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102 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Restricted diffusion
Acute and subacute infarct
Intracranial abscess
Rare MS plaques
Epidermoid (vs. arachnoid cyst)
Highly cellular tumors (PNET, oligo...)
Ring-enhancing intracranial leions
• MAGICAL DR mnemonic:
• Metastasis
• Abscess: AIDS, IVDA, immunocompromised state
• Glioblastoma multiforme, high grade glioma
• Infarct
• Contusion/hematoma
• AIDS (toxoplasmosis)
• Lymphoma
• Demyelinating disease
• Radiation necrosis
Lesions crossing the corpus callosum
• Glioblastoma multiforme
• Lymphoma
• Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
• Multiple sclerosis
• Mimic: parafalcine meningioma
Posterior fossa mass, child
• Medulloblastoma
• Cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma
• Ependymoma
• Pontine glioma
Posterior fossa mass, adult
• Metastasis (most common)
• Hemangioblastoma (von Hippel-Lindau disease
• Medulloblastoma (cerebellar hemisphere)
• Hemorrhage (hypertensive)
Extra-axial mass
• Meningioma
• Arachnoid cyst
• Epidermoid cyst
• Dural metastasis
• Bone lesion with intracranial extension
• Empyema, subdural or epidural
• Sarcoidosis
Cerebellopontine angle mass
• Vestibular schwannoma (bilateral, neurofibromatosis-2)
• Meningioma
• Arachnoid cyst
• Epidermoid cyst (most common)
• Other: ependymoma, schwannoma, glomus jugulare
Sellar or suprasellar mass
• GATCH MODE mnemonic:
• Germ cell tumor, Granuloma
• Adenoma, Aneurysm, Arachnoid cyst
• Tuber cinerum hamartoma
• Craniopharyngioma, Rathke’s cleft cyst
• Hypothalamic glioma
• Meningioma, Metastasis
• Optic chiasm glioma
• Dermoid
• Epidermoid
• Lymphoma
Suprasellar mass, adult (common)
• Pituitary adenoma (prolactinoma > GH)
• Craniopharyngioma (30-40 y/o)
• Meningioma
• Chiasmatic/hypothalamic glioma
• Aneurysm
Suprasellar mass, child (common)
• Craniopharyngioma (4-5 y/o)
• Chiasmatic/hypothalamic glioma (NF-1)
• Germinoma
Suprasellar mass, homogeneously enhancing
• Macroadenoma
• Meningioma (planum sphenoidale, clivus)
• Aneurysm
• Germinoma, teratoma
Suprasellar mass, partially calcified
• Meningioma
• Craniopharyngioma
• Aneurysm
• Granuloma
• Dermoid
Suprasellar mass, high attenuation
• Meningioma
• Craniopharyngioma
• Adenoma (hemorrhagic)
• Aneurysm
• Glioma
• Germinoma
Pituitary hemorrhage
can occur with adenoma, bromocriptine therapy, pregnancy, XRT, anticoagulation, LP
Suprasellar mass, Hyperintense T1/T2
• Adenoma (hemorrhagic)
• Craniopharyngioma (cystic, proteinaceous material)
• Rathke's cleft cyst
Infundibular mass, child
• Germinoma
• Eosinophilic granuloma
• Meningitis
• Lymphoma
• Glioma
• Racemose cysticercosis
Infundibular mass, adult
• Metastasis
• Sarcoid
• Germinoma
• Lymphoma
• Glioma
• Choristoma (granular cell tumor)
Cavernous sinus mass
• Meningioma
• Schwannoma, neurofibroma
• Aneurysm of ICA
• Cavernous sinus thrombosis
• Carotid-cavernous fistula
• Metastasis
• Lymphoma, sarcoid
• Macroadenoma
• Extension from bone tumors: metastasis, chordoma, chondrosarcoma
Cavernous sinus mass, bilateral
• Macroadenoma
• Meningioma
• Lymphoma
• Metastases
CN traverse the cavernous sinus
Cranial nerves 3, 4, 51, 52, 6, so a cavernous sinus mass may present with CN neuropathy. Standing Room Only: V1-Spinosum, V2-Rotundum, V3-Ovale
Pineal region mass
• Pineal cyst (NL <15 mm)
• Germ cell tumor (germinoma)
• Pineoblastoma (rare, child), pineocytoma (rare, adult)
• Metastasis
• Tectal glioma
• Meningioma
• Vein of Galen malformation
Temporal lobe lesion, adult
• GBM, metastasis
• Ganglioglioma (young adult, also parietal lobe/cerebellum), DNET
• Trauma
• Mesial temporal sclerosis
Absent posterior pituitary bright spot
• EG
• Diabetes insipidus
Intraventricular mass
• Meningioma (left atrium)
• Metastases, lymphoma
• Ependymoma (4th ventricle)
• Subependymoma (rare, 4th ventricle or frontal horn)
• Choroid plexus papilloma (child, left atrium; rare adult, 4th ventricle)
• Colloid cyst
• Astrocytoma (giant cell astrocytoma in Tuberous Sclerosis)
• Central neurocytoma (rare, adult)
• Medulloblastoma (child, 4th ventricle; adult, cerebellar hemisphere)
• Racemose cysticercosis (mimics epidermoid cyst, arachnoid cyst)
Which tumors are associated with CSF seeding?
