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135 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
superior sagittal sinus role
receives briding veins and thru arachnoid villi CSF
great cerebral vein of Galen
drains deep cerebral veins into straight sinus
sigmoid sinus
receives transverse sinus (which receives deep veins via galen and straight sinus, and bridging via superior sagittal sinus)
contents cavernous sinus
CN 3,4,6, V1, V2
postganglion symp
internal carotid artery
(only CN6 free floating)
entry middle meningeal
foramen spinosum
embryological root of sensory neurons v motor neurons
sensory=alar plate
motor=basal plate
Dandy Walker malformation
dilation 4 ventricle from failure of for of Luschka and Magiende to open, assoc with occipital meningocele, confluence of sinuses pushed up, agenesis of Cb vermis, splenium CC
Arnold Chiari malformation
aqueductal stenosis as cb and mdulla herniate into vertebral canal, often with meningomyelocele
possible mech, causes hydrocephalus
usu stenosis cerebral aqueduct, can be mom CMV, toxo infxn
fetal alcohol syndrome
failure midline cleavage of forebrain, no CC.
can be seen in trisomy 13, most severe defect in fetal EtOH syndrome
ex pseudounipolar neurons
DRG and sensory ganglia 5,7,9,10
ex bipolar neurons
CN8, CN1, retina
ex multipolar neurons
MOST, incl motor neurons, ANS, interneurons, pyramidal of ctx, Purkije of cb ctx
nissl substance, what it's composed of, what it's role is, where is it found
rosettes of polysomes and RER (role in protein syn), found in nerve cell body and dendrites (not axon)
wallerian degen
anterograde degen, axons and myelin sheaths disappear, prolifer Schwann.
see in PNS and CNS
retrograde degen CNS and PNS
role astrocytes
(not glial cells nonneuronal)
-foot processes
-metab of GABA, serotonin, glut
-buffer K
how recognize astrocytes histol
GFAP, glutamine synthetase, monoclonal Ab A2B5
microglia come from, fxn
function phagocytosis
gray commun rami
unmyelinated postgang found at all levels SC
white commun rami
myelinated pregang symp at T1-L3
intermediolateral cell column, location, fxn
C8-L3, mediate entire symp innervation
dorsal spinoCb tract found where?
nu dorsalis of Clark (C8-L3)
clinical reflexes
reflex loop
mscl stretch stretches Ia afferent, stim alpha motor, cause reflex extrafusal cxn.
Ib in reflex
(golgi tendon organ) senses tension and provides inhib feedback to alpha motor
gamma loop in reflex
stim gamma motor neuron which contracts intrafusal fiber causing increasing sensitivity of reflex arc
how does cavernous sinus drain
via s/i petrosal into sigmoid into IJV
name ventral parts thalamus
VPL (senses), VPM (facial sensation incl pain), VA/VL (motor)
generally LGN
visual (lateral for looking)
generally MGN
auditory (medial for Music)
generally VPL
body senses incl pain
generally VPM
facial senses incl pain
generally VA/VL
posterior hypothal
conserves heat when cold
anterior hypothal
parasymp and A/C when hot
lateral nu hypothal
hunger keep eating
when its hot...use?
when cold...use?
hot-A hypothal for A/C
cold-P. hypothal
injury to L CC
pure dyslexia
injury to auditory assoc
"word deafness" can't comprehend auditory, normal spontaneous speech, reading, writing
functions of dominant hemi
language, calculation, analysis, praxis (parietal)
function nondominant hemi
visuospatial (hemineglect), astereognosis, construction apraxia (all parietal)
function prefrontal
lateral (dorsal)=working mem, exec fxn
medial/orbital=mood and emotion (rel phenomen Gage)
what v where path
from LGN where goes superiorly to FEF, what goes inferiorly to face and object recognition
"what" assoc lesions
prosopognosia (face recognition), object recognition, color agnosia, dyslexia w/o aphasia (these are bilateral)
how tell if MRI T1? used for?
CSF dark, gray matter darker
#1 anatomy
how stroke, MS appear on MRI T1
both dark
how tell if MRI T2? use?
