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81 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
802.2
The IEEE standard for error and flow control in data frames.
802.3
The IEEE standard for Ethernet networking devices and data handling.
802.5
The IEEE standard for Token Ring Networking devices and data handling.
802.11
The IEEE standard for wireless networking.
ACK (Acknowledgement)
A response generated at the Transport layer of the OSI model that confirms to a sender that its frame was received. It is the third of three in the three step process of establishing a connection.
ANSI (American National Standards Institute)
An organization composed of more than 1000 representatives from industry and government who together determine standards for the electronics industry in addition to other fields, such as chemical and nuclear engineering, health and safety, and construction.
API (application program interface)
A set of routines that make up part of a software application.
Application Layer
The seventh layer of the OSI Model. It enables software programs to negotiate formatting, procedural, security, synchronization, and other requirements with the network.
Block ID
The first set of six characters that make up the MAC address and that are unique to a particular manufacturer.
checksum
A method of error checking that determines if the contents of an arriving data unit match the contents of the data unit sent by the source.
connection-oriented
A type of Transport layer protocol that requires the establishment of a connection between communicating nodes before it will transmit data.
connectionless
A type of Transport layer protocol that services request without requiring a verified session and without guaranteeing delivery of data.
CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check)
An algorithm (or mathematical routine) used to verify the accuracy of data contained in a data frame.
Data Link layer
The second layer in the OSI Model. It bridges the networking media with the Network layer. Its primary function is to divide the data it receives from the Network layer into frames that can then be transmitted by the Physical layer.
Device ID
The second set of six characters that make up a network device's MAC address. It is added at the factory, is based on the device's model and manufacture date.
EIA (Electronic Industries Alliance)
A trade organization composed of representatives from electronics manufacturing firms across the United States that sets standards for electronic equipment and lobbies for legislation favorable to the growth of the computer and electronics industries.
encapsulate
The process of wrapping one layer's PDU with protocol information so that it can be interpreted by a lower layer. IE(Data Link layer protocols do this too Network layer packets in frames.
Ethernet
A networking technology originally developed at Xerox in the 1970s and improved by Digital Equipment Corporation, Intel and Xerox. It is the most common form of network transmission tehcnology, follows the IEEE 802.3 standard.
FCS (frame check sequence)
The field in a frame repsonsible for ensuring that data carried by the frame arrives intact. It uses an algorithm, such as CRC, to accomplish this verification.
flow control
A method of guaging the appropriate rate of data transmission based on how fast the recepient can accept data.
fragmentation
A Network layer service that subdivides segments it receives from the Transport layer into smaller packets.
frame
A package for data that includes not only the raw data, or "payload," but also the sender's and recipient's addressing and control information. Frames are generated at the Data Link layer of the OSI model and are issued to the network at the Physical layer.
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)
An application layer protocol that formulates and interprets requests between Web clients and servers.
IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority)
A nonprofit, US government-funded group that was established at the University of Southern California and charged with managing IP address allocation and the domain name system. The oversight for many of IANA's functions was given to ICANN in 1998; however, IANA continues to perform Internet addressing and domain system administration.
ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers)
The non-profit corporation currently designated by the U.S. government to maintain and assign IP addresses.
IEEE (Insttitue of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)
An international society composed of engineering professionals. Its goals are to promote development and education in the electrical engineering and computer science fields.
IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force)
An organization that sets standards for how systems communicate over the Internet. IE(how protocols operate and interact).
IP (Internet Protocol)
A core protocol in the TCP/IP suite that operates in the Network layer of the OSI model and provides information about how and where data should be delivered. It is the subprotocol that enabled TCP/IP to internetwork.
IP address (Internet Protocol Address)
The Network layer address assigned to nodes to uniquely identify them on a TCP/IP network. IP addresses consist of 32 bits divided into four octets or bytes.
ISO (International Organization for Standardization)
A collection of standards organizations representing 146 countries with headquarters located in Geneva, Switzerland. Its goal is to establish international technological standards to facilitate the global exchange of information and barrier-free trade.
ISOC (Internet Society)
A professional organization with memmbers from over 180 countries that helps to establish technical standards for the internet.
ISP(Internet Service Provider)
A business that provides organizationsand individuals with internet access and often other services, such as email and Web hosting.
ITU (International Telecommunication Union)
A United Nations agency that requlates international telecommunications and provides developing countries with technical expertise and equipment to advance their technilogical bases.
LLC (Logical Link Control) sublayer
The upper sublayer in the Data Link layer. It provides a common interface and supplies reliability and flow control services.
MAC address
A 12-character string that uniquely identifies a network node. The manufacturer hard codes it into the NIC. This address is composed of the Block ID and Device ID.
MAC (Media Access Control) sublayer
The lower sublayer of the Data Link layer. The MAC appends the physical address of the destination computer onto the frame.
MTU (maximum transmission unit)
The lagest data unit a network (for example, Ehternet or Token Ring) will accept for transmission.
network address
A unique identifying number for a network node that follows a hierarchical addressing scheme and can be assigned through operating system software. Network addresses are added to data packets and interpereted by protocols at the Network layer of the OSI model.
