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57 Cards in this Set

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What are the major divisions of the motor system? What type of muscle and tissue is used in each?

List subdivisions.
Somatic: skeletal muscle
Autonomic: visceral--
Symp: smooth muscle, glands, adipose (fight of flight)
Para: Same (rest and digest)
Give examples of general senses and special senses.
General: Pain, temp, physical distortion, chemical detection

Special: olfaction, vision, gustation, equilibrium, hearing
If lightning struck your thumb, how would the brain know?

How else might neurons transmit different sensory information (physically)?
Activates specific receptor to indicate type of stimulus

Travels along a labeled line: travels along specific pw to specific part of cortex to give location of sensation.

Frequency and pattern of AP
What is a receptor field?
What is the effect of receptor field size on discrimination?
The area a sensory receptor monitors.

Smaller field-->better discrimination
What is transduction?
Converting stimulus into AP
What are the characteristics of phasic receptors? Used in?
Provide info about intensity and rate of change in a stimulus. Adapt quickly.

Temp
What are the characteristics of tonic receptors? Used in?
Always active, slowly adaptive.
Pain
What are the three types of nociceptors?

Neuronal differences between fast and slow pain? Structures involved?
Temp, mechanical damage, dissolved chemicals

Fast: Myelinated type A: somatic reflex, primary sensory cortex

Slow type C, reticular formation, thalamus
What are mechanoceptors sensitive to?
Three types?
Distortion of their membrane

Tactile, baroreceptors, proprioceptors
Label Diag 16 and indicate what kind of stimulus will activate the receptor.
1. Merkel/Tactile disc(fine touch)
2. Tactile corpuscle (fine touch, pressure, low freq vibration)
3. Root hair plexus (pressure, movement)
4. Lamellated corpuscle (Deep pressure)
5. Ruffini corpuscle (distortion of dermis)
6. Sensory nerve
7. Free nerve ending (pressure, pain, temp)
Types of proprioceptors? Conscious?
Spindles, golgi tendon, joint capsules

Mostly unconscious, some perception
Types of chemoreceptors? General fn?
Carotid, aortic, monitor blood for pH, O2, etc.
Describe 1st, 2nd, and 3rd oder neurons.
1st: SNs deliver sensory info to CNS

2nd: 1st order synapse on these in brain or SC

Third: in thalamus, 2nd order synapse on these
Name the tracts of the posterior column pw.
F cunalus, gracilis
Name the tracts of the spinocerebellar pw.
post/ant spinocerebellar tract
Name the tracts of the anterolateral pw.
lateral/anterior spinothalamic
Information carried by posterior column pw?
Brain pw?
Decussation location?
fine touch, pressure, proprioception

Thala to sensory cortex

Medulla
Information carried by anterolateral pw?
Brain pw?
Decussation location?
poorly localized touch, pressure, pain, temp

Ventral nuc of thalamus

SC
Information carried by spinocerebellar pw?
Brain pw?
Decussation location?
position of muscles, tendons, joints

Cerebellum

No decussation
Receptors used by visceral sensory pw?
Brain pw?
Interoceptors

Solitary nucleus of medulla oblongata
Info carried by rubrospinal tract?
Subconscious motor to upper limb, bg muscle tone
Info carreed by vestibulospinal tract?
Balance and position (ear)
Info carried by reticulospinal tract?
Alertness
Info carried by tectospinal tract?
Response to visual & auditory stimuli--sudden noise, light, movmnt
Role of corticospinal pw?
Tracts used? Synapse where?

What occurs at pyramids? locn?
Voluntary skeletal control

Corticobulbar: cranial nerve nuclei
Corticospinal: synapse on MN in anterior gray horns of SC

Decussation; medulla
Role of basal nuclei and cerebellum in motor functions?
Basal nuclei adjust motor commands, provide back ground patterns of movement involved in voluntary motor movements (rhythm)

Cerebellum monitors proprioceptive, visual, and vestibular sensations (fine tunes them)
Differences between voluntary and reflex responses?
Voluntary: take longer, must occur in cortex

Spinal & cranial: rapid, first to appear
Role of autonomic nervous system? Describe synaptic connections.
Coordinates cardio, resp, digestion, urinary, reproductive functions

Pregang neurons in CNS-<Gang neurons in autonomic ganglia outside of CNS
What are the two divisions of the ANS? Describe their differences in effects and semgents
Symp: fight or flight; thoracic and lumbar segments

Para: rest and digest; pregan leave brain and sacral segments
What two types of ganglia comprise sympathetic innervation? How do they differ?
Chain: lie on both sides of vertebral column, control effectors in body wall.

