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33 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Computer network
A computer network is a group of computers that are connected together to communicate and share resources such as files, printers, and email. Networks include network media, such as a cable, to carry network data; network adapter hardware to translate the data between the computer and the network media; a network operating system to enable the computer to recognize the network; and a network protocol to control the network communications.
A server is a network computer that shares resources with and responds to requests from other network computers, including other servers. Servers provide centralized access and storage for resources that can include applications, files, printers or other hardware, and specialized services such as email. A server can be optimized and dedicated to one specific function, or it can serve general needs. Multiple servers of various types can exist on a single network.
A client is a network computer that utilizes the resources of other network computers, including other clients. The client computer has its own processor, memory, and storage, and can maintain some of its own resources and perform its own tasks and processing. Any type of computer on a network can function as a client of another computer from time to time.
A peer is a self-sufficient computer that acts as both a server and a client to other similar computers on the network. Peer computing is most often used in smaller networks with no dedicated, central server, but both clients and servers in other types of networks can also share resources with their peer computers.
A host computer is a powerful, centralized computer system, such as a mainframe computer, that performs data storage and processing tasks on behalf of clients and other network devices. On a host-based network, the host computer does all the computing tasks and returns the resultant data to the end user's computer.
A terminal is a specialized network device on a host-based network that transmits the data entered by the user to the host for processing and displays the results. Terminals are often called “dumb” because they have no processor or memory of their own. True terminals consist of little more than a keyboard and a monitor. Standard client computers that need to interact with host computers can run software called a terminal emulator so that they appear to the host as dedicated terminals.
Authentication is a network security measure in which a computer user or some other network component proves its identity in order to gain access to network resources. There are many possible authentication methods, with the most common being a combination of user name and password.
Encryption is a network security measure in which information is encoded or scrambled prior to transmission so that it cannot be read unless the recipient knows the decoding mechanism, or key. Encryption is used in some form on almost every network, often to protect passwords during authentication, but also to protect the data inside network messages.
network directory
A network directory, or directory service, is a centralized database that includes objects such as servers, clients, computers, user names, and passwords. The directory is stored on one or more servers and is available throughout the enterprise. The directory provides centralized administration and centralized authentication.
networking standard
A networking standard is a set of specifications, guidelines, or characteristics applied to network components to ensure interoperability and consistency between them. Networking standards determine everything from the size, shape, and type of connectors on network cables to the number of computers than can attach to a network.
A node is any network device that can connect to the network and can generate, process, or transfer network data. Every node has at least one unique network address. Some nodes can have multiple addresses.
The network backbone is the highest-speed transmission path that carries the majority of the network data. It can connect small networks together into a larger structure, or can connect server nodes to the networks where the majority of the client computers are attached. The technology used on the backbone network can often be totally different than the client network sections.
A segment is any discrete physical subdivision of a network. A segment is bounded by physical internetworking devices such as hubs, switches, and routers. All nodes attached to the same segment have common access to that portion of the network. The segment can link a number of devices, or can serve as a connection between two specific nodes.
A subnet is a portion of a network that shares a common network address. The subnet can be on a separate physical network segment, or it can share segments with other logical subnets.
Network Model
A network model is a design specification for how the nodes on a network interact and communicate. The network model determines the degree to which communications and processing are centralized or distributed. There are three primary network models: centralized or hierarchical, client/server, and peer-to-peer. Some networks can exhibit a mixture of characteristics.
Centralized network
A centralized network is a network in which a host computer controls all network communication and performs data processing and storage on behalf of clients. Users connect to the host via dedicated terminals or terminal emulators. Centralized networks provide high performance and centralized management, but they are also expensive to implement.
client/server network
A client/server network is a network in which servers provide services to clients. Typically, there is at least one server providing central authentication services. Servers also provide access to shared files, printers, hardware, and applications. In client/server networks, processing power, management services, and administrative functions can be concentrated where needed, while clients can still perform many basic end-user tasks on their own.
