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167 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Does the folding pattern of the brain have a cortical significance?
What is a gyrus?
Gyrus is a fold of gray matter (2-4 mm) over a central core of white matter
Where is the majority of gray matter?
not on the surface
Name the 12 gyri that cover the lateral surface of the head.
--frontal--superior, middle and inferior

--precentral and postcentral

--supramarginal and angular

--superior parietal lobule

--superior, middle and inferior temporal

Where do the pre and post central gyri interconnect?
around the end of the central sulcus (the paracentral lobule surrounds the central sulcus)
Is the precentral gyrus motor or somatosensory? What about the postcentral?
Most of the precentral gyrus including the medial surface, is Brodmann area 4 - primary motor cortex

Most of postcentral gyrus, including the medial surface, is Brodmann areas 3,1, 2 - primary somatosensory cortex
Where would you find the primary motor of the tounge? (think homunculus)
lateral portion of the precentral gyrus followed by swallowing and preceded by the lips, jaw face.

above this is the hand and remember to start just above the cingulate gyrus w/ feet and fold over--hold head above hands
What is the main distinction between a motor and sensory homunculus?
sensory has a much larger face and the addition of the genitalia (preceding the foot, ie just above the cingulate gyrus)
What sulci separate the frontal gyri?
inferior and superior sulci
What are the Broca's areas for:

supplementary motor and premotor

frontal eye fields (function)

speech area

frontal pole (function?)

Which part of the brain are all of these located in?
The supplementary motor and premotor areas (BA6)

The frontal eye fields (8) plan eye movements

Broca's area (BA 44, 45) is involved in speech

The frontal pole is involved in higher functions (thinking, cognition, personality)

All located in the frontal lobe
Which sulci separate the temporal gyri?
superior and inferior sulci.
What is the Broca # for Wernicke's area?
22 found in the superior temporal gyrus.

22 involved in hearing and speech
Where can you find the supramarginal gyrus? The angular gyrus?

What are the associated Broca #s?
Which lobe are these found in?
At the end of the lateral fissure: # 39

just below is the angular gyrus: # 40

found in the parietal lobe
What is the angular gyrus in front of?
an imaginary line connecting the preoccipital notch withthe superior endof the parietooccipital sulcus on the medial side.
When parts of the frontal and temporal gyri are cut away what is visible beneath?
Can see planum temporale


transverse temporal (Heschi's) gyri--superior aspect of the temporal lobe within the lateral fissure.
Where is the primary auditory cortex found? What is it surrounded by?
areas 41 and 42. surrounded by 22--secondary auditory cortex

found in the temporal lobe
Do cuts need to be made to see the insula and transverse temporal gyri?
No, just pull temporal back to expose just below. Just move gyri out of the way.
Where are the short and long gyri found?
short insular gyri are found more anterior while the long are found posterior. short looks like 3 fingers. Found w/in the temporal lobe--deep to exterior
Where is the circular sulcus found?

What separates the long and short gyri?
found around the insula

insula=island of reil

long and short gyri separated by the central sulcus of the insula
What is an operculae?
operculum is latin for lid and in the brain used to describe the lobes that cover the insula (frontal, temporal and parietal)
What are the supramarginal and angular gyri a part of?
part of the inferior parietal lobule
Where can the INTRAparietal sulcus be found? What does it separate?
found posterior from the postcental gyrus and separates the superior and inferior parietal lobule
From an inferior view, what main gyri can be seen?
medial to lateral: gyrus rectus, orbital gyri

medial to lateral: parahippocampal gyrus, occiptotemporal and inferior temporal gyrus.
Where is the olfactory tract and bulb found?
found between the gyrus rectus and the orbital gyri lying within the olfactory sulcus
What is found on the anterior end of the parahippocampal gyrus?
What sulcus separates the parahippocampal gyrus from the occipitotemporal gyrus?
collateral sulcus
What important Broadmann #s are found on the inferior surface of the brain? Where?
34 medial side of uncus and 28 on anterior parahippocampal gyrus

include primary olfactory cortex and LIMBIC (emotion and motivation) association cortex.
What arteries feed into the circle of Willis?
internal carotid and basilar aa

