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307 Cards in this Set

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What is the key difference between a local area network and a wide area network?
A LAN is the basic building block (and smallest) of a network. It is confined to a
limited area. A WAN is not geographically limited. A WAN is created by connecting
LANs together.
What is the main reason for networking computers?
To share resources, such as data, applications, and peripheral devices.
What is a “sneaker net”?
The “old fashioned” way computer users shared resources by taking a file on a floppy
disk to the computer that had the services they needed to use. Dragging a printer from
computer to computer for users to utilize is another form of a sneaker net.
Name some advantages of having centralized documents.
Files are easily accessed by all users. Access can be denied to unauthorized users
(security), data backups can be more easily and routinely performed.
What does MAN stand for and why is it no longer in use?
Metropolitan Area Networks have been replaced by the Internet.
Name some advantages of a Peer-to-Peer network.
Simple to install, configure, and manage (each user manages their own computer) for
a small number of workstations (10 or less), inexpensive to install (no need to buy
expensive server).
Name some disadvantages of a Peer-to-Peer network.
No security, loss of performance occurs if expanded over 10 workstations.
Workstations need to be close together (in a relatively small area, like one office).
Name some advantages of a Server-based network.
Centralized location of resources (server). File and resource security available to limit
unauthorized access. Ease of data backups. Can be expanded as network grows.
Centralized administration. Increased performance on large networks.
Name some disadvantages of a Server-based network.
Expensive to install (will need to purchase expensive server). More difficult to install
and configure, more difficult to manage (needs an administrator).
Name the three basic topologies.
The three basic topologies are: Bus, Star, and Ring.
What is the difference between a physical and logical topology?
Physical topologies are the actual wires and hardware that we can see. They represent what the topology looks like. Logical topologies represent the way that a networks
functions.
Name two media access methods
The access methods are CSMA/CD CSMA/CA, Token Passing, and Demand Priority.
What is the difference between an operating system and a network operating system?
Network operating systems are specialized operating systems designed to function in
a network environment. Some NOS function as the operating system that runs a
computer’s stand-alone functions as well as its network interfaces.
What is the difference between preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking?
Multitasking means that a computer has the ability to perform more than one task at a
time. Preemptive multitasking means that the operating system can take control of the
processor without a task’s permission. Non-preemptive multitasking is when the task
decides when it is done with the CPU. In non-preemptive multitasking the CPU is
never taken from a task.
What is the purpose of the redirector?
The redirector (in Novell NetWare it is called the requester) forwards requests away
from the local bus, redirecting them to the server. The purpose of the redirector is to
make network resources look like local resources to the application.
NetWare is designed as an operating system that will overlay _____________
environments.
NetWare is a reliable operating system that provides excellent performance and
security. It is designed as an operating system that will overlay multi-operating
system environments.
Purchasing NetWare requires a type of licensing. What happens when the number of
users exceeds the number of licenses?
The number of users on a NetWare network may exceed the number of licenses, but
only the licensed number of users will be allowed to log on at any one time.
What is NDS?
NDS (NetWare Directory Services) is the core of the NetWare operating system. It is
a hierarchically organized database that provides security, name service, messaging,
routing, web-publishing, management, and file and print services. Organization of
network resources such as users, groups, servers, and volumes is also handled with
NDS.
What are the minimum hardware requirements for installing Novell NetWare version
5?
Pentium Class or Higher CPU, 64 MB RAM, 550 MB of free hard drive space.
Define interoperability.
Interoperability describes the ability of an operating system to interact with other
operating systems.
Unlike NetWare, Windows NT combines the _____________ and the
___________________ into one.
Windows NT combines the operating system and the network operating system into
one.
What is NTFS?
NTFS is the file system in Windows NT and it must be utilized in order to take full
advantage of NT’s security features.
What is a domain?
NT uses domains in order to accomplish its security goals. A domain is simply a
group of workstations with a shared security database.
What are the minimum hardware requirements for a Windows NT Workstation?
486DX-33 CPU, 12 MB RAM, 110 MB free hard drive space.
What are the minimum hardware requirements for Windows NT Server?