• Germinoma
• PNET: medulloblastoma, pineoblastoma, retinoblastoma
• Ependymoma
• Choroid plexus carcinoma
• Metastases
White matter disease (multiple)
• Ischemia
• Multiple sclerosis
• Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: measles, mumps, mononucleosis, varicella; post-vaccination (basal ganglia/thalamus abnormalities differentiate from MS)
• PML (classically occipitoparietal regions)
• Central pontine myelinolysis
• SLE and other collagen vascular diseases
• Sarcoid
• Lyme disease
• Vitamin B12 deficiency
• Radiation injury
• Dysmyelinating disease: Canavan’s disease (diffuse, macrocephaly), Krabbe’s disease (diffuse), Alexander’s disease (anterior), adrenal leukodystrophy (posterior), metachromatic leukodystrophy (diffuse), Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (deficient myelin-specific lipids)
Infarct, young adult
• Dissection: post-traumatic, Marfan’s syndrome, FMD, extension of Type A thoracic aortic dissection into common carotid artery
• Drug abuse: cocaine, amphetamine
• Vasculitis: giant cell arteritis, PAN, temporal arteritis; sarcoidosis; SLE, Wegener’s disease, Behcet’s disease; methamphetamine, ergotism
• Basilar meningitis: bacterial, TB, fungal, syphilis
• Fibromuscular dysplasia
• Migraine
• Moyamoya disease (child): idiopathic; mimics include Sickle cell anemia, NF-1, connective tissue disorders (Marfan’s syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos, homocysteinuria), radiation injury, Menke’s kinky hair syndrome, atherosclerosis (uncommon)
Typical location of traumatic dissection of the ICA
usually occurs immediately above the carotid bifurcation, near the skull base, or at the level of the supraclinoid ICA. Dissection of the vertebral artery occurs at C6, where it enters the foramina transversarium
Gyriform cortical enhancement
• Stroke
• Cerebritis
• Postictal state
• Hypertensive encephalopathy, eclampsia
• Drugs: cyclosporine, MTX, FK506 (Tacrolimus)
Hypertensive encephalopathy
can occur in pregnancy, renal failure, TTP, hemolytic-uremic syndrome. It’s similar in appearance to cyclosporine, FK-506 therapy
Dural venous sinus thrombosis
• Infection: otomastoiditis
• Pregnancy
• Dehydration
• Sepsis
• Neoplasm: falx meningioma
• Hypercoagulable states
Conditions associated with cerebral aneurysms
• Fibromuscular dysplasia
• NF-1
• Collagen vascular disease
• Marfan’s syndrome
• Coarctation of the Aorta
Aneurysm in unusual location
• Mycotic: bacterial endocarditis
• Vasculitis: PAN, SLE, Wegener’s granulomatosis, Takayasu’s disease
• Post-traumatic
How do you tell where to look for the bleeding aneurysm?