vertebral too?
What 3 cerebral aa supply the cortex?
anterior, middle and posterior cerebral aa
What is the pathway of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA)?
wraps dorsally around the corpus callosum in the longitudinal fissure. supplies medial surface no furtur than to the parieto occipital sulcus
What does the MCA supply?
What is its path?
supplies superior temporal lobe and much of the lateral surface. Also supplies the insula

couses back through the lateral fissure.
What does the PCA supply?
What is its path?
supplies the medial and inferior temporal lobe AND medial and lateral occipital lobes

courses posteriorly between the cerebrum and cerebellum
What are the major regions of the brain?
prosencephalon: telencephalon and diencephalon

rhombencephalon: mesencephalon, metencephalon, and mylencephalon

spinal cord
Which way is rostral? caudal?

What axis is used when describing neuroanatomy?
rostral towards the snout

caudal towards the tail

Where is the tectum found?
the prominent posterior (dorsal)part of the midbrain
What makes up the brainstem?
midbrain, pons, medulla
Where is the 4th ventricle?
overlies the pons and the rostral 1/2 of the medulla
Where is the cerebral aqueduct?
passes thru the midbrain
What is the core of the cerebral hemisphere?
the diencephalon (just rostral to the midbrain)
what covers the 4th ventricle?
the cerebellum
What are the 3 parts of the diencephalon?

What are they connected by?
thalamus, hypothalamus and epithalamus

connected by the mass intermedia
What surrounds the massa intermedia?
the 3rd ventricle, lies between the thalami
What does the anterior wall of the 3rd ventricle include?

What is the anterior wall of the 3rd ventricle called?
anterior commissure

lamina terminalis
What are the components of the epithalamus?
posterior commisure and the pineal gland
What are the parts of the hypothalamus?
mammilary bodies and pituitary stalk
What is an important landmark inferior and rostral to the hypothalamus?
the optic chiasm
Is the corpus callosum white or grey matter?
white, largest area of white matter
What large white matter tract arches over the thalamus?
What stretches between the corpus callosum and the fornix?
the septum pellucidum-separates teh left and right lateral ventricles
Which lobes of the brain can be seen in mid sagital section?
frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital
Is the epitalamus an integrated unit?
No, but it has structures that function in several systems.
What connects the pineal gland to the brain?
the pineal stalk--note ventral and dorsal walls
What extends into the stalk?
the third ventricle
What does the pineal gland sit in?
CSF between the midbrain and the corpus callosum
What is found ON the dorsal medial thalamus?

What arces OVER the dorsalmedial thalamus?

What is in the dorsal wall of the pineal stalk?
habenula (bump) overlying the habenular nucleus

over: stria medullaris thalami

In the dorsal wall is the habenular comissure
What is the stria medularis thalami?

What does the habenular commissure include?
complex afferent fiber bundle to the habenula

habenular commissure includes commissural and decussating fibers
What color does myelin stain w/ a myelin stain?
Before CT how was the pineal gland imaged?
by x-ray b/c of calcification

calcified pineal gland can be seen by CT too
What happens if there's a tumor in the pineal gland?
the pineal tumor will compress the midbrain tectum which will compress the cerebral aqueduct

causes hydrocepalus and eye movement disorders
What does the midbrain tectum have a function in?
rostral part functions in the visual system
Where does the posterior commissure attach?
between the ventral wall of the pineal stalk and the midbrain tectum near the junction of the 3rd ventricle and cerebral aqueduct
What do the fibers of the posterior commisure interconnect?
midbrain nuceli involved with the visual system
What is the massa intermedia?
Commissure in the third ventricle that connects the left and right diencephalon.
Is the spinothalamic tract and fasciculus one way or two way? What about superior longitudinal fasciculus and medial longitudinal fassiculus?
spino and fasc gracilis are ONE way

sup and med longitudinal fasciculus are 2 way
What is an ex of a radiation?
acoustic radiation from medial geniculate nucleus to transverse temporal gyri
What do the arcuate fasciculi interconnect?
(short)interconnect close regions like adjacent gyri
What is the course of the intrahemispheric association fiberbundles?

cingulum, superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculus
What does the superior longitudinal fasciculus connect?
parietal, occipital, and temporal with the frontal lobe


Wernicke (speech comprehension) and Broca's (motor speech)
What does a lesion in the superior longitudinal (arcuate) fasciculus cause?
problems with speech and language
What does the inferior longitudinal fasciculus connect?
parietal and occipital lobes with the temporal lobe
What does the hook shaped uncinate fasciculus connect?
anterior temporal and lower frontal lobes
What type of tract is the cingulum?

