons)
adjacent columns come from the same homonomous portions of the left and right eyes
-macula (most sensitive central portion of retina) is represented at the posterior tip of the occipital lobe
-upper world projects to lower part of striate cortex
lesions of the occipital lobe would cause
cortical blindness and difficulty tracking objects
to what areas does the PRIMARY VISUAL CORTEX project?
VI projects to cortical areas surrounding it, called VISUAL ASSOCIATION AREAS (V2, V3; areas 18 and 19) where signals are interpreted and form is recognized.
Visual association areas (V2, V3) receive inputs from where?
VISUAL CORTEX as well as the
selective lesions to which areas can cause an inability to recognize objects, even when they may be seen
V4 is necessary for
color recognition
V5 (resides in poterior part of middle temporal gyrus, also called MT) is responsible for:
recognizing movement
region of association cortex attending to stimuli in external and internal environment
parietal cortex
region of association cortex involved in identifying the nature of the stimuli.
temporal cortex
region of association cortex involved in planning an appropriate response to stimuli
frontal cortex
layer of cortex that may be similar to reticular formation and has role in consciousness and in organizing the embryonic development of the cortex
layer I
molecular layer
where do the
infragranular layers (V and VI)
these layers (V and VI)
which cortical regions are termed AGRANULAR CORTEX?
motor cortical regions, because they contain mostly infragranular areas
this layer is the origin of many corticothalamic projections
layer VI
fusiform/multiform layer
cells receiving thalamic input are...?
most other neurons use GABA
dominant cell in layer IV
small (<10microns)
short axon remains in cortex
minor cell types
horizontal cells (superficial layer 1)
fusiform or spindle cells (deepest layer VI, dendrites and axons enter white matter)
cells of Martinotti (all layers, esp. VI) send axons toward surface
inability to recognize
(selective lesions of visual association cortex, V2, V3 (areas 18&19)
inability to synthesize movement
lobe involved in:
perception and discrimination of somatic sensory stimuli. Also involved in integrating visual and somatic sensory information
lobe responsible for:
auditory perception and discrimination and receptive language function. Olfaction as well as learning and memory function in the medial region (those areas of allocortex).
lobe responsible for visual perception and recognition
lobe involved in initiation and control of voluntary movement as well as expressive language function. Higher function of mood, personality, judgment, motivation, executive functions.
region of cortex buried in the lateral sulcus. It receives taste afferent information. It is associated with somatic sensory and limbic function and influences autonomic (visceral) functions.
region locates posterior to SI and just above the lateral fissure
area 40; SII
input to SII
afferents from SI and from intralaminar and posterior thalamic nuclei
neurons respond to several sensory modalities bilaterally
inability to recognize objects by touch, even if normal primary sense (due to lesions in somatosensory association cortex {areas 5 and 7})
areas located in the superior parietal lobule, receive afferents from SI and SII
areas 5 & 7
somatosensory association cortex
damage to RIGHT parietal lobe lesion can cause what syndrome?
Contralateral Neglect Syndrome
when "attending" to the left visual field which portions of the brain are especially active?
right parietal cortex
when "attending" to the right visual field, what regions of the brain are especially active?
BOTH the right and left parietal cortex
a parietal lesion in the left hemisphere produces what type of neglect?
minimal right neglect
a partial parietal bilateral lesion can result in what type of neglect?
SEVERE right neglect, due to lack of sufficient processing in either hemisphere
what happens when a monkey attends to a visual stimulus?