476DX-3 CPU, 16 MB RAM, 125 MB free hard drive space.
Name some of the services and protocols that Microsoft included with Windows NT to
ensure interoperability with NetWare.
NWLink is a protocol based on Novell’s IPX/SPX and is used for communication
between the two systems. GSNW (Gateway Services for NetWare) provides the
gateway between an NT domain and the NetWare server. CSNW (Client Services for
NetWare) allows NT workstations to use file and print services on a NetWare server.
FPNW (File and Print Services for NetWare) allows NetWare clients to access NT
file and print services. DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is used to
integrate user and group account information between NT and NetWare. Migration
Tool for NetWare is used to convert NetWare accounts to NT.
Describe a UNIX system.
UNIX is a multi-tasking, multi-user, general-purpose operating system. Because all of
its functions are file based, it is a very bulky operating system. A UNIX system
consists of a Host (or central computer) with terminals for the users. These terminals
rely solely on the Host for services and are not stand-alone systems. It is possible to
convert a UNIX host into a file server using software. The UNIX host will run this
software as just another application.
What OS is similar to UNIX and is a publicly open system?
Linux
What type of computer was developed by Apple computer in 1984?
The Macintosh
What type of network would utilize Windows for Workgroups as an operating system?
Windows for Workgroups is a version of Windows 3.1 that includes the ability to run
a peer-to-peer network.
Who developed the OSI model?
The OSI model was developed by ISO (International Organization for
Standardization).
Name the seven layers of the OSI model.
Application, Presentation, Session, Transport, Network, Data Link, and Physical
A network adapter card operates at the _______ layer of the OSI model
Network layer
A bridge operates at the ________ layer of the OSI model.
Data Link layer
A router operates at the _________layer of the OSI model.
Network Layer
Data compression takes place at the __________ layer of the OSI.
Presentation layer
Which OSI layer is responsible for NIC to NIC communication?
The Data Link layer
What is the function of the Application Layer?
The Application layer is responsible for communication between a user’s application
and the network. This is not the actual application or program, simply a support layer
that allows an application to use the network by acting as a translator.
The ____________ layer is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of
transmitting data over a network.
Physical
What is the function of the Presentation Layer?
The Presentation layer is the translator for the network. It translates data into a format
that is compatible with the network and back into a format that is compatible with the
computer.
Which OSI layer is
responsible for establishing, managing, and ending connections?
The Session layer
What is a MAC address?
The MAC address is another name for the 12-digit (6-byte) hexadecimal address that
is hardwired on the NIC by the manufacturer. It is a computer’s physical address.
Which OSI layer makes routing decisions?
The Network layer
Which OSI layer is responsible for delivering data in sequence, without duplication
and error free?
The Transport layer
The Data Link layer has been split into two sub-layers. What are they?
The Logical Link (LLC) layer and the Media Access Control (MAC) layer
What is the function of a Gateway?
. A gateway translates between two networks that use different protocols. A computer
with special software serves as a gateway and allows for communication between
completely dissimilar networks.
Which IEEE standard defines the Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer?
802.2
What are NDIS and ODI?
They are Network Adapter Card interface specifications. They are incompatible with
each other. NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification) was co-developed by
Microsoft and 3Com, while ODI (Open Data Link Interface) was co-developed by
Novell and Apple. The purpose of these standards is to allow operating system
vendors to write multiple drivers for the same NIC. This way more than one protocol can be bound to a single NIC.
Describe protocol binding.
. In order to function, a protocol must be bound to the NIC. This binding process is
what links the protocol stacks to the NIC driver. It is possible to bind two protocols
the one NIC (such as TCP/IP and IPX/IPX) or to have two NICs with one protocol
bound to each one. The order in which these protocols are bound to the NIC
determines which one the network operating system will attempt to use first.
Which is faster, connection-oriented communication or connectionless
communication?
Connectionless communication is faster, but connection-oriented communication is
more reliable.
Name as many routable protocols as you can remember.
AppleTalk, DECnet, IPX/SPX, PPP, PPTP, SLIP, SMB, SNA, TCP/IP, UDP, X.25,
XNS
You have expanded your NetBEUI network into two segments and are using an
intelligent router to optimize network traffic. Will this work? Why or Why not?