• Proximity to site of hemorrhage on CT
• Large size
• Adjacent spasm
• Beaking of aneurysm contour
• Frank extravasation of contrast (rare)
Hemorrhage, intraxial
• Trauma
• Hypertension (putamen, thalamus, pons, cerebellum)
• Aneurysm (multiple in 15%)
• AVM, cryptic vascular malformation (cavernous hemangioma, capillary telangiectasia)
• Thromboembolic, venous infarct (temporal lobe from transverse sinus thrombosis, parasagittal subcortical white matter from superior sagittal sinus thrombosis, thalami from straight sinus or vein of Galen thrombosis)
• Hemorrhagic metastasis: melanoma, thyroid carcinoma, choriocarcinoma, adenocarcinoma (breast, lung, renal, colon); GBM, oligodendroglioma
• Amyloid angiopathy
• Drugs abuse: cocaine, amphetamine
• Other: coagulopathy, vasculitis, encephalitis
Hemorrhage spontaneous intra-axial, elderly
• Amyloid angiopathy
• Metastasis
Hemorrhage spontaneous intra-axial, young
• Aneurysm
• Drug abuse: cocaine, amphetamine
• Neoplasm
Hemorrhage multifocal intra-axial
• Trauma
• Metastases
• Amyloid angiopathy
• Vasculitis
• Venous infarction
• Coagulopathy
Causes of Hemorrhage, subarachnoid
• Aneurysm
• Trauma
Hemorrhage, epidural/subdural
• Trauma
• Coagulopathy
Leptomeningeal enhancement
• Metastases: lung, breast, melanoma, lymphoma/leukemia, PNETs (child)
• Meningitis: TB, fungal; otomastoiditis
• Post-surgical
• Meningeal (pial) angiomatosis in Sturge-Weber
Meningitis bugs
• Group B streptococcus (newborn)
• H. infuenzae (child)
• N. meningititis (adolescent)
• S. pneumonia (adult)
Dural enhancement/mass
• Post-craniotomy or LP, CSF diversion
• Neoplasm: meningioma, metastases (breast, prostate, lymphoma), direct extension of primary intracranial tumor, neuroblastoma (child)
• Meningitis
• Post-hemorrhagic: remote SDH, EDH
• Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (CSF leak from lumbosacral root sleeve cyst)
• Sarcoidosis
Ependymal enhancement
• Neoplasm: lymphoma, glioma, CSF spread of primary intracranial tumor or metastasis
• Ventriculitis: meningitis, post-shunting; CMV (AIDS)
• Congenital: idiopathic, Chiari II malformation, Dandy-Walker malformation, aqueductal stenosis, perinatal hemorrhage or meningoencephalitis (STARCH)
• Communicating: meningitis, SAH, meningeal carcinomatosis
Parenchymal calcifications, neonate
• Toxoplasmosis
• Rubella infection
• Herpes Simplex infection
• HIV (basal ganglia)
• STARCH mnemonic: Syphilis, Toxoplasmosis, AIDS, Rubella, CMV, Herpes simplex virus-2
T1 hyperintensity
• Intracellular/extracellular methemoglobin
• Fat
• Proteinaceous fluid
• Melanin
• Slow blood flow on certain sequences
• Calcification (hydrated)
T2 hypointensity
• Vascular flow voids
• Deoxyhemoglobin (acute bleed), intracellular methemoglobin, ferritin, hemosiderin
• Calcification or ossification
• Proteinaceous fluid
• Densely cellular mass: meningioma, lymphoma, PNET (pineoblastoma, medulloblastoma, neuroblastoma)
• Iron deposition, physiologic (basal ganglia, substantia nigra, red nucleus, dentate nucleus), iron deposition, pathologic
Calvarial button sequestrum
• O ME mnemonic:
• Osteomyelitis
• Metastases
• EG
Solitary lytic defect in skull
• MT HOLE (“empty hole”) mnemonic:
• Metastasis, multiple myeloma
• TB, trauma
• Histiocytosis, hemangioma
• Osteomyelitis
• Leptomeningeal cyst
• Epidermoid
Loss of lamina dura
• CHOMP mnemonic:
• Cushing’s disease
• Hyperparathyroidism
• Osteomalacia, osteoporosis
• Multiple myeloma
• Paget’s disease
Calcifications in brain
• PINEAL mnemonic:
• Physiologic: pineal gland, choroid plexus, basal ganglia
• Infections: Cysticercosis, toxoplasmosis, TB, CMV
