Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

100 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Cholinergic (Ach)
- basal forebrain and midbrain/pons
Gabaergic (GABA)
- inhibitor
- substantia nigra, ventral tegmentum

- projects to frontal lobe, basal ganglia
- locus coeruleus

- projects to all of cortex
Serotonin (tryptophan)
- raphe nucleus
- projects to spinal cord and all of cortex
Histamine (histidine)
- hypothalamus (tuberomammilary n.)
- projects to spinal cord and all of brain
evoked potentials or EP's
responses of the sensory system to stimulation of the sensory receptor or sensory pathway
-used to assess the integrity of sensory pathways that could be caused by MS, tumors, vascular abnormalities, bony compression, trauma, neurodegenerative disorders
somatosensory evoked potentials, SEP's
response to stimulation of whole nerve such as the medial or tibial nerve or of stimulation to the skin
-reflect conduction in the dorsal column/medial lemniscus pathway
brainstem auditory evoked potentials, BAEP's
auditory evoked potentials usually in responce to a click or pure tone in headphones, can provide info about legions at different levels of the brainstem
visual evoked potentials VEP's
best when the stim is a changing pattern of equal luminosity
-only occipital cortical activities can be recorded, not subcortical
electroencephalography EEG
tests ongoing static activity of the cerebral cortex
an awake individual with eyes open generates what kind of activity
-low voltage, fast frequency 13-35 hertz
a person that is aler with eyes closed generates what kind of activity
-low voltage, slower frequency 8-13 hertz
as a person closes their eyes and falls asleep they generate what kind of activity
theta and delta
-theta is slightly higher voltage and slower frequency (3-7 hertz) than alpha or beta
-delta activity is high voltage, very slow frequency .5-3 hertz and reflects synchronization of neural activity
EEG is abnormal when...
slow frequency high voltage is demontrated during wakefulness
-may reflect focal damage due to tumors or absesses, metabolic abnormalities, or damage to reticular formation
epileptic EEG is...
common to slowactivity with large amplitude and accational large amplitude spikes of activity
REM sleep
low voltage, high frequency
the EEG sleep cycle
beta alpha delta REM, repeat
prefrontal association area function
organization of cognitive behavior
planning of responses
(aka dorsolateral frontal lobe)
limbic association area's function
frontal lobotomy for calming effect
(aka orbitofrontal region and the cingulate gyrus)
temporal-parietal-occipital associationg area's function
body image and spatial relations/organization
legion of prefrontal association area (dorsolateral frontal lobe)
deficits in delayed spatial response
legion os orbitofronal area (frontal lobotomy)
decreased emotional behavior, calming effect
legion of frontal lobe (dorsolateral/orbitofrontal)
lack of goal oriented behavior and initiative
perseverance of Wisconsin card sort task
irreverent/inappropriate social behacior
abnormailty of gaze
megative syptoms of Schizophrenia
(non-psychotic period)
ocial isolation
Psychomotor poverty
Poor attention span
Flat affect
Lack of motivation
positive symptoms of Schizophrenia
(psychotic period)
Disorganization syndrome (disorganized thought and
Delusion syndrome (delusions and persecutions)
Alienation syndrome (auditory hallucinations and disturbance of self - internal images are alien)
Psychotic episodes triggered by DA elevation
- amphetamine (blocks NA and DA reuptake)
overuse leads to psychotic attacks
- antipsychotic drugs (neuroleptics)
block DA transmission (chlorpromazine
haloperodol, droperodol)
in schitophrenia, Dopamine changes may be secondary to what?
changes in:
temporal lobe
hippocampus and amygdala
prefrontal regions incl. Orbitofrontal and
cingulate gyrus
schizophrenics show...
attention deficits
memory deficits
problem solving deficits
how does dopamine levels relate to prefrontal and hippocampal outputs?
Prefrontal and hippocampus output is inversely related to dopamine levels
In the Rat model for schizophrenia
Hippocampal lesions lead to increased stress
response (startle )
Entorhinal lesions lead to increased dopamine
in amygdala
Depression (unipolar depression)
5% incidence
loss of energy
slowed thoughts, feeling of worthlessness
recurrent thoughts of death
Mania (bipolar depression)
.6-1% incidence
- overactivity
socially intrusive
decreased need for sleep
reckless involvement
Disorder of mood – affective disorders
depression and mania
Anxiety disorders - 15% incidence
panic disorder, phobias, social phobias, agoraphobia, obsessive compulsive
panic disorder
intense terror
palpitations, sweating, trembling, fear of dying
obsessive compulsive disorder
repetitive behaviors
anxiety to a specific fear object
social phobias
anxiety to social exposure or performance situations
fear of not escaping a certain situation (crowds, bridges)
overview of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, or HPA axis
amygdala stimulates the HPA system and the stress response, hippocampal activation supresses the HPA system, the hippocampus has gluticocorticoid receptors that are sensative to circulating cortisol, thus hippo is neg. feedback
HPA system responce produces
no amygdala
no understanding of fear
HPA axis
amygddala excites the hypothalamus, which excites the pituitary whic releases adrenocorticotropic hormone, which stimulates the adrenal gland to produce cortisol, which mobilizes glucose, which excites the hippocampus which inhibits the entire system at the level of the hypothalamus
what is associated with too much cortisol
depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia
too much cortisol does what
increases glutimate which is excitotoxic and causes cell death and a reduction in hippocampus volume... which causes less inhibition of the HPA system
three types of memory
implicit or nondeclaritive or procedural
explicit or declarative
parkinson's pt's have problems with what type of memory
amnesia pt's have problems with what type of memory
two types of learning for procedural memory
nonassociative learning
-responce to sing stim. habitual/sensitization

