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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Functions of Cerebellum
1. motor control/coordination
2. motor learning

integrates all PNS info and allows you to execute
in the eye-blink conditioning response, how does the cerebellum learn?
via Error-Driven Learning
what is impt in the conditioned eye-blink reponse
1. timing
2. accurate association w/ predictor
3. pair US and CS closely
Conditioned Response Reflex Pathway uses what nuclei
Interpositus nucleus
It is the site of memory storage
Eyeblink Circuit
1. tone(CS) activ Vestibular Nuc
2. fed thru Pontine Nuclei
3. Mossy Fibers to Cerebellum

*also throw collaterals to Interpositus Nucleus along w/ entering cerebellum
Eyeblink Circuit
Pontine fibers synapse on Granular cells
excite granular cells, then excite purkinje cells
Purkinjge cells inhib Interpositus Nuc via GABA
eyepuff(US) stimulates the Trigeminal Nucleus
excites Climbing Fibers
climb up Purkinje Cells
what is the most powerful excitatory input in CNS?
Climbing fibers
dont fire very often
Granular Cells

important in what?
not very robust. takes a lot of them to make PC fire
error dirven information
conditioned stimulus pathway uses
1. middle cerebellar peduncle
2. Pontine nuclei

for Robust learning
Unconditioned Stimulus

reflex pathways require?
requires Inf Olivary Nucleus

trigeminal nerve. reqd for induction of memory. NOT part of memory storage
Interpositus Nucleus

Parallel Fiber synapse on PC
is absolutely rqd for memory storage
absolutely rqd for memory storage
Parallel fiber synapse is critical for?
timing and execution in memory form/storage
3 Cerebellar Mechanisms of Memory Storage
1. pairing of climbing fibers and parallel fibers activation
2. parallel fibers contribute to contextual info about CS
3. Climbing fibers encode mvmt error information
2 possible sites for memory storage
1. cerebellar cortex
2. Interpositus nucleus
Memory storage in Cerebellar Cortex uses
1. Parallel fibers from granular cells synapse on PC- excit
2. CF on PC- excit
3. other interneurons
Memory storage in Interpositus Nucleus
1. PC on DCN
2. CF on DCN-direct
3. MF on DCN-direct
what is the sole output of the cerebellar cortex?
Purkinje Cell

fed out as inhib nuclei to DCN
excitatory input to Purkinje Cells
1. climbing fibers
2. parallel fibers
only synapse on AMPA rec, not NMDA
lesions in parallel fibers in rats result in
incorrect timing
AMPA rec
parallel fibers synapse on PC via AMPA

rec is a GPCR and uses PLPC
PC response to Parallel fiber stim
to Climbing fiber stim
simple spike

complex spike
climbing fiber's complex spike on PC allows for what?
initiation of a large Calcium current
plays a role in LTD
Cerebellar LTD requires
inc in postsynaptic calcium

*concurrent activation of parallel and Climbing FIbers gives down-regulation
down regulation results in
1. internalization of AMPA rec
2. dec output to PC
3. dec inhibition of DCN
what causes cerebellar Ataxia?
incorrect output from cerebellar cortex to DCN

ipsilateral to side of cerebellar lesion
cerebellum allows for what type of muscle movements?

talk, breathe, swallow
most common causes of acute ataxia?
1. viral infections- peds
2. ischemia
3. hemorrhagic stroke
most common causes of chronic ataxia?
1. alcoholism, dysfxn of PC
2. inherited degen diseases
3. Brain metastases
4. Multiple sclerosis
damage flocculonodular lobe
medial/vermal region

the more lateral the damage
occulomotor disturbances
occulomotor, talking, gait, stance
the more complex the deficits
-intention tremors, dysmetria
what processes PNS info to determine required mvmt?
Purkinje cells
start to drop out in SCA
-1st sign of pathology

receive info from granular cells (from mossy fibers), from climbing fibers (from ION)
Spinocerebellar Ataxias

core problem
gropu of inherited genetic diseases w/ variety of phenotypes, progressive
problems w/ gait

lesion in 1 particular gene
common SCA problems

SCA 6/10
SCA 1/2
SCA 10

hearing loss, blindness
prevalence of SCA
all across world, no bias

certain groups have more of certain types of SCA
what explains genetic anticipations?
dynamic mutation. its changing
inc CAG repeats

sick in 70s- 40repeats
sick in 30s- 50repeats
where are repeat expansions found in SCA?
BOTH coding and noncoding regions
SCA-1 encodes for what?

does what?
Ataxin-1 protein
RNA-binding domain, mRNA proc

normal ppl have 30-35repeats
GAIN of Fxn Mutation
what do CAGs encode?
what happens when they have too many?
encode for Glutamine (NOT Glu)
preferential Purkinje cell loss
how does SCA-1 kill the Purkinje cells?
deposits Ataxin-1 in the nucleus
sequesters essential factors in the nucleus and doesnt allow them to leave
what feeds the Purkinje cell?
1. parallel fibers (from granular cells)
2. climbing fibers
tone(CS) stimulates the vestibular nucleus, this leads to...
pontine fibers. these pontine fibers go to cerebellum and are one source of mossy fibers to the Purkinje cells
eyepuff(US) stimulates the ION and leads to...
ION. this will give off climbing fibers to the purkinje cells in the cerebellum
what gives direct excitory(glu) innervation to the deep cerebellar nuclei?
1. climbing fibers-collaterals
2. mossy fibers
what 3 situations give deep cerebellar nuclei stimulation?
1. mossy-direct
2. climbing-direct
3. use of cerebellar cortex
parallel fibers have been associated with?
correct timing
Cerebellar LTD depends on purkinje cells receiving what?
1. climbing fiber excit
2. parallel fiber excit

*both at very close proximity
Parallel fibers synapse on PC via what type of receptors?

what class of rec are these?
thru NMDA receptors

GPCR, use Phospholipase C
concurrent activation of parallel and climbing fibers gives you?
downregulations. internalization of AMPA receptors
what does a dec in AMPA rec result in?
1. dec inhibitory response from the purkinje cells to the DCN
2. there is less inhib of DCN
*underlying mechanism of memory
repeat expansions in SCA are found in both...
coding and noncoding regions
induction of cerebellar LTD requires and increases in what?
post-synaptic calcium
in SCA1 mice polygluatmine expansions (from CAG rpts) causes?
preferential purkinje cell loss
Parallel fibers contribute to..

Climbing fibers contribute to..
contextual information
-what to associate error w/

error information.
-driving the synap learning
-tells you to close your eye when you get airpuff/shock to eye