how can that attention be increased?
greater firing by neurons in posterior parietal cortex

firing/attentiveness increase when greater fruit juice reward can be expected
where is the Stripe of Gennari
prominant granular layer (IV) seen as band in Visual cortex, on teh banks of the calcarine sulcus
macular projections go to what part of the striate cortex?
caudal part
what quadrant projects to the lower bank of the calcarine sulcus?
the upper quadrant of the contralateral world
electrical stimulation of the striate cortex will prduce
Flashes or sparks of light
lesions to the striate cortex can cause
cortical blindness and inability to track options
where does the striate cortex send projections?
areas 18 and 19 (visual association areas)
peristriate cortex
(V2 and V3) secondary and teritary visual cortex
peristriate cortex has larger layer III and receives input from
area 17
lateral geniculate
and pulvinar
peristriate cortex is involved with
more complex neurons, and visual hallucinations
face recognition takes place in what part of visual cortex?
non-dominant INFERIOR TEMPORAL gyrus
inability to recongize faces (lesion in non-dominant IT region of visual cortex)????
occipital eye field
efferents project to
frontal eye fields and pontine nuclei for smooth pursuit eye movements
lesions in occipital eye field produce
produce difficulty in fixing on objects through voluntary conjugate movement is intact
Inferior Temporal Lobe has cells that respond to
face recognition

as well as profile recognition
Primary Auditory Cortex (AI)
area 41
transverse gyri of Heschel (on superior temporal gyrus)
what layer dominates the Primary auditory cortex?
layer IV
AI receives inputs from where?
the medial geniculate
describe tonotopic representation in the AI?
LOW tones Lateral
HIGH tones Medial
unilateral lesions to the auditory cortex cause:
Secondary Auditory Cortex (AII)
area 42
part of the posterior transverse gyrus of Heschel
AII receives input from
A1 and the medial geniculate
lesions to the AII may prevent:
the recognition of sounds (rarely)
higher auditory cortex
area 22, part of the superior temporal gyrus around A1 and A2

includes Wernicke's area in the dominant (usually left) hemisphere
lesions to area 22
(higher auditory cortex) can produce severe RECEPTIVE APHASIA
Wernicke's area is found where?
in Area 22 (higher auditory cortex) of the dominant (usually left) hemisphere
area involved in understanding tone of voice
nondominant Area 22, higher auditory cortex (usually right side)
cortical sensory area involved in TASTE

receives input from where?
inferior part of postcentral gyrus, extending into the insula

receives input from the VPM of the thalamus
cortical sensory area involved in VESTIBULAR function
superior temporal or inferior parietal gyrus (not clear?)
Primary Motor Cortex (MI)
area 4, precentral gyrus
large layer V (giant pyramidal BETZ cells)
MI has efferents projecting to:
corticospinal and coritcobulbar fibers
-also projections to thalamus and basal ganglia
MI has afferent inputs from:
VL of the thalamus
Premotor areas of the cortex
-somatotopy- muscles are represented based on the degree of fine control that they have
electrical stimulation of the Primary motor cortex results in
isolated movements (somatotopy can change with activity)
lesions in MI will produce:
spastic weakness contralaterally, recovery typical but fine movements of the hand are often permanantly affected
premotor cortex
area 6, just rostral to precentral gyurs
premotor cortex (vs. MI on cellular level)
smaller pyramidal layer and fewer BETZ cells
premotor cortex sends efferent projections to...
the motor cortex and to the brainstem and spinal cord
premotor cortex receives afferents from:
sensory association cortex and basal ganglia (via the VA and VL of thalamus)
electrical stimulation of the premotor cortex evokes:
broader movements and at higher current threholds relative to MI
lesions in premotor cortex produce
less paralysis, but more spasticity than lesions of area 4
supplementary motor area (MII)
area 6
part of premotor cortex, extends medially into the interhemispheric fissure
MII afferents from:
sensory association areas and prefrontal cortex
MII efferent projections go to
primary motor cortex, contralateral supplementary motor area, basal ganglia (striatum), thalamus and brain stem
electrical activity in this region precedes movement
supplementary motor cortex (area 6, MII)
lesions in supplementary motor cortex (area 6, MII) can cause
(inability to initiate movement)
conditioned finger tapping in response to a stimulus shows activity mostly in
the hand area of the MI (precentral gyrus)
movement that requires a decision shows activity in:
First shows activity in Premotor Cortex (including the Supplementary Motor Area SMA)

then in the primary motor cortex
activity is seen in what area if movement is "rehearsed" but not executed?
activity in the premotor cortex