No, NetBEUI is a non-routable protocol.
What is the maximum segment length of Thinnet?
185 meters
What is the maximum segment length of Thicknet?
500 meters
What type of connectors are used with Coaxial cable?
BNC connectors
What is the purpose of a transceiver?
A transceiver is a device that both transmits and receives data on a network.
How is a vampire tap connected?
They utilize sharp teeth that puncture the cable to make the connection.
What is the purpose of plenum cabling?
Plenum grade cabling is used in the plenum (the space between the ceiling and the
floor above, which is used to circulate air in a building). Fire codes usually call for
special cable in this area because PVC cable gives off poisonous gas and fumes when
burned, which would end up being circulated throughout the building.
What is the maximum segment length of UTP?
100 meters
What is the transmission speed of category 5 cabling?
Up to 100 Mbps
What is the most popular of the cable types?
UTP is the less expensive of the twisted pair cable types. It is also flexible and easy to install, making it the most popular cable type.
Which twisted pair cabling is less sensitive to EMI?
STP is insulated with a foil mesh between the wire pairs, which results in less
sensitivity to EMI and crosstalk.
What type of connector is used with twisted pair cable?
RJ-45 connectors
What is the most expensive cable type?
Fiber-Optic cable is the ideal cable type for networking. However, it is the most expensive and most difficult to install.
What is the least expensive of the cable types?
UTP is the least expensive of the cable types. It is also flexible and easy to install, making it the most popular cable type
List some advantages of fiber-optic cable.
Fiber-optic supports extremely high bandwidths, segment lengths of up to several
miles, and it is not subject to EMI or eavesdropping.
What does AWG stand for and what is it?
American Wire Gauge (AWG) is the standard that describes wire thickness. The
AWG wire number decreases as the wire thickness increases.
Describe baseband.
Baseband uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel.
Describe broadband.
Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable, making
the signal flow unidirectional.
What is the difference between simplex, half-duplex, and full-duplex communication?
Simplex communication is one way, can receive but not send. For example, a pager.
Half-duplex communication can send or receive, but not at the same time. For
example, a CB radio. Full-duplex can send and receive signals at the same time. For
example, the telephone.
What is the function of a network adapter card?
. Network Adapter Cards or Network Interface Cards (NICs) are used to connect the
computer to the network. (They make the physical connection to the network.) NICs
translate the data that computers can understand into signals that can be transmitted over the network medium and back again.
In what type of network would you expect to find boot PROM capabilities?
Remote Boot PROM (Programmable Read Only Memory) is used on networks that
utilize diskless workstations. High-security networks sometimes use diskless
workstations to make it impossible for data to be downloaded and stolen. Computers
usually use information located on a floppy or hard drive to boot up, remote boot
PROM allows the computer to boot using information located on a remote computer.
In Token Ring networks, what are the two ring speeds available?
In a Token Ring network if the correct ring speed is not selected a computer will not
be able to connect to the network. The two choices available are 4 Mbps and 16
Mbps.
Where would you expect to find a PCMCIA card?
. PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) cards are
credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers (laptops) to
provide the same expandability enjoyed by desktop computers, including network connectivity.
What are some of the reasons you would need to install a wireless network?
To create a temporary network, to backup a cable-based network, to provide a mobile
network environment, for areas where running cable would be impossible or
unsightly, outdoor installations and to connect to remote sites such as a ship or oil platform.
What are the four basic wireless transmission types?
Infrared, Laser, Radio, and Microwave
Which is the most secure type of radio wireless network?
Spread-Spectrum Radio is more secure than Single-Frequency Radio (Narrow-Band
Radio) because it broadcasts over a range of frequencies instead of just one.
Which microwave transmission type is used to transmit globally?
Satellite microwave is used to transmit globally; Terrestrial microwave is used to
transmit over shorter distances.
What are the three primary access methods?
CSMA/CD & CSMA/CA, Token Passing, and Demand Priority
Describe the difference between the two different contention methods CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA.