What does it parallel?
limbic association tract

underlying and paralleling the cingulate and parahippocampal gyri.
What are the anterior and posterior commisures?

Where are they located?

Where does the anterior commisure cross the midline?
small cylindrical transverse fiber bundles

located at either end of the corpus callosum

anterior commisure crosses the midline in the lamina terminalis
What does the anterior commissure interconnect?
interconnects the anterior temporal lobes.
What connects similar areas in opposite hemispheres?

What are the anterior and posteriormost arching fibers called?
corpus callosal fibers

forceps major (post) and minor (ant)
Where would you find the most fibers in the corpus callosum?
in the rostral and caudal ends b/c of greater accomadation of more fibers
What are the main parts of the corpus callosum?
rostrum, genu, body, splenium
What does the corpus callosum lie at the bottom of?
the longitudinal fissure.
Which technique has replaced frontal lobotomy?

Which section should be left intact for best results?
callosotomy used especially in epileptic seizures.

If splenium is spared can minimize split brain symptoms
Who is Kim Peek and what was he born with?
Rainman--born with congenital absence of corpus callosum and anterior commisure
What does the absence of the corpus callosum produce? Give an example.
disconnection syndromes.

Ex. if lesion is posterior visual info from right occiput (left visual field)cannot reach the left side so can't say what is in the left field.
Where does the corona radiata carry fibers to and from?
carries fibers to and from the cortex and the diencephalon, brainstem or spinal cord
What do the fibers of the corona radiata pass thru as they narrow down?
pass between large grey matter nuclei called basal ganglia
Where will you find orderly arranged fibers of the corona radiata?
w/in the internal capsule and those that reach the midbrain
Where does the internal capsule pass?
between the lentiform nucleus laterally

the thalamus and caudate neucleus medially

continuous w/ the corona radiata superiorly

crus cerebri in the cerebral peduncle of the midbrain inferiorly
What does the internal capsule look like in horizontal section?
V shaped, bend of the V is the genu--remaining parts are limbs--anterior and posterior
Where is the external capsule found? What is it made of?
thin white matter sheet lateral to the lentiform nucleus. Found lateral to the internal capsule--if you can believe it
What is found betwen the external capsule?
insula--very thin grey structure called the claustrum
What do the internal and external capusules encapsulate?
the lentiform nucleus
On a coronal section how will the internal capsule appear?
Only see one piece of it--no longer looks like a V. only see teh anterior or posterior limb
What do you call the large central area of white matter in the cerebrum? What does it include?
centrum semiovale--includes the intersectins of the internal capsule, callosal fibers, and superior longitudinal fissure.
What is the function of the MLF?

The central tegmental tract?
2 way connector in the BRAINSTEM

coordinates motor nuclei for extrinsic eye mm.

tegmental tract interconnects reticular regions--coordinates breathing, visceral funcitons
In the spinal cord is grey or white matter on the inside?
grey inside, white outside
What could cause a stiff neck and fever with prior cough and fatigue?
bacterial meningitis
What produces CSF?
choroid plexus of the four ventricles
What is the function of the CSF?
structural support and cushioning to the brain and spinal cord
What are leptomeninges composed of?
pia mater and arachnoid mater

Note: lepto=thin (so thin meningeal layers)
What is the dura mater made of?
periosteal layer and meningeal layer. 2 parts: An inner and outer layer
What are the parts of the meningeal layer of the dura mater?
falx cerebri and cerebelli, tentorium cerebelli, diaphragma sellae
Where is the CSF usually found?
in the subarachnoid space
What does the internal capsule look like in horizontal section?
V shaped, bend of the V is the genu--remaining parts are limbs--anterior and posterior
Where is the external capsule found? What is it made of?
thin white matter sheet lateral to the lentiform nucleus. Found lateral to the internal capsule--if you can believe it
What is found betwen the external capsule?
insula--very thin grey structure called the claustrum
What do the internal and external capusules encapsulate?
the lentiform nucleus
On a coronal section how will the internal capsule appear?
Only see one piece of it--no longer looks like a V. only see teh anterior or posterior limb
What is the name of the large central area of white matter in the cerebrum?