associative learning
-ass. between events
classical conditioning/operant conditioning
depressed pt's have increased bloodflow where?
the body's stress responce
increased SNS responce- cortisol energizes
increased cortisol production from adrenal
shitzophrenics have a decreased level of what in their blood
glycine, and also impaired phsphorylation of serine, a precursor of glycine
phencyclidine (PCP) elicits what type of symptoms?
phychotic symptoms
-PCP is an NMDA antagonist
requires Mg, voltage, and glycine
-a receptor for glutamate
Ketamine elecitis what
pschycotic syptoms and is a NMDA antagonist
What are similarities of presynaptic
actions in the central
nervous system, compared
to synaptic action at the
neuromuscular junction?
Voltage-activated calcium entry
• Fusion of synaptic vescicles with the axon terminal membrane
• Release of neurotransmitter
• Reuptake of transmitter or its product into the
synaptic terminal for re-packaging and release
What are differences of presynaptic
actions in the central
nervous system, compared
to synaptic action at the
neuromuscular junction?
Many presynaptic axons converge on a
single postsynaptic cell in the CNS
• Connections can be axon-dendritic, axo-somatic, dendro-dendritic, or axo-axonic in the CNS
• There are many different neurotransmitter substances in the CNS, and sometimes a presynaptic element releases more than one
What are similarities of postsynaptic
actions in the central
nervous system, compared
to synaptic action at the
neuromuscular junction?
Transmitters bind to postsynaptic
• Postsynaptic receptors can couple
directly to channels (ionotropic
What are differences of postsynaptic
actions in the central
nervous system, compared
to synaptic action at the
neuromuscular junction?
Receptors can be coupled directly
or indirectly to ion channels
Transmitter actions can be
excitatory (depolarizing) or
inhibitory (hyperpolarizing)
What are common excitatory
• Acetylcholine
Glutimate acts of what type of receptors
Kainate/AMPA receptors (ligand-activated, fast
– NMDA receptor
• Requires intense depolarization first to open it
• Allows calcium, as well as sodium, to enter
• Thought to be important in at least some memory mechanisms (more later)
What are common inhibitory
neurotransmitter substances?
Glycine (esp. in the spinal cord)
• Gamma-amino-butyric-acid (GABA)
excitatory ion movement
Na+ in
K+ out
inhibitory ion movement
Cl- in
How do G-protein mediated synaptic
actions differ from direct transmitter
actions on ligand-gated channels?
Transmitter does not directly contact channel
• GTP binds to a protein on the receptor (G- protein)
• Diffusible portion of the protein is released to act as or on a “second messenger”
• The second messenger can affect channels, and can also cause other actions
large amount of excit. nt are released and causes postsynaptic cell death
what class of cells degenerate in alzhiemers?
What experimental evidence is
there for neural plasticity?
Long term changes in single cell
responses to sensory stimuli
• Changes in “cortical maps”
• Changes in synaptic potentials
produced by stimulation of presynaptic axons (Long term
potentiation, LTP)
evidence of plasticity
finger amputation-cortico map change
stim of monkey finger-change in map
consequences of LTP
more receptors
increased receptor sensativity
dendritic changes
Summary of some potential
mechanisms for neural plasticity
Changes in receptor sensitivity (perhaps by protein phosphorylation; relatively short term)
• Structural changes in dendritic spines (longer term)
• Structural changes in axonal branching (longer term)
decerebrate posture may signal
midbrain legion
decorticate posture may signal
legion on cortex
presents of tonic labyrinthine reflex
primary motor cortex is active during what kind of movements
all, simple and complex
what is active during complex movements
primary and both sides of the supplemental motor cortex
lateral premotor cortex is important for
paying attention to sensory info that guides movement
optic ataxia
characterized by inaccuracies in body movements under visual control, and is a common consequence of damage to the posterior parietal lobes in humans
basal ganglia seems very active during
overlearned activities
What happens when dopaminergic
neurons degenerate, as in
Parkinson’s disease?
Motor symptoms
– Bradykinesia
– Tremor (at rest)
– Rigidity
– Disturbances of balance and gait
• Cognitive symptoms
– “Slowness” of thought
– Inability to switch between different cognitive
strategies or rules
what activates dopamine nerurons
rewards, stimuli that predict awards
dopamine neurons may fail to discharge when
something is overlearned
huntington's desease
caudate and putamen, or striatum degenerates
invol jerky movements
complete loss of globud palitus causes
too much dopamine
invol mevements, dyskinesias
What are the most prominent
symptoms following damage to
the cerebellum?
• Intention tremor
• Inaccurate targeted limb movements
• Dysarthria
• Nystagmus
alpha (group I)
proprioception, light touch, vibration
beta (group II)
touch, proprioception
delta (group III)
sharp pain, temp
large diameter fibers
posterior column
ligth tough
small diameter fibers
anterolateral column/spinothalamic tract
pain, temp
legion in anterior sensory cortex
texture loss
legion in post sensory cortex
shape loss
A delta pain fibers
small myl
fast pain
helps with local of pain
C pain fiber
small unmyl
slow aching pain
less localized
large sensory fibers supress
pain/ small fibers
touch and pressure receptors
merkles disks and ruffini organs
vibration receptors
pacinian and meissners sorpuscles
large diameter fibers carry
proprio vib fine touch
small diam fibers carry
pain, temp, crude touch