CSMA/CD stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection and
CSMA/CA stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance. Both
CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA listen to the network cable to determine if it is free
(Carrier Sense), if no data is traveling, a CSMA/CD computer will transmit. If there is
another computer on the network that transmitted at exactly the same time, a data
collision will occur, and both sets of data will be destroyed. CSMA/CD detects that a
collision has occurred and waits a specified amount of time before re-transmitting.
With CSMA/CA the process is much the same except that instead of just transmitting
when it senses that the cable is free, it will send a signal that it is about to transmit.
This will cause any other computer that was about to transmit to wait and so data
collisions are avoided. This extra step can slow down network traffic, so CSMA/CA
is not the most popular of the two contention methods.
Why isn’t token passing considered a contention method?
A computer on a token passing access method network must possess the token in
order to transmit data. Therefore, only one computer at a time will transmit in this kind of architecture, and so, no contention.
Describe how data is transmitted in Token Ring architecture
A token, which is a special kind of packet, is circulated around the ring from
computer to computer in a Token Ring network. A computer that wants to send data
onto the network waits until the token is passed to it and takes possession of it. The
transmitting computer encodes the token with the data that it wants to transmit, as
well as header and trailer information that contain the destination and source
addresses, as well as error control information. It then passes the token back out onto
the ring where it travels on until it reaches the destination computer. The destination
computer copies the data into its buffer and adds some acknowledgment information
(or re-transmittal information if it detected errors) and releases the frame back out
onto the network where it travels back to the source computer. Assuming that the data
was transmitted error-free, the source computer removes the “used” frame from the
network and creates a new “free” token to release back out onto the network.
What happens if two computers using the demand priority access method transmit at exactly the same time?
If the hub receives two transmissions at exactly the same time the one with the
highest priority is processed first. If the two transmissions have the same priority
level, they are processed at the same time by alternating between the transmissions.
How is data transmitted over the network cable?
In packets or frames. (Small chunks of data at a time.)
What is CRC and what part of the packet is it usually located in?
CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Check) is a mathematical calculation that is calculated at
the source computer and included in the trailer of the packet. When data arrives at the
destination computer, the calculation is redone and if it calculates as it did at the
source computer it is assumed that the data arrived intact.
What sort of information do packet headers contain?
The header contains information such as an alert signal that announces that data is
being transmitted, the source and destination addresses and clocking information.
What does the “T” in 10BaseT indicate?
The first part indicates transmission speed (10 means it transmits at 10 Mbps), the
second part “Base” indicates that it uses baseband (single channel) technology and the
last part indicates the cabling type, or maximum segment length in the case of coaxial
cable. (“T” indicates Twisted-pair).
What is the maximum segment length in 10Base2?
185 Meters. The “2” in this case means 2 times 100 meters, but in the case of Thinnet
coaxial cable the maximum segment length is 185 meters.
What type of connectors are used in 10Base5?
BNC connectors
What type of cable is used in 10BaseFL?
Fiber-Optic
Name the two main 100 Mbps Ethernet Standards.
100VG-AnyLAN, also called 100BaseVG, VG, and AnyLAN. The VG stands for
Voice Grade. 100BaseX is sometimes called Fast Ethernet. It has different
specifications depending upon the type of cabling used (hence the “X” in the area that
indicates cable type).
Which IEEE Specification defines Ethernet?
The IEEE 802.3 standard
Which IEEE Specification defines Token Ring?
The IEEE 802.5 standard
What are the two transmission speeds of Token Ring?
4 Mbps and 16 Mbps
How are data collisions avoided in the Token Ring architecture?
A computer must posses the token in order to transmit data. Since no other computer
can transmit while one computer has the token, data collisions are avoided.
Describe beaconing as it applies to Token Ring architecture.
The active monitor (which is the first computer to go online) is responsible for
monitoring network activity to make sure that frames are being sent and received
accurately. It also ensures that only one token is traveling the ring at a time and
investigates any frames that have traveled around the ring more than once. It does this
by transmitting a signal every seven seconds. This signal is called beaconing and it
travels from computer to computer. If a computer doesn’t receive an expected signal
from its upstream neighbor it will notify the monitor that a problem may exist.
Which way does data travel in a Token Ring network?