though primary motor cortex isn't active
abulia may be caused by lesion of what region?
lesion in the supplementary motor area
movement which requires significant planning begins with activty in?
the parietal cortex posterior to the postcentral gyrus

activity is subsequently seen in the premotor cortex and then in the motor cortex
in all but the simplest movements there is activity in neurons of:

before the movement begins and before there is activity in the primary motor cortex
the basal ganglion and the cerebellum (particularly the lateral hemispheres)
amount of activity in the cerebellum is greatest during what type of movement?
a NOVEL movement (involved in learning the movement)
frontal eye fields are located where?
rostral to premotor cortex
inferior area 8
frontal eye fields are involved in:
conjugate saccadic eye movement away from the side
afferent input to the frontal eye fields
medial dorsal thalamic nucleus
visual cortex
frontal eye fields send efferent projections to:
the superior colliculus
and the PPRF
lesion of the frontal eye field
blocks voluntary gaze to the opposite side of the lesion
receptive language area
Wernicke's area (22)
and adjacent parts of inferior parietal lobe and supramarginal and angular gyri (often lumped together as Wernicke's area)
wernicke's area (22) is required for
integration and interpretation of language
lesions to wernicke's area (22) produce
Broca's area
opercular and triangular part of inferior frontal gyrus (in dominant hemisphere)

critical to motor generation of language
language processing involves what areas?
classic language areas (Broca's and Wernicke's) as well as activity in primary and association sensory and motor areas
language is apparently organized in the temporal lobe according to what?
categories of meaning (i.e. tools, people animals experiment)
nondominant equivalent of wernicke's and broca's areas may be important in:
understanding and generating prosody in speech
(inflection, emotional content)
evolutionary in brain size
???? slide 58 of 27
evolutionary significance of prefrontal cortex (areas 9,10,11,12)
well developed in humans
greatest amt of postnatal development
judgment, insight, motivation, mood
dvpt of conditioned emotional reactions and also to emotional qualities of pain
connects to all other cortical lobes through long association bundles
afferent input to prefrontal cortex
limbic cortex, amygdala, septal nuclei
prefrontal cortex has reciptrocal connection with
DM of thalamus
lesions in prefrontal cortex produce difficulty in:
solving puzzles; abstract reasoning and judgment; moods (apathy, especially with r. hemisphere damage, euphoria w/ l. hemi damage), behavior (rude, tactless)

area strongly effected by alcohol
ability to organize thoughts and work, to create plans and successfully execute them, to manage administrative functions of one's life

those with impaired EF may appear to live in teh moment, fail to monitor their activities or social interactions, to make plans or carry them out,
Stroop test, Wisconsin card sort test?
involved in testing EF??
when food is presented to a monkey as part of a DELAYED RESPONSE TASK, neurons in what region are more active than when no food is presented?
delay-specific neuron in the prefrontal cortex more active during delay after food has been presented
association bundles connect
one part of cortex with others
association bundles usually come from what layer(s)?
terminate in what layer(s)?
come from layer III
terminate in layers I and II
short association fibers connect
adjacent gyri
superior longitudinal fasciculus (aka arcuate fasciculus) interconnects
all lobes and esp the language areas
inferior occiptofrontal fasciculus interconnects
temporal and occipital poles
uncinate fasciculus interconnects
interconnects the temporal and frontal poles
the cingulum interconnects
the subcallosal region, cingulate gyrus and parahippocampal gyrus
commissural bundles
CORPUS COLLOSUM (~300 million fibers)
ANTERIOR COMMISURE (interconnects temporal lobe structures, including some olfactory lobe structures)
lesion in this can produce "split brain"
Corpus collosum,
can't tell you what an object is that is placed in the left hand for example
Left Hemispheric Specialization
motor control
Right Hemispheric Specialization
face recognition
spatial skills
visual imagery
Split brain thought experiment:
(pic woman left/man on right)
point to whole face seen?
say what face seen?
point to whole face seen? woman (face recognition= right)
say what face seen? man (language = left)