CSF white, 2 white eyeballs, gray matter whiter
**good for inflamm/edema
MS, stroke on MRI T2?
stroked cells swell, become white. old stroke fills CSF white
MS also white
how tell CT? when use?
bone white, thick
any acute setting, to see bleeding, all new sz
disadvantages head CT
can't see P fossa well, obscured by bone, only axial, requires contrast
describe simple BG path
premotor + to putamen, putamen -GP,
GP - VL,
VL +premotor
describe simple BG path incl NTs used
premotor + (gluta) to putamen,
putamen - (GABA&P)GP,
VL + (gluta) premotor
describe complex BG path
premotor + putamen,
putamen - GPex
GPex - STN
GPi - VL
VL + premotor
describe complex BG path with NT
premotor + (gluta) putamen,
putamen - (GABAb, enkephalin)GPex
STN + (gluta) GPi
VL + (gluta) premotor
medium spiny neurons
act on GP ex using GABAb and enkephalin, implicated in HD
of 2 BG paths, what projects VL
GPi using GABA
of 2 BG paths, where does putamen project
simple-to GP using GABA&P
complex-to GPex using medium spiny
where does STN get input from? where send output?
input=GPex via GABA&P
output=GPi via gluta
GPi receives input from
STN in complex (gluta),
putamen in simple (GABA&P)
describe two parts of GP used in complex path
GPex=receive - from putamen via medium spiny, gives - to STN (GABA&P)
GPi=receive + STN, gives + VL
in complex path putamen also modulated by
Ach and SN (-DA via D2)
composition corpus striatum
lentiform (put and GP) + caudate
composition lentiform
put and GP
composition striatum
caudate and putamen
pathophy HD
atrophy caudate, esp medium spiny GABA
simple and complex, net +?
simple net + movement, complex net - movement
what lies at floor 3rd ventricle
what controls vomitting 2/2 MI
chemoR trigger zone on floor 4th ventricle, then activates vomitting center in medulla (lateral reticular formation)
match optic radiation with correct lobe
superior field=lower Meyer=temporal
inferior visual field=upper=parietal
CNIII cranial passageway
S. orbital fissure
CNIV cranial passageway
S orbital fissure
CN6 cranial passageway
S orbital fissure
CNV 1 cranial passage
S orbital fissure
CNI cranial passageway
cribiform plate
CNV 2 cranial passageway
For rotundum
CNV 3 cranial passageway
for ovale
CNIX cranial passageway
jug foramen (9-11)
CNXI cranial passageway
jug foramen (9-11)
CNXII cranial passageway
hypoglossal canal
for rotundum
CN V 2
for ovale
CN V 3
for spinosum
m meningeal a
foramen magnum
spinal roots of XI, brain stem, vertebral a
optic canal
CNII, ophthalmic a, central retinal vein
CNV cranial passage
"Standing Room Only"
S orbital fissure, For rotundum, For ovale
tremor at rest implies injury where
intention tremor-injury where
amygdala injury-dz? presentation?
hyperorality, hypersexuality, disinhibited
coma implies injury
reticular activating system
how is eye para innervated? causes?
via inferior CNIII which carries para short ciliary-
causes-miosis, accomodation
how mydriasis created?
symp from carotid plexus is carried via nasociliary long ciliary (branch V1)
lacrimal innerv
zygomatic of V2 carries 7 innerv to lacrimal (via grtr petrosal to Vidian/pterygoid gang)
parotid para innerv
V3 auriculotemporal branch carries 9 para to parotid (via lssr petrosal and otic ganglion)
submand parasymp innerv
V3 lingual branch carries 7 chorda tympani to submand ganglion to submand and subling gland
branches of CN7
temporal, zygomatic, buccal, mandi, cervical, occipital (that zebra bit my cap off)
branches V3
buccal, auriculotemporal, I alveolar, lingual
sensory inside cheek
buccal branch of V3
which nerve loops Wharton's duct
lingual branch of V3
CN7 involved in what autonomic innerv?