Which way data travels in a Token Ring network is a matter of convention. IEEE
802.5 says it travels clockwise, while IBM says that it travels counter-clockwise. It
can be either depending upon how it is set up. The main thing is that data only travels
in one direction on a Token Ring network. It is more commonly set up to travel
clockwise, however.
What is a SMAU?
SMAU stands for Smart Multistation Access Unit. This is a hub that has all of the
features of an active hub (regenerates or amplifies the signal) with additional
capabilities such as certain network management functions. A SMAU may have the
capability to shut down a connection that is producing errors thereby allowing the rest of the network to function
Describe a MIC connector.
MIC (Media Interface Connectors) are connectors that have neither male nor female
ends. Any connector can be connected to another MIC connector. They are also
called hermaphrodite connectors.
How does a computer on a LocalTalk network obtain its address?
When a computer first comes online in a LocalTalk network it randomly selects an
address from a range of allowable addresses. It then broadcasts the address to
determine if any other computer on the network is using it. If no other computer is
using the address, it stores it to use each time it connects to the network.
What is the purpose of AppleShare?
AppleShare is the name of the file server on an AppleTalk network. It also provides a print server
What type of access method is utilized by an ARCNet network?
Token-passing.
How does data flow in an ARCNet network?
The token is passed around the network in numerical order. It first goes to computer
#1 and then #2, etc. It does this even if computer #1 is at the opposite end of the
network from computer #2.
What are the two tools required to initiate a network design?
All you need to start a network project is a pencil and some paper.
What are the two areas of concern when starting a network project?
You will need to consider the customer and the network goals.
Access Method
A way of accessing the network.
ACK
Acknowledgment message confirming receipt of the
data packet.
Active Hub
Regenerates or amplifies a signal when it is passed
through.
Analog Signal
A continuously variable signal, or a circuit or device
designed to handle such signals; opposite of digital.
AppleShare
The file server on an AppleTalk network.
AppleTalk
The Apple networking protocol.
Application Software, program;
these three terms are often used
interchangeably.
Application Layer
The highest layer of the OSI Model, it supplies
functions to applications, or computers on the network
(nodes), so they can communicate with other
applications or nodes.
Application Server
A dedicated server for applications.
ARCNet
Attached Resource Computer Network
ARP
Address Resolution Protocol
Attenuation
The signal loss due to the physical properties of copper
wire that happens over distance.
AWG
American Wire Gauge AWG is the standard that
describes wire thickness. The AWG wire number
decreases as the wire thickness increases.
Bandwidth
The difference between the lowest and highest
transmission channel frequencies, usually expressed in
cycles per second (Hertz or Hz), or bits per second
(bps).
Base I/O Port Address
The channel through which data flows between a
computer’s hardware (such as a NIC) and the CPU.
Base Memory Address
The location in a computer’s RAM of the beginning of
the buffer area that is reserved for use by the NIC.
Baseband
Uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel.
Beaconing
A process used to identify any area on the network that
may be experiencing problems.
BNC Connector
British Naval Connector
Broadband
Broadband allows two or more channels to share the
bandwidth of the cable or medium. The signal flow is
uni-directional.
Bus Topology
A LAN in which all workstations are connected to a
single cable.
Bridge Hardware
that connects one network with another.
Buffer
A bus driver. Can also refer to a class of memory
registers and devices that match data transfer speeds
between computers and hardware (peripherals). An area
of memory that holds information for a peripheral
device until it can be processed.
Boot Prom
Boot Programmable Read Only Memory is used on
networks that utilize diskless workstations.
BOOTP
BOOTstrap Protocol
Carrier Companies
contracted to carry our data over long
distances.
Cellular Networking
A form of mobile computing
Class A IP Address
IP Address used by very large networks, such as IBM,
GM, or DEC.
Class B IP Address
IP Address used by medium-sized networks, such as
Microsoft; these are all in use at the present time.
Class C IP Address
Class C IP addresses are used for smaller networks that
do not exceed 254 hosts.
Class C IP addresses are used for smaller networks that
do not exceed 254 hosts.
Client User computer
“being served” by another computer,
called a server.
