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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Anosmia
inability to smell
1. unilateral damage
2. bilateral damage
1.trauma, tumor
2. virus, allergy, smoking, traumna
lesion location
nasal
olfac. neuroepithelium
central(alcohol/alzheimer)
anopia
when you lose the ability to see from one eye occurs at the optic nerve
homonymous hemianopia
lose half the visual field(like right temporal and left nasal)
occurs between the optic tract between the chiasm and the LG
bilateral heteronomous hemianopsia
field cuts are on the different sides (in the tempral fields, sparing the nasal) occurs do to a cut in the optic chiasm
left superior homonous quadrantanopsia
quadrant defect in the brain on the right, lower side (in the temporal lobe radiations)
Argyll robertson pupils
(prostitutes pupil: will accomodaste but will not react)
1. lesion seen with tabes dorsalis(neurosyphilis)
2. lesio of the descending pupilloconstrictor fibers, w/small and irregular pupils. pupils constrict to accomodation but not to light
adie pupil
1. lesion in the ciliary ganglion
2. light near dissociation(flash a light it will not react but it will accomodate)
3. constricts poorly to light but better to accomodation
4. pupil redialates slowly/ larger than argyll robertson
marcus-gunn pupil
1. afferent pupil defect
2. interruption of the optic pathway anterior to the chiasm
3. w/ optic neuritis
4. pupils in bad eye think that the light is not bright so pupils dilate- bilateral enlargement- good eye constricts the eyes bilaterally
CN III, IV, VI
OCULOMOTOR, TROCHLEAR, ABDUCENS
1. problems with these nerves cause diploplia
2. ptosis - dropped eyeelids- sympathetic nervous system
3. nystagmus - named for fast phase - oscillopsia: sensation of seeing things ove back and forth, shaking, jiggling
4. anisocaria - unequal pupils. due to CNIII or sympathetic nervous system
LMN PROBLEMS
1. weakness or paralysis of 1/2 of face (PNS OR PONTINE PROBLEM)
2. nerve outside the CNS
3. lesions of the facial nucleus
UMN PROBLEMS
1. weakness lower quad of face
2. lesions are above the pons
3. weakness due to the bilateral innervation to the upper part of the face
CN VIII VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR
tested by rinne, weber, vestib reflex (caloric)
CN IX and X glossopharyngeal and vagus
X- voice and gag reflex
IX - afferent limb of gag and taste to posterior 2/3 of tongue
1. dsfx: hoarseness, swallowing dysfx, deviation od uvula away from side of weakness
CN XII hypoglossal
1. tested by protrusion
2. tongue points to the side of weakness
3. could be LMN IN CNXII or UMN IN NUCLEUS IN OPP. SIDE
SYMMETRIC CHANGES
1. polyradiculopathy
2. peripheral neuropathy
3. myelopathy (spinal cord dis.)
ASYMMETRIC CHANGES
1. radiculopathy
2. cns pathology (hyperreflexia is on side of prob.)
hemianesthesia
sc or cerebellar prob
sensory level
sc
gradient
peripheral neuropathy
(hand should be sharper than upper arm)
dermatomal
follows derm. pattern
mononeuropathy
loss in relation to a specific nerve ie carpal tunel
hemiataxia
sc, cerebral, brainstem prob.
symetric loss
peripheral neuropathy
sc
extinction
parietal lobe prob.
-touch right arm patient says r arm , touch left arm patient says l arm touch both patient says r arm
atxia
inability to coordinate movements, sc, peripheral neuropathy, cerebellar, brainstem lesions
nystagmus
named for fast movement
dysdiadochokensia
decreased rapid movements. cerebellar, cerbral, arthritic, extrapyrimidal processes, functional problems
heel walking (tibialis anterior)
due to l5 radiculopathy or peripheral neuropathy
toe walking
s1 radiculopathy, peripheral neuropathy
rhomberg test
pos patient falls. pos test means peripheral neuropathy, sc, vestibular dysf
tandem walking (ataxia)
cerebral, brainstem, cerebellum, pns or sc problems
UMN SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
1. arm drift
2. spastic paralysis
3. weakness
4. hyperreflexia
5. lower quarter of face is weak - bilateral innervation of the upper half
6. mild muscle atrophy
7. babinski sign - up toe abnormal / down normal
8. clonus -
LMN SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
1. flaccid paralysis
2. fasiculations
3. severe atrophy
4. hyporeflexia or areflexia
5. weakness- weak with decreased reflexs means periperal nerve; weak with bouncy reflexes means brain problms