• Neoplasm: craniopharyngioma, oligodendroglioma, meningioma, chordoma
• Endocrine: hypervitaminosis D, hypoparathyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, Fahr’s disease
• Arterial: atherosclerosis, aneurysm
• Lipoma, dermoid
Calcified intracranial mass
• Ca++ COME mnemonic:
• Craniopharyngioma
• Astrocytoma, aneurysm
• Choroid plexus papilloma
• Oligodendroglioma
• Meningioma
• Ependymoma (25%)
Basal ganglia calcification
• Idiopathic
• Hypoparathyroidism, hyperparathyroidism
• Fahr’s disease (familial idiopathic cerebral ferrocalcinosis)
• Post-inflammatory, post-anoxia
• Cockayne’s syndrome
Intramedullary lesion
• Neoplasm: ependymoma (adult, conus medullaris/filum, can be cystic or calcified or bloody), astrocytoma (child), hemangioblastoma, metastasis (rare)
• Infarct, ischemia
• Hematoma
• Demyelinating disease: MS
• Transverse myelitis: post-viral, inflammatory, ischemia, MS, ADEM, SLE, XRT
• Cryptic vascular malformation: cavernous hemangioma, capillary telangiectasia
• Syrinx
• Contusion
• Abscess
Causes (etiologies) of syringomyelia
• Trauma (myelomalacia)
• Neoplasm
• Chiari 1 or 2 malformation
• Infarct (myelomalacia)
• Arachnoiditis: meningitis, back surgery
Intradural, extramedullary lesion
• Meningioma (posterolateral)
• Nerve sheath tumor (anterolateral): schwannoma, neurofibroma
• Metastases (drop): germ cell tumors, ependymoma, PNET; adenocarcinoma, melanoma, lymphoma/leukemia
• Dermoid, epidermoid
• Lipoma
• MANDELIN mnemonic: meningioma, metastasis (drop), arachnoiditis, arachnoid cyst, AVM, neurofibroma, dermoid, epidermoid, ependymoma, lipoma, infection (TB, cysticercosis) NL but tortuous nerve roots
Extradural lesion in the spine
• Degenerative disease: disc protrusion, osteophyte, synovial cyst
• Metastases to vertebrae: lung, breast, prostate, lymphoma
• Other tumors: myeloma, chordoma, aneurysmal bone cyst, giant cell tumor, lymphoma/leukemia, osteoblastoma, eosinophilic granuloma, schwannoma, neurofibroma, ganglioneuroma, ganglioneuroblastoma, neuroblastoma
• Epidural abscess: discitis, osteomyelitis
• Hematoma
Epidural lesion, child
• Extension of paraspinal or vertebral tumor: neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma, ganglioneuroma; neurofibroma, schwannoma
• Abscess
• Ewing’s sarcoma
• Lymphoma/leukemia
• Eosinophilic granuloma
• Other vertebral body tumors (above)
Epidural extension over many levels
• Abscess
• Hematoma
• Metastases
• Lymphoma
Destructive midline, skull-base lesion
• Metastases
• Myeloma
• Nasopharyngeal carcinoma
• Chordoma (midline)
• Chondrosarcoma (off midline)
• Meningioma
• Macroadenoma
• Lymphoma
• Esthesioneuroblastoma (cribiform plate)
• Aggressive sinusitis: aspergillus, mucormycosis
• Mucocele, polyposis
Destructive skull-base lesion, frontal
• Esthesioneuroblastoma
• Metastasis
• meningioma
• Sinonasal carcinoma
• Lymphoma
• Rhabdomyosarcoma
• Aggressive sinusitis
• Mucocele, sinonasal polyposis
Destructive skull-base lesion, basisphenoid
• Nasopharyngeal carcinoma
• Chordoma
• Chondrosarcoma
• Metastases, myeloma
• Macroadenoma
• Meningioma
• Aggressive sinusitis: aspergillus, mucormycosis
J-shaped sella
• Cretinism
• Idiopathic
• Hydrocephalus
• Gargoylism
• Achondroplasia
• Optic glioma
• NF-1
Jugular foramen mass
• Glomus jugulare
• Schwannoma
• Metastasis
• Meningioma
• Asymmetrical or thrombosed jugular vein, ectatic carotid artery, carotid pseudoanuerysm
Far lateral disc herniation mimics
• Conjoined nerve root
• Perineural cyst
• Neurofibroma
Tarlov cyst mimics
• Intrasacral meningocele
• Dural ectasia
• Trauma, surgery
• Intrathecal steroids, anesthesia
• Myelogram
• Infection
What are the lesions of the globe?