Client Software
Software used by the client.
Clocking
The method used by the NIC to count and pace the
number of signals that it sends and receives.
Coaxial Cable
An electrical cable consisting of a solid piece of metal
wire surrounded by insulation, which is, itself,
surrounded by a tubular piece of plastic.
Concentrator
Same as a hub.
Cooperative Multitasking
A form of multitasking, in which it is the responsibility
of the currently running task to give up the processor, to
allow other tasks to run.
CRC
Cyclic Redundancy Check, or Cyclic redundancy Code,
is a number derived from, stored, or transmitted with a
group of data in order to detect data corruption.
Crosstalk
The signal bleed that occurs between individual wires in
a cable.
CSMA/CA
Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance
CSMA/CD
Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection
CSNW
Carrier Sense NetWare
CSU/DSU
Changes the frame types between the LAN and WAN
Data Information
as recognized by a computer and
transmitted across a variety media, from computer or
network to another, using a specific protocol, or
language.
Data Encryption
Data that is encoded for security reasons, at the sender’s
level and then decoded at the recipient’s level.
Client User computer
“being served” by another computer,
called a server.
Client Software
Software used by the client.
Clocking
The method used by the NIC to count and pace the
number of signals that it sends and receives.
Coaxial Cable
An electrical cable consisting of a solid piece of metal
wire surrounded by insulation, which is, itself,
surrounded by a tubular piece of plastic.
Concentrator
Same as a hub.
Cooperative Multitasking
A form of multitasking, in which it is the responsibility
of the currently running task to give up the processor, to
allow other tasks to run.
CRC
Cyclic Redundancy Check, or Cyclic redundancy Code,
is a number derived from, stored, or transmitted with a
group of data in order to detect data corruption.
Crosstalk
The signal bleed that occurs between individual wires in
a cable.
CSMA/CA
Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance
CSMA/CD
Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection
CSNW
Carrier Sense NetWare
CSU/DSU
Changes the frame types between the LAN and WAN
Data Information
as recognized by a computer and
transmitted across a variety media, from computer or
network to another, using a specific protocol, or
language.
Data Encryption
Data that is encoded for security reasons, at the sender’s
level and then decoded at the recipient’s level.
Data Link Layer
The Data Link layer is the second lowest layer in the
OSI model. It is the last stop before the data packets are
placed on the media for transmission. The Data Link
layer splits data into frames, which are large areas of
data that are split into smaller non-contiguous blocks,
for sending on the Physical layer. It also receives
acknowledgement frames. It performs error checking
and re-transmits frames that were not received correctly.
Default Gateway
When you type the IP address of the gateway routers
you have installed on your network, whichever one
appears first on the list is considered the default
gateway.
Demand Priority
This access method is designed for the 100 Mbps
Ethernet standard 100VG-AnyLAN
DHCP
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol - A method for
leasing and maintaining that lease for IP addresses and
related information to clients.
Digital Signal Baseband
uses digital signals over a single frequency.
(Simple “on” or “off” signal.)
Disaster Recovery
Being able to recover data from a disaster.
Disk Mirroring
The use of two or more hard disks that “mirror” the
main one, so that one can take over for the other if it
fails.
Disk Striping
Also called data striping, this is the dividing into
segments of logically sequential data, such as an
individual file, so that the segments can be written to
multiple disk drives, in a round-robin fashion. If the
processor is capable of reading or writing data faster
than a single disk can supply or accept it, the second
disk can locate the next segment while data is being
transferred from the first disk.
DMA
(Direct Memory
Access)
A limited form of bus mastering, DMA allows a device
to read and write memory without intervention by the
CPU.
DNS
Domain Name System
DSMN
DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is
another add-on utility that is used to integrate user and
group account information between the two operating
systems.
DUN
Dial-up Networking
EISA Bus
Extended Industry Standard Architecture is a PC bus
that converts the PC bus from 16-bits to 32-bits.
Ethernet
A local area network (LAN) recognized as the industry
standard.
EtherTalk
A way to run AppleTalk on coaxial cable using an
EtherTalk NB NIC.
Event Viewer
A Windows NT utility that will allow you to log any
events and errors.