Peer-to-peer network
A peer-to-peer network is a network in which resource sharing, processing, and communications control are completely decentralized. All clients on the network are equal in terms of providing and using resources, and users are authenticated by each individual workstation. Peer-to-peer networks are easy and inexpensive to implement. However, they are only practical in very small organizations, due to the lack of central data storage and administration.
mixed mode network
A mixed mode network is a network that incorporates elements from more than one of the three standard network models.
A topology is a network specification that determines the network's overall layout and the network's data flow patterns. A topology comprises the physical topology, which describes the network's physical wiring layout or shape, and the logical topology, which describes the paths through which the data moves. The physical and logical topologies do not have to be the same. Common topologies include a star pattern, ring pattern, and bus or straight-line pattern.
physical bus topology
A physical bus topology is a physical topology in which network nodes are arranged in a linear format, with each node connected directly to the network cable with a T-connector or tap. The data signal passes by the node, not through the node. A bus network is easy to implement but can be unreliable, because the entire bus fails if there is a break in the wire. Signals can reflect off the ends of the wire, so you must install terminators at both ends of the bus.
physical star topology
A physical star topology is a network topology that uses a central connectivity device, such as a hub, with separate connections to each node. Individual nodes send data to the hub when the hub gives them a turn. The hub sends the data back out again to the destination node. Because a single failed node does not bring down the whole network, star topologies are reliable and easy to maintain.
physical ring topology
A physical ring topology is a network topology in which all network nodes are connected in a continuous circle. Each node in turn reads the network signal from its upstream neighbor and then retransmits it to its downstream neighbor, so signal quality is high. Because the failure of a single node can bring down the whole network, ring topologies are potentially unreliable.
physical mesh topology
A physical mesh topology is a network topology in which each node has a direct connection to every other node. This topology is extremely reliable, because no node can ever be isolated from the network. It is also extraordinarily difficult to implement and maintain because the number of connections increases exponentially with the number of nodes. Mesh topologies are typically used to provide reliable connections between separate independent networks.
hybrid topology
A hybrid topology is any topology that exhibits characteristics of more than one standard physical topology. Each section of the network follows the rules of its own topology. They can be complex to maintain because they incorporate a wide range of technologies.
logical bus topology
A logical bus topology is a network topology in which all nodes see the network signal at the same time, regardless of the physical wiring layout of the network. Even though the nodes might be connected to a central hub and resemble a star, the data flow appears to move in a single, continuous stream.
logical ring topology
A logical ring topology is a network topology in which each node receives data only from its upstream neighbor and retransmits it only to its downstream neighbor, regardless of the physical layout of the network. Although the nodes might be connected to a central device in a star layout, the data moves through the network in a continuous circle.
Local Area Network (LAN)
A Local Area Network (LAN) is a self-contained network that spans a small area such as a single building, floor, or room. In a LAN, all nodes and segments are directly connected with cables or short-range wireless technologies.
Wide Area Network (WAN)
A Wide Area Network (WAN) is a network that spans multiple geographic locations. WANs typically connect multiple LANs using long-range transmission media.
Internet Society (ISOC).
The Internet is the single largest global WAN, linking virtually every country, continent, and organization in the world. No single person, country, or entity owns or controls the Internet. Instead, Internet standards and practices are overseen by an international consortium that is coordinated by the Internet Society (ISOC).
An intranet is a private network that employs Internet-style technologies. Intranets are a popular method of corporate communication, because employees can use their Internet skills to obtain private company information.
An extranet is a private network that employs Internet-style technologies to enable communications between two or more separate companies or organizations. One of the companies that participates in the extranet might own, build, maintain, and control it, and then share access to it with specific partners. Or, extranet partners might all share the responsibility for developing the network.
enterprise network
An enterprise network is a network that encompasses all the separate network components employed by a particular organization. An enterprise network can be of any size required by the organization and can employ any number of networking technologies.