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37 Cards in this Set

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What are the 6 layers of the neocortex, from superficial to deep?
I: molecular layer
II: external granular layer
III: external pyramidal layer
IV: internal granular layer
V: internal pyramidal layer
VI: multiform layer
What layer receives thalamocortical inputs?
IV - internal granular
What layer gives rise to corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts?
V - internal pyramidal layer (giant pyramidal cells of Betz)
What layer is the major source of corticocortical fibers?
III - external pyramidal layer (and some external granular layer)
What layer of the visual cortex does the LGN project to?
IV
What functional area has the thickest cortex? Thinnest?
Motor cortex is thickest, visual cortex is thinnest
How do you determine which is the dominant hemisphere?
Wada test. Inject sodium amobarbital (Amytal) into carotid, and see what side causes patient to become aphasic
What are some functions of the dominant hemisphere?
language, praxis (skilled motor formulation), and calculation
What are some functions of the nondominant hemisphere?
visual-spatial analysis, prosody (emotion conveyed by tone of voice), allows superior recognition of faces
Where is Broca's area located?
Inferior frontal gyrus in dominant hemisphere (areas 44/45)
What type of deficits are associated with a lesion of Broca's area?
Broca's aphasia: expressive, non-fluent aphasia (can articulate speech or write); often associated with contralateral facial and arm weakness
Where is Wernicke's area located?
Posterior part of superior temporal gyrus (area 22)
What type of deficits are associated with a lesion of Wernicke's area?
receptive, fluent aphasia, can't understand any form of language, has spontaneous fluent speech that makes no sense, impaired repetition, contralateral visual field deficit (often upper quadrant)
What does "dysarthria" mean, and in what type of aphasia is it seen?
difficulty in articulating words (caused by muscle impairment); Broca's aphasia
What type of disorder might a lesion of the superior division of the MCA cause?
Broca's aphasia
What type of disorder might an infarct of the left MCA inferior division cause?
Wernicke's aphasia
What are paraphasic errors, and in what disorder are they seen?
inappropriate substitutions of words with similar meanings, or parts of words with similar sounds; Wernicke's aphasia
What are neologisms, and in what disorder are they seen?
nonsense words; Wernicke's aphasia
What is the disorder if the patient is not fluent, cannot comprehend, and cannot repeat?
What is the common vascular cause?
global aphasia (or early Broca's aphasia); left MCA infarcts of superior and inferior divisions
What is the disorder if the patient is fluent, can comprehend, but cannot repeat?
conduction aphasia (caused by interruption of the arcuate fasciculus)
What disorder might result from an ACA-MCA watershed infarct, and what are the key symptoms?
transcortical motor aphasia; not fluent, can understand, can repeat
What disorder might result from an MCA-PCA watershed infarct, and what are the key symptoms?
transcortical sensory aphasia; fluent, cannot understand, can repeat
What disorder might result from a combined ACA-MCA and MCA-PCA watershed infarct, and what are the key symptoms?
mixed transcortical aphasia; not fluent, cannot comprehend, can repeat
Patient with agraphia, acalculia, right-left disorientation, and finger agnosia. What is the name of this disorder, and where might the lesion be located?
Gerstmann's Syndrome; inferior parietal lobe on dominant side

(also may have contralateral hemi- or lower quadrantopia)
Patient with (contralateral) spastic paresis, with pronator drift. What area of cortex is affected?
primary motor and premotor cortex
Patient's eyes are deviated to ipsilateral side. What area of cortex is damaged?
frontal eye field (middle/superior frontal love, just rostral to premotor cortex)
What are some common symptoms of frontal lobe disorders?
apathy, inappropriated behavior, perseveration, and deficits in judgement, concentration, orientation, and problem-solving ability (may also have gait apraxia and apathetic incontinence)
Patient with (contralateral) hemihypesthesia. What area of the cortex is affected?
primary somatosensory
What symptoms might result from a lesion of the superior parietal lobule?
astereognosis (inability to determine form of object by touch), sensory neglect, and apraxia
Cortical deafness results from a lesion of what?
primary auditory cortex--Heschl's gyrus on superior surface of temporal lobe

*must be bilateral to cause deafness; unilateral causes mild hearing loss*
What happens when there are bilateral lesions to the hippocampus?
inability to consolidate short- to long-term memory (case of H.M.)
What disorder is characteristic of docility and lack of responsiveness, with hyperphagia, hypersexuality, and visual agnosia? Where is the lesion?
Kluver-Bucy syndrome; bilateral amygdala-anterior temporal lobe
What results from a lesion of the olfactory bulb, tract, or primary olfactory cortex?
ipsilateral anosmia
What might result from an occipital lobe lesion?
blindness (primary visual cortex)q
What results from a nondominant lesion of Broca's area?
expressive dysprosody (inability to express emotion or inflection in speech)
What results from a nondominant lesion of Wernicke's area?
receptive dysprosody (inability to comprehend emotion or inflection in speech)
Lesion of what cortical region often causes left-sided hemineglect?
parietal or frontal cortex on RIGHT side (right hemisphere attends to both sides, while left hemisphere attends only to right side)