FAT
File Allocation Table
Fax Server
A server on a network that is configured to provide both
incoming and outgoing fax services to the entire
network.
Fiber-Optic Cable
Optical fibers carry digital signals in the form of
modulated pulses of light.
File Server
A network’s central computer, with a very large amount
of storage space for shared files.
Firewall
A set of programs running on a network’s gateway
server that monitors incoming and outgoing traffic and
allows only authorized packets to be transmitted or
received.
Frame Relay
An improved version of X.25 packet switching
technology.
Frames
A group of bits containing address information, error
detection, and other control information, sent over a
communications channel.
FTP
File Transfer Protocol
Full-Duplex
Data can travel in both directions at once.
Gateway
A computer that acts as a translator, that enables two
networks, using different protocols, to communicate
with each other.
GSNW
Gateway Service for NetWare
Half-Duplex
Half-Duplex can send transmissions both ways (send
and receive), but only one at a time.
Header
The portion of a packet that contains source and
destination addresses, and other information. It precedes
the actual data.
HOSTS and LMHOSTS
files
Text files that are used to look up and resolve names to
IP addresses. HOSTS is used for DNS and LMHOSTS
is used for WINS.
HTTP
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
HTTPS
HyperText Transport Protocol Secure
Hub
The center of a cabling system or a network with star
topology architecture.
Hybrid Topology
A network topology that combines bus, star, or ring
topologies.
ICA
Independent Computing Architecture
ICMP
Internet Control Message Protocol, defined in STD 5,
RFC 792, is an extension to the Internet Protocol (IP)
that allows for the generation of error messages, test
packets, and informational messages related to IP.
ICS
Internet Connection Sharing
IFCONFIG
Shows the user’s network interface configuration
IMAP4
Internet Messaging Access Protocol
Interoperability
The ability of software and hardware to communicate,
even though there may be multiple machines from
multiple vendors.
IP
Internet Protocol
IP Address
This 32-bit host address defined by the Internet Protocol
in STD 5, RFC 791, is usually represented in dotted
decimal notation.
IPCONFIG
DOS command that tells you the IP address for your
computer.
IPsec
A security protocol that works at network layer
IRQ
Interrupt Request causes the processor to temporarily
suspend normal instruction execution and to start
executing an interrupt handler routine.
ISA Bus
Industry Standard Architecture refers to the bus
architecture used in the IBM PC.
ISDN
Integrated Services Digital Network is a set of
communication standards that allows a single wire or
optical fiber to carry voice, data, and video data sources.
Kerberos
A system for user authentication
L2TP
Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol
LAN
Local Area Network
Laser Transmissions
A wireless network standard that uses laser beams for
the transmission of data.
Latency
The time it takes for a packet to go from sender to
receiver, across a network connection.
LLC
Logical Link Control – a sublayer of the Data Link
Layer
LocalTalk
AppleTalk networks are usually called LocalTalk.
MAC
Media Access Control – a sublayer of the Data Link
Layer. The MAC address is the address that is hardwired
onto the NIC by the manufacturer, it’s “hardware
address.”
Mail Server
Server used for E-mail.
MAN
Metropolitan Area Network
Management Software
The primary software package used by the
administrator.
MAU/MSAU
Multistation Access Unit in a Token Ring network, a
device to attach multiple network stations in a star
topology, internally wired to connect the stations into a
logical ring.
MCA Bus
Micro Channel Architecture, a 32-bit bus, introduced by
IBM for its PS/2 computer line, totally incompatible
with the original PC bus.
Media
A method of data transmission.
Media Tester
Tool used for testing the continuity and pin-outs of a
cable
Mesh Topology
Every device is connected to every other device by
separate cables and has redundant paths.
MHS
Message Handling System – A standard defined by
ITU-T as X.400 and by ISO as Message-Oriented Text
Interchange Standard (MOTIS). MHS provides the
functions for global E-mail transfer among local mail
systems, and is used by CompuServe, among others.
Microwave
Transmissions
A wireless network standard that uses microwave
signals for data transmission.
Multimeter
One of the most basic tools for electronic
troubleshooting.