Collateral: innervate tissues and organs in abdominopelvic cavity.
Describe the neuronal pathway of sympathetic neurons going from preganglionic neurons to target organs.
Preganglionic: (lateral gray horns)

TO Ganglionic neurons then Target Organs:
-->Sympathetic chain-->viscera in thoracic cavity, body wall

-->Collateral ganglia (unpaired)-->Viscera in abdomino pelvic

-->Adrenal medulla (paired)-->Organs throguhout body
Sympathetic chain ganglia aka?
Paravertebral ganglia
Collateral ganglia aka?
Prevertebral
Under what circumstances is the sympathetic nervous system activated? Results in?
Crisis

Increased alertness, energy/euphoria, increased cardiovascular and respiratory activities, elevation in muscle tone, mobilization of energy resources
Stimulation of SNS results in release of which NTs and where are they released? Which constitute the majority of the response?
ACh or NE at specific locations
E, NE into general circulation

Most postganglionic neurons are adrenergic
What are the receptors of the SNS and what are their responses? What are they activated by?
Alpha: NE, a1 exc (Ca++ release), a2 inh (lowers cAMP, inhibits ParaNS)

Beta: NE, Epi
B1 increases metab (inc cAMP), B2 inh, relaxation of resp muscles, AND lipolysis

Cholinergic: Ach, sweat gland secretion, vasodilation

Nitroxidergic: NO, vasodilation
Where are the preganglionic and ganglionic neurons of the ParaNS located?
Brainstem/sacral SC

Peripheral ganglia within or near target organs
Compare the length of sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic neurons. What does this allow for?
Sym shorter (quicker response)
Para longer
What are the effects produced by the parasympathetic NS?
Relaxation, food processing, energy absorption
NTs of ParaNS?
Types of postsynaptic receptors? How do they differ in mechanism?
ACh ONLY

Muscarinic: G proteins

Nicotinic: Excitatory (chemical gates open)
Compare the influence of sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.
SYMP: widespread on visceral, somatic

PARA: only viscera serviced by cranial nerves/in abdomnopelvic cavity
What does it mean when an organ has dual innervation?
Receives input from both PNS and SNS
What forms the autonomic plexuses?
Sympathetic and parasymp intermingle to form them
For both symp and parasymp divisions draw the structures involved in going from the CNS to the PNS and to its target.
See index card.
What's the difference between a long and short reflex? What class of reflexes are these? Describe their neuronal pathways.
Short reflex: Bypasses the CNS
Stimulus-->SN-->Autonomic ganglion (para or symp)-->MN-->Effector

Long: Involves INs & Processing in SC or Brain
Stimulus-->Receptor-->SN--> DRG-->DR-->IN-->Pregang Neuron-->Auton Ganglion-->Ganglionic neuron-->Effector

VISCERAL REFLEXES
How is autonomic function coordinated?
Medulla coordinates complicated visceral functions.
What is the relay & processing center of the ANS?
BS
Where is the HQ of the ANS?
Hypothalamus
Where does the ANS receive feedback from?
Limbic and thalamus
What are the reflexes like in the ANS? Poly or mono? Long or short?
Poly, short AND long
Where are the relay and processing centers of the SNS?
BS and thala
Where is the HQ of the SNS?
Cerebral cortex
Where is feedback received from in the SNS?
Cerebellum, basal nuclei
Through what process does ST memory become long term?
Consolidation
How can ST memory be retained better?
Repetition
What might lead to loss of ST memory?
Neural fatigue, shock, interference by other stimuli
Function of Reticular Activating System?
Arousal and maintenance of consciousness.