• Uveal melanoma (lobular), uveal metastases (plaque-like)
• Choroidal or retinal detachment
• Vitreous hemorrhage
• Pseudotumor
• Retinoblastoma (child)
• Optic disc Drusen, choroidal osteoma (lateral to optic disc)
Optic nerve or nerve sheath enlargement
• Optic glioma (child, NF-1), optic nerve sheath meningioma (adult), lymphoma/leukemia, metastasis
• Pseudotumor
• Optic neuritis
• Sarcoidosis
Orbital rectus muscle enlargement
• Thyroid opthalmopathy (inferior>medial>superior>lateral)
• Pseudotumor
• Myositis: extension from paranasal sinus infection, pseudotumor
• Metastasis, lymphoma, others
• Vascular congestion from mass at orbital apex, carotid-cavernous fistula, cavernous sinus thrombosis, dural AVM
Lacrimal fossa mass
• Viral infection
• Benign neoplasm: dermoid, pleomorphic adenoma
• Malignant neoplasm: adenoid cystic carcinoma, lymphoma, metastases
• Pseudotumor
• Sarcoidosis
• Sjogren’s syndrome
• Wegener’s granulomatosis
Lacrimal fossa mass, bilateral
• Lymphoma
• Sarcoid
Intraconal mass
• Cavernous hemangioma (adult), capillary hemangioma (child), lymphangioma (child)
• Orbital cellulitis, pseudotumor
• Varix, carotid-cavernous fistula
• Lymphoma, rhabdomyosarcoma (child), metastasis (child: neuroblastoma to bone; adult: breast, lung, prostate, melanoma to uvea, rectus muscles, bone)
Extraconal mass
• Metastasis to bony orbit
• Invasion by adjacent primary tumor: paranasal sinus or nasal SCC, sphenoid wing meningioma
• Lacrimal fossa mass
• Subperiosteal abscess or hematoma
Orbital mass, child
• LO VISHON mnemonic:
• Leukemia, lymphoma
• Optic nerve glioma
• Vascular malformation (capillary hemangioma, lymphangioma)
• Inflammation (pre-, post-septal)
• Sarcoma (rhabdomyosarcoma)
• Histiocytosis
• Orbital pseudotumor, osteoma
• Neuroblastoma
Middle ear mass
• Cholesteatoma, cholesterol granuloma, inflammatory debris/granulation tissue
• Vascular: aberrant carotid artery, dehiscent jugular bulb
• Neoplasm: glomus tympanicum (cochlear promontory, ascending pharyngeal artery embolization), glomus jugulare invading middle ear (glomus jugulotympanicum), hemangioma, others
Lesion causing pulsatile tinnitus
• Aberrant carotid artery, high jugular bulb or dehiscent jugular bulb
• Transverse sinus/internal jugular vein thrombosis, high grade carotid stenosis, dural AVF
• Glomus tympanicum, glomus jugulare invading middle ear
Retrotympanic mass
• Congenital: aberrant carotid artery, high jugular bulb or dehiscent jugular bulb
• Neoplasm: glomus tympanicum, glomus jugulare invading middle ear
• Cholesterol granuloma, inflammatory debris/granulation tissue
Paranasal sinus mass
• Mucocele
• Squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, lymphoma, inverted papilloma, esthesioneuroblastoma, ameloblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, juvenile angiofibroma
• Infectious sinusitis, granulomatous sinusitis
• Osteoma
• Odontogenic cyst
Parapharyngeal space
• Fat, branches of V3, salivary gland rests
• SCC invading from pharyngeal mucosal , parotid, masticator spaces
• Abscess from pharynx (tonsillar abscess), masticator space (odontogenic abscess)
Pharyngeal mucosal space
• Mucosa, Waldeyer’s ring, eustachian tube opening, minor salivary glands, muscles
• Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, tonsillar abscess
Masticator space
• Muscles of mastication (pterygoids, masseter, temporalis), mandibular ramus, branches of V3
• Abscess (odontogenic)
• Mandibular osteosarcoma
• Rhabdomyosarcoma
• SCC invasion from pharyngeal and parotid spaces
• Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
• Neurogenic tumor
Retropharyngeal space
• Fat, nodes
• Abscess
• Reactive adenopathy: NL in child, URI, tonsillitis
