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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is pain
Noxious sensation that if allowed to continue will cause tissue damage
What detects pain
What type of pain is there
Physiological, inflammatory, and neuropathic
What are the three things about the pain
1 we can have pain and + nociceptors, 2 we can have nociceptor and no pain, and 3 we can have pain and no nociceptor
Is pain edited, if yes by whom and what does the stimulus have to be register pain
Yes pain is edited by our CNS and we feel pain only if the stimulus is intense enough, there is prior stimulation of pain and if there is inflammation
What 2 phenomenon do we see with inflammation
Hyperalgesia and allodynia
What is allodynia
Otherwise normal sensation like touching the hair will cause pain in inflammation
What is hyperalgesia
This when the magnitude of pain is increased and same stimulus will cause more pain
What type of nociceptors do we have
3 mechano nociceptors, thermo and polymodal
What detects temperature of above 45 C
Thermal nociceptors
What detects temperature of below 45 C
Regular thermo receptors
What detects severe mechanical stimuli by sharp objects like stab
Mechano receptors
What is the most abundant nociceptor that detects dull pain and via what fibers
Poly modal, it detects all stimuli and it detects it via C fibers,
What kind of ending s do nociceptors have
What kind of NT are released at these free endings
Peptide NT called substance P and CGRP,
What is the role of substance P
It will sensitize the nociceptor neuron and cause vasodilation and allow the mast cells to get in and release more stuff
What are the other things that are released at the free endings
P2X, TRV1, TRV2, TrK A (NGF), prostaglandin receptor and bradykinin, all of these contribute to the pain response
If you were making a drug, what would be the area of interest
You’d be interested in free nerve endings
What does TRPV1 detect and through what kind of fibers
It detects moderate sensitivity to temp at 45 and it is sensitive capsaicin, expressed by both Ad and C fibers
What does TRPV2 does, what fibers
It does strong temp, above 52 and it is expressed by Ad fibers only
Asides form nociceptors picking up the painm how else can pain be felt
The CNS can be sensitized, basically in the presence of chronic stimuli and inflammation the brain can start to pick up substances like P2X, TRPV1 and then when these receptors bind their products, the dorsal root neurons also pick up these fibers and pain can be felt even if some one touches your hair
What is referred pain
Basically its deep pain from visceral nociceptors and felt by the cutaneous tissue elsewhere, for example during infarct, the pain is felt in the shoulder, because the fibers from heart and the arm project onto the dorsal root , the higher center can’t differentiate between them and pain is felt on both sides
What is the placebo effect and on what phenom is based on
Placebo effect is that if people are led to believe that something is going to make their pain better and then giving them substance even though it has no effect, will make them better. It is based on the fact that the soldiers in the battle don’t report as high pain but same stimulus in non- war will cause lot of pain, so the context in which we are will effect pain
How can placebo effect be blocked
By giving naloxone, (x) opiate receptors
What is involved in self modulation of pain
Spinomesencephalic tract acting through the periaqueductal gray
What is descending control of pain
This self modulation of pain, peri aquedctal gray send fibers down that project onto interneuron that release Enkaphlin, when enkaphlin is escited it will release inhibitory molecule to inhibit the spinothalamic pathway and Ad
What does Rpahe nucleus release and what’s the function of this release
5HT, serotonin, + enkaphlin, w/c inhibit the release of NT by C fibers and lower the activity that will be projected by the dorsal projection neuron
What is the gate theory of pain
Basically if during pain, we stimulate mecahno receptors like Ab we can take some of the pain away, this like when you fall and rub your knee
What is the role of amygdyla
It is a nucleus with in out limbic system that has to do with emotion and fear, it + periaqudctal gray to release opiates