What does it include?
centrum semiovale

includes internal capsule, callosal fibers, and superior longitudinal fissure.
What is the MLF?
an important two way connector in the brainstem--connects the motor nuclei for the extrinsic eye mm
What does the central tegmental tract do?
inteconnects the reticular regions--coordinates breathing, visceral functions etc
Where is the CSF produced?

What is its function?
by the choroid plexus of the four ventricles

functions in structural support and cushions the brain and spinal cord
What is the leptomeninges composed of?
pia mater and arachnoid
What are the layers of the dura mater?
periosteal layer and meningeal layer
What are parts of the meningeal layer?
falx cerebri and cerebelli

tentorium cerebelli

diaphragma sellae
Is the subdural space potential or real?
Where is the CSF usually?
subarachnoid space
Where can the CSF get reabsorbed?
in the arachnoid granules
What is the likely diagnosis of a 65 y/o male w/ stiff neck, fever, one week prior cough and fatigue. With a lumbar puncture revealing high WBC and cloudyness?
bacterial meningitis
Is the epidural space of the cranium real? Spinal cord?
cranium--not real

spinal cord--real
Is the subdural space real?
subdural is a potential space--can become real
What is found in the subarachnoid space?





anterior: chiasmatic, interpeduncular, pontine

posterior: superior, cerebellomedullary (magna)

lateral: lateral cistern

spinal area: lumbar cistern
Where would you do a lumbar puncture?
between L3/4 in the lumbar cistern in the subarachnoid space where there is CSF
Describe the flow of CSF.
choroid plexus of lateral ventricles


interventricular foramen (Monro)


3rd ventricle


cerebral aqueduct (sylvius)


4th ventricle


median and lateral apertures (Foramina of Magendie and Luschka)

goes down on posterior side and up on anterior side
From the arachnoid vili where does CSF go?
to the superior sagital sinus
Where can infections occur related to the emissary veins?
cranial sinues, bones. Can happen during fetal monitoring and brain surgery
What is papilledema?
swelling around the optic disc can view w/ opthalmascope
What could the dx of a 35y/o M CO NV sinusitis, papilledema?
cranial epidural abscess
What are the 3 major types of intracranial bleeding?
subarachnoid hemorrhage

subdural hemorrhage

extradural hemorrhage
When is subarachnoid hemorrhage common?


in trauma patients, unconscious more than 1 hr.

cause: ruptured arterial aneurysm at the base of the brain

sudden onset, severe headache and stiff neck

signs of meningeal irritation
Which artery has the highest pressure?
middle cerebral
do you see bones on an MRI?
no use xray or ct
What is a subdural hemorrhage?

What is the cause?

Who are they common in?
minor to severe head trauma

usually subdural veins ruputre--SLOWLY

can cross suture lines--w/in th esubdural space, below the anchor points where the suture lines are

common in alcoholics
When do extradural (Epidural) hemorrhages occur?
follow a traumatic rupture of the middle meningeal a or v


fracture of the squamous temporal bone resutling in a cut vessel
Can an epidural hemorrhage cross the midline and suture lines?
can cross midline---push the brain aside, but canNOT cross the sutrue lines b/c the dura is ANCHORED
What can happen when there is a build up of CSF?
What are the causes of hydroencephalus?
obstructive and communicating
What is the difference between obstructive and communicating hydroencephalus?
obstrucive: blockage in system or around the brain due to tumors, hemorrhage, infection, genetics

communicating: overproduction of CSF, impared absorption by arachnoid vili. vili affected by blood. Can result in meningitis.

venus insufficiency can cause communicating too.
What does the pineal gland secrete?
secretes melatonin

neuroendocrine gland

highly vascular, receives afferent fibers mostly sympathetic

daylight to retina to suprachaismatic nucleus of thalamus to hypothalamic regulation of symphathetic nn
Where is the habenular trigone found?

What types of fibers are found in the stria medullaris?

