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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is process of neural tube fomation called
it is called nuralation and it follows gastrulation
key structure formed during neuralation
notochord
what happens during neuralation
neuroectoderm under the influence of the notochord differentiates into neural tube or plate
what key sructures are formed from neural tube
CNS=brain and spinal chord and the hollow cavity seen in the neural tube will form the central canal ventricular system of the CNS
what are neural crest cells and where are they loacted
neural cells upon delamination form our PNS and they are the most dorsally located on the neural tube
what must happen to neural crest cells before they make PNS
they must de-laminate
what is derived from our neural crest cells
PNS
what is included in our PNS
DRG, symapthetic ganglia, parasympathetic ganglia, adrenal medulla, ENS, peripheral glia,melanocytes
when does morphogenesis of neural tube begin
it begins at 6th week w/ formation of flexures
what is the first flexure called
cephalic flexure, this starts the whole process
what is fore brain called
prosencephalon
what is mid brain called
mesencephalon
what is hind brain called
rhomocephalon
there is an opening at the end of the neural tube, what is that called
it's called central canal, the caudal part of the tube will make our spinal chord and the central canal is the ventricular system of spinal chord
what makes up our forebrain
telencephalon and diencephalon
what is found at the telelncephalon
-lateral ventricles - cereberal hemispheres
-basal ganglia
what is found at diencephalon
-retina
-thalamus
-hypothalmus
what is located at the midbrain
the cavity inmesencephalon is called cereberal aqueduct
what are the divsions of hind brain
rhombocephalon has 2 divisions
1)metencephalon
2)myelencephalon
what structur derive from metencephalon?myelencephalon
met=pons and cerebellum
myelen cephalon= medulla
exactly what makes the cerebellum
the pontine flexure inside the myencephalon
what is most common neural tube effect and how can it be remedied
spina bifida and it can be remedied by taking folic acid
what is the name of the structure that divides the dorasl and ventral sides
sulcus limitans
what is another name for dorsal side
sensory, alar plate
what is another name for ventral side
basal, motor
where are sensory neuron located
alar, dorsal side
where are motor neurons located
basal, ventral side
what stimulates ventrilization
SHH, released by notochord
what is key thing about DRG and where is it located
DRG is pseudounipolar, it is located on the dorsal side
-it has two processes
1)central=enters thru the dorsal roots
2)peripheral= enters through the peripheral roots
what is the role of pontine flexure in the formation of the Nervous system
asides from giving rise to the cerebellum, this structure located in the 4th ventricle, will cause the walls of the ventricle to bulge out and allow the dorsal/ventral structure to become more lateral and medial, this will give us a n orientation with ventral being medial and sensory being more lateral
what is the key structural differnce between immature or mature brain
immature brain will not have gyrae, it will be smooth, cortex stays smooth upto 23 weeks
at what age does the brain mature
age of 20,that's why teenager behavior is different b/c they don't have mature brain
where are neurons born
neuron are born at ventricular zones and then they migrate
what structure is used by the neurons to migrate
radial glial cells, they act like tracts/scaffolding for the neurons to move
how man layers are there for neurons to extravsate
there are 6 layers, start from the bottom to the top, they layer that's closest to the ventricular zone is considered the oldest
when does the migration between peak?
2)when does it finish
it peaks at 11-15 weeks
2)it is finished by 24 weeks
what is the main problem with fetal alcohol syndrome
problem with migration and formation of the 6 layers
what is the main cause of microcephaly
-small head
-caused by MCPH11 gene, part of 6 genes that form properly and therefor the brain doesn't reach its normal size
what is lissencephaly
what are the major cause of lissencephaly
-smooth brain
-lacks gyrae
-cortex is thickened and it only has 4 layers instead of 6
-2 genes involved, LS1 and doublecortin DCS
-both regulate micro tubules w/c regulate cell shape and motility