• SCC invasion from pharyngeal and mucosal spaces
• Nodal metastases from pharyngeal SCC, Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
• Hemangioma
• Neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma (child)
Prevertebral space
• Muscles (prevertebral, paraspinal, scalenes)
• Brachial plexus roots, phrenic nerve, vertebrae, vertebral arteries
• Discitis, osteomyelitis
• Metastases
• Primary vertebral body tumor
Carotid space
• ICA, internal jugular vein, cranial nerves 9, 10, 11, 12, nodes
• Schwannoma, neurofibroma
• Glomus jugulare, carotid body tumor
• Meningioma of jugular foramen
• Nodal metastases
• Asymmetrical or thrombosed jugular vein, ectatic carotid artery, carotid pseudoaneurysm
Remember about the carotid body
Carotid body tumor usually splays the carotid bifurcation, while glomus vagale/jugulare displaces carotid anteriorly
Parotid space
• Parotid glands (with Stenson’s duct), intraparotid lymph nodes, branches of CN 7, external carotid artery
• Pleomorphic adenoma (adult, T2 bright), Warthin’s tumor (adult)
• Mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, NHL
• Nodal metastases from SCC, NHL, melanoma
• Abscess
• Lymphoepithelial cysts (AIDS)
• Hemangioma or lymphangioma (child)
• Lymphoma
• 1st branchial cleft cyst
Parotid lesions, multiple or bilateral
• Warthin’s tumor
• Nodal metastases from SCC, NHL, melanoma
• Lymphoepithelial cysts (AIDS)
Submandibular and sublingual spaces
• Salivary glands, mylohyoid muscle, anterior tongue, nodes, branches of V3, CN 7, 9, 12
Submandibular space (with Wharton’s duct)
• Nodal metastases
• Direct invasion from SCC, NHL, salivary gland neoplasm
• Dermoid or epidermoid, cystic hygroma, hemangioma, salivary gland neoplasm, lipoma
• Abscess, lymphadenitis
• Second branchial cleft cyst (anterior to sternocleidomastoid muscle)
• Diving ranula
Submandibular space, cystic mass
• Second branchial cleft cyst
• Cystic hygroma
• Dermoid or epidermoid
• Thyroglossal duct cyst
• Diving ranula
• Abscess or necrotic neoplasm
Sublingual space
• Invasive SCC of the tongue, salivary gland neoplasm
• Dilated Wharton’s duct, abscess (odontogenic or sialoadenitis)
• Dermoid or epidermoid
• Ranula (dives below mylohyoid to submandibular space)
• Cystic hygroma
• Hemangioma, lingual thyroid posteriorly (child)
Sublingual space, cystic mass
• Dermoid or epidermoid
• Ranula
• Cystic hygroma
• Abscess or necrotic neoplasm
Oropharynx lesions
include SCC, lymphoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenocarcinoma; hemangioma, lymphangioma, abscess (child)
Larynx extends from the valleculae to the space between cricoid cartilage/1st tracheal ring. Supraglottis is epiglottic tip to laryngeal ventricle (if lesion here only, voice sparing procedure). Lesions in these areas
SCC, laryngocele, thyroglossal duct cyst, stenosis, trauma
Infrahyoid neck
• Same as suprahyoid neck
Visceral space lesions
• Thyroid and parathyroid glands, esophagus, larynx and trachea, recurrent laryngeal nerve, nodes
• SCC of the larynx, thyroid neoplasm, esophageal carcinoma, nodal metastases or lymphoma, salivary gland neoplasm, dermoid or epidermoid
• Reactive adenopathy, abscess
• Laryngocele
Bells palsy
• Ramsay-Hunt syndrome (herpes zoster infection)
• Facial nerve schwannoma
• Perineural tumor spread
• Sarcoidosis
• Lymphoma
• Lyme disease
Odontogenic cyst
• Radicular cyst
• Dentigerous cyst (tooth)
• Keratocyst
• Lateral periodontal cyst
Enlarged vestibular aqueduct (>1.5 mm)
• Sporadic
• Mondini’s disease [cochlear hypoplasia or incomplete partition of cochlear turns (only 1-1.5x) with vestibular aqueduct enlargement]
Cerebellar atrophy
• Anti-seizure medications