What is the output of the habenular nucleus?
part of the thalamus made of a complex bundle with inputs from a variety of structures and regions which are mostly limbic

the habenular commissure connects the habenular regions

The output is the habenulointerpeduncluar tract which courses to a nucleus in the ipsilateral midbrain.
If a patient comes in complaining of headache and difficulty controlling eye movements what would you order and what could a possible dx be?
midsagittal MRI to see the pineal gland compression on the midbrain tectum and subsequently on the cerebral aqueduct.

Pineal tumor likely
What separates the frontal and parietal lobes?
the central sulcus or sulcus of Rolando
If there is a lesion in the precentral gyrus what will result? Postcentral?
precentral: paralysis

postcentral: anasthesia
What do BA 3,1,2




correspond to?
312=postcentral gyrus=primary somatosensory cortex

4 primary motor cortex= precentral gyrus

6 supplementary and premotor area

8 frontal eye field
What do BA 17



28 correspond to?
17: primary visual cortex

18,19: visual association cortex

22: secondary auditory cortex--post. part on left is Wernicke's area

28: primary olfactory cortex
What do 39,40


41 (42)

44, 45 correspond to?
39,49: primary sensory speech processing Wernicke's area sometimes

41(42): primary auditory cortex

44,45 primary motor speech area--Broca's area
What areas of the frontal cortex did Fineus Gauge damage?
prefrontal association cortex which in addition to thinking understanding and planning also affects personality.

Broca's area, Wernicke's area, supplementary motor cortex were not involved.
Where is Broca's area found?

How does Broca's communicate w/ Wernicke?
in the frontal lobe BA: 44,45

via the arcuate fasciculus
What would a lesion in Broca's area cause? Wernicke's?
Broca's would lead to aphasia--impairment or loss of speech.

Wernicke's--inabilty to understand written or spoken speech
Where is Wernicke's area found?
temporal lobe
What BA # does the temporal pole correspond with?
BA 38--olfactory cortex and limbic association cortex

smell and emotion
What does the occipital pole correspond with?
BA 17: primary visual cortex

note 18 and 19 are concentric circles around it visual association areas
What happens in the superior parietal lobule?
visual association cortex
What BA does the supramarginal gyrus correspond to? The angular?
angular 39
supramarginal 40

both are association cortices for vision, reading and speech
What does the planume temporale funciton in?
BA: 41(42) found deep w/in the transverse (Heschi)gyri: secondary auditory association area. just behind B22
What divides the superior and inferior occipital gyri? What name is given to the superior and inferior gyri?
the calcarine sulcus divides the occipital lobe. superior to the calcarine sulcus is CUNEUS and inferior is the LINGUAL gyrus
What is the lingual gyrus continuous with inferiorly?
parahippocampal gyrus--most medial gyrus of the temporal lobe
What is found on the anterior end of the parahippocampal gyrus? What does it cover?
the uncus. The amygdala nucleus
What gyrus is lateral to the lingual gyrus?
the occipitotemporal gyrus
What separates the parahippocampal and occipitotemporal gyri?
the collateral sulcus
Where is BA 28?

anterior 1/2 o fthe parahippocampal gyrus=BA28 primary olfactory cortex

BA:34 medial uncus=limbic association cortex
What can a CINGULotomy treat?
can treat cancer pain, obsessive compulsive disorder, mental disorders
What does a lesion in the posterior commissure affect the most?
vertical gaze
What makes the internal capsule?
the corona radiata narrowing down
What are the 3 broad categories of white matter in the brainstem and spinal cord?
long asscending= sensory 1 way

long descending=motor 1 way

integrative tracts: 2 way
What are the 2 principal integrative tracts in the brainstem?
central tegmental tract and medial longitudinal fasciculus.
What fibers does the internal capsule carry?
ascending: thalamocortical

descending: corticothalamic, corticospinal, and corticobulbar
What does the anterior limb of the internal capsule separate?
caudate nucleus head from the lenticular nucleus, carries thalamocortical and corticopontine fibers
What does the posterior limb of the internal capsule separate? What fibers does it carry?
separates teh thalamus from the lenticular nucleus

includes the corticospinal tract
What fibers does the genu contain?
corticobulbar tract fibers

remember the internal capsule forms a v in horizontal brain sections, with the point most medial