Network layer
The third layer in the OSI Model. Protocols in the Network layer translate network addresses into their physical counterparts and decide how to route data from the sender to the receiver.
OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) Model
A model for understanding and developing computer-to-computer communication developed in the 1980s by ISO. It divides the networking functions among seven layers: Application, Presentation, Session, Transport, Network, Data Link, and Physical.
Physical layer
The lowest, or first, layer of the OSI model. Protocols in the Physical layer generate and detect voltage so as to transmit and receive signals carrying data over a network medium. These protocols also set the data transmission rate and monitor data error rates, but do not provide error correction.
Presentation layer
The sixth layer of the OSI model . Protocols in this layer translate between the application and the network. Here, data are formatted in a scheme that the network can understand , with the format varying according to the type of network used. It also manages data encryption and decryption, such as the scrambling of system passwords.
reassembly
The process of reconstructing data units that have been segmented.
RIR (Regional Internet Registry)
A not-for-profit agency that manages the distribution of IP addresses to private and public entities. ARIN is the RIR for North, Central, and South America and sub-Saharan Africa. APNIC is the RIR for Asia and the Pacific region. RIPE is the RIR for Europe and North Africa.
route
TO direct data intelligently between networks based on addressing, patterns of usage, and availability of network segments.
router
A device that connects network segments and directs data based on information contained in the data pack.
segment
A unit of data that results from subdividing a larger protocol data unit.
segmentation
The process of decreasing the size of data units when moving from a network that can handle larger data units to a network that an handle only smaller data units.
sequencing
The process of assigning a placeholder to each piece of a data block to allow the receiving node's Transport layer to reassemble the data in the correct order.
session
A connection for data exchange between two parties. The term "session" may be used in the context of Web, remote access, pr terminal and mainframe communications , for example.
session layer
The fifth layer in the OSI model. It establishes and maintains communication between two nodes on the network. It can be considered the "traffic cop" for network communciations.
standard
A documented agreement containing technical specifications or other precise criteria that are used as guidelines to ensure that materials, products, processes and services suit their intended purpose.
SYN (synchronization)
The packet a node sends to request a connection with is the first of thanother node on the network. It is the first of three in the three-step process of establishing a connection.
SYN-ACK
(synchronization-acknowledgement)
The packet a node sends to acknowledge to another node that it has received a SYN request for a connection. This item is the second of three in the three-step process of establishing a connection.
terminal
A device with little(if any) of its own processing or disk capacity that depends on a host to supply it with applications and data-procession services.
TIA (Telecommunications Industry Association)
A subgroup of the EIA that focuses on standards for IT, wireless, satellite, fiber optics, and telephone equipment. It is best known for standards on installing network cable in commercial buildings; 568-B series.
token
A special control frame that indicates to the rest of the network that a particular node has the right to transmit data.
Token Ring
A networking technology developed by IBM in the 1980s. It relies on direct links between nodes and a ring topology; using tokens to allow nodes to transmit data.
Transport Layer
The fourth layerof the OSI model. It ensures that data are trasnferred from point A to point B reliably and wihtout errors. It includes flow control, acknowledgement, error correction, segmentation, reassembly, and sequencing.
Which of the following standards organizations has established guidelines for installing network cables in commercial buildings?
TIA/EIA
Which technology does the IEEE 802.5 specification describe?
Token Ring LANs
What IEEE specification governs wireless networking?
802.11
Which layer of the OSI Model is responsible for issuing acknowledgments (ACKs)?
Transport layer
Which OSI Model layer is responsible for keeping open a communications path between your computer and the server when you dial in to a remote access server?
Session layer
Suppose your network is connected to another network via a router. Which OSI Model layer will provide the information necessary to direct data between the two networks?
Network layer
Which two layers of the OSI Model do NICs belong?
Physical and Data Link layer
Which standards organization developed the OSI Model?
ISO
Under what circumstances would the Transport layer use segmentation?
When the destination node cannot accept the size of the data blocks transmitted by the source node
Which OSI Model layer generates and detects voltage so as to transmit and receive signals carrying data?
Physical layer
What type of address follows a hierarchical format?
network addresses
If the TCP protocol did not receive an acknowledgment for data it transmitted, what would it do?
retransmit the data to the recipient
Token Ring technology was originally developed by which company?
IBM
Which part of the MAC address is unique to each manufacturer?
The Block ID
What is the purpose of the trailer field added to a frame in the Data Link layer?
to mark the end of a frame
What are the sublayers of the Data Link layer as defined in the IEEE 802 standards?
Logical Link Control sublayer and Media Access Control sublayer
Which layer of the OSI Model encapsulates Network layer packets?
Data Link layer
What is the purpose of the token frame in a Token Ring network?
To indicate to the network that a particular node is about to transmit data
In what situation would it be most desirable to use a connectionless Transport layer protocol?
when viewing a movie clip on the Web
Which of the following would be found in a Data Link layer header?
The source’s physical address
The two sublayers of the Data Link Layer are?
Logical Link Control and Media Access Control.
The three steps in the three-step connection process.
1)SYN
2)SYN-ACK
3)ACK