lacrimal (via V2 zygomatic)
chorda tympani
1) submand/subling via V3 lingual
2) taste ant 2/3 via V3 lingual
CN9 involved in what auto innerv
Herrings to carotid, parasymp to parotid (via V3 auriculotemp)
strap muscles innerv by
ansa cervicales
branches of vagus
i laryngeal (w s laryngeal a thru cricothyr mem)
ext. laryngeal (w s thyroid a)
recurrent (w i thyroid off thyrocervical (groove bw eso and trachea)
role of CN9
Sensory: sensory and taste P 1/3 tongue, sensory oropharynx (gag),
Motor: stylopharyngeus
Auto/glands: herrings to carotid, para to parotid via V3 auriculotemp
role of V1 (branches)
branches=frontal, nasociliary, lacrimal
Sensory: nasociliary cornea
Auto/glands: nasociliary carries symp causing mydriasis
role of V2 (branches)
branches=infraorbital, zygomatic
Sensory: infraorbital-nasopharynx, upper teeth
Auto/glands: zygomatic carries 7 to lacrimal
role of V3 (branches)
branches=buccal, auriculotemporal, i alveolar, lingual
Sensory: buccal (cheek), auriculotemp (upper 1/2 ear)
motor: mastication, mylohyoid, a digastric, 2 tensors
carries: auriculo carries 9 para to parotid, lingual carries 7 chorda tymp to submand/subling
branches V1
frontal, nasociliary, lacrimal
role CN III
all eye muscles, lev palpebrae, carries para to eye via short ciliary (miosis and accomadation)
describe general path/modulation of slow pain
C fibers receive signal. 2 fibers go up through ILN of thal to cingulate gyrus, medial frontal lobe, and insula. Collaterals sent to Periaqueductal gray this sends axons down to other parts incl NRM. NRM uses axons with 5HT and then enkephalin to modulate C fiber via mu R. the other path rel NE on alpha 2 of the secondary neuron
ways to manage chronic pain
opiates to PAG, NRM, or mu R on dorsal horn
SSRI (NE alpha2 on 2 neuron)
Na channel blocker
besides C fiber, how else can PAG be activated
from stress that causes hypothal/pituitary to release b endorphins that act on PAG
name the endogenous opioids
enkephelin, b endorphin
name parts of limbic forebrain and hypothal
medial/orbital prefrontal ctx
anterior cingulate gyrus
name parts of limbic forebrain and what bilateral lesions result in
medial/orbital prefrontal ctx (flattened affect, loss emotion)
anterior cingulate gyrus (flat affect)
hippocampus (anterograde amnesia)
amygdala (decreased fear, hyperoral, aggression)
name parts of limbic forebrain and their roles
medial/orbital prefrontal ctx (mood/affect)
anterior cingulate gyrus (mood/affect)
hippocampus (declarative learning and memory)
amygdala (4Fs, fear, food, fighting)
cingulate bundle
cxn medial frontal/cingulate w amygdala
take NT to hypo and prefrontal
cxn hypo to hippo
stria terminale
hypothal to amygdala
uncinate path
uncus to prefrontal
medial cortical is connected to
amygdala via CB
medial prefrontal is connected to (3)
-amygdala via uncinate
-NT via MFB
-thal via ALIC
hypothal connections
-hippo vai fornix
-amygdala via ST and CB (long way)
-prefrontal via MFB
amygdala cxns
-prefrontal via uncinate
-hypothal via ST
-medial CTX via CB
where DA made in brain
where does DA go in brain
from VTA to MFB, ST to Nu accumbens amygdala
-also arcuate nu of hypothal (DA - Pro)
where 5HT made in brain
raphe nu
where 5HT go in brain
1) ST to amygdala
2) CTX
3) fronix to hippo
where Ach made
-Nu basalis of meynert
-hypothal: medial septal, nu diagonal band
where Ach go in brain
via ALIC to neoctx
from hypothal to hippo
where NE made
where NE go
1) ST to amygdala
2) CTX
3) fornix to hippo
where GABA made
diffuse, no paths