Multistation Access Unit
A type of hub. The actual ring in a Token Ring network
is in the hub.
Multitasking
Performing multiple tasks simultaneously.
Narrow-Band Radio Single Frequency Radio.
The transmitter and receiver
are tuned to the same frequency. Much like your local
radio station.
NAS
Network Attached Storage
NAT
Network Address Translation
NBTSTAT
NetBIOS Statistics
NDS
NetWare Directory Services
NetBIOS
Names used with WINS; protocol as well
Network
A group of computers linked together for the purpose of
sharing resources.
Network Adapter Card
Also known as a network interface card. Provides the
physical connection to the network cable.
Network Administrator
The individual who has complete responsibility for
maintaining a network.
Network Interface Card
(NIC)
An adapter circuit board installed in a computer that
provides a physical connection to a network.
Network Layer
The hardware that is used to construct the network plays
an important role at this layer. The network layer
handles all the routing information as packets travel
from one network to another.
Non-Routable Protocol
A protocol that cannot be routed or passed through
routers on a network.
NOS
Network Operating System
NTFS
NT File System
NTSTAT A TCP/IP
utility command that will return information
regarding the status of a network.
NWLink
A Windows NT service that allows for interoperability
with the NetWare NOS.
Octet
Each part of an IP Address that contains eight bits of
data is called an octet.
OSI
Refers to the OSI (Open Systems Interface) Model.
Packets A generic term used to describe a unit of data. A
“packet” may also refer to a frame or datagram,
depending on the protocol. A packet actually refers to
Application layer data units (APDU).
Passive Hub
Acts as a connection point only.
Password Security
A user has to enter a password to gain access to the
network or to shared resources.
Patch Cable
They extend the connection between the computer and
the hub or between two hubs.
PCI Bus
A 32-bit architecture bus for PC expansion cards.
PCMCIA Card
PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card
International Association) cards are credit card sized
expansion buses that are used in portable computers
(laptops) to provide the same expandability enjoyed by
desktop computers, including network connectivity.
Peer-to-Peer
All the computers on the network can act as either a
client or server, depending upon the needs of the user.
Performance Monitor
A software tool that is used to monitor the performance
of a network server. Although included as part of
Windows NT, many third-party applications are
available.
Peripheral
A hardware device, such as a printer or scanner.
Physical Layer
The Physical layer is the lowest layer in the OSI Model.
This layer determines the interface hardware and the
medium that will be used to transmit the data from the
Data Link layer.
Plenum
The space between the ceiling and the floor above; used
to circulate air through a building.
PING
A way of testing the server to see if it is alive and
functioning, and running on TCP/IP.
Port Number
Defines a channel between a device and the processor.
POP3
Post Office Protocol 3
PPP
Point-to-Point Protocol
PPTP
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol
Preemptive Multitasking
Introduced in version 3.5 of Windows 3.1, this feature
has a different scheme called cooperative multitasking,
which means that a process can take control of the CPU
and check for other processes. The preemptive feature
allows NT to hand out slices of CPU time, and even if a
process takes full control, other processes will still run.
Presentation Layer
The Presentation layer formats data exchange,
converting character sets and encrypting data, allowing
incompatible processes in the Application layer to
communicate with the Session layer.
Print Server
Dedicated server for printing.
Protocol Stack
A group of protocols that are used to communicate
between computers on a network. The OSI model is the
ideal protocol stack.
Proxy Server
One that serves many clients through only one
connection; For example, the user is connecting to the
Internet via a secondary source, i.e. the proxy server.
Punch Down Tool
Used for “punching” down wire to a block
RAID
Redundant Arrays of Independent Disks
RARP
Uses a MAC address to find an IP address.
RAS
A service provided by Windows NT that allows most of
the services provided by a network, including support
for dialup and logon, to be accessed via a modem.
Redirector/Requester
Redirects a call from one port to another. For example,
redirects a print job from the local port to the network
printer.
Reflective Infrared
The signal is beamed towards a central unit, which then
routes the signal appropriately.
Repeater
Used to increase cable distances in network
environments.
Resources
The services or peripherals that are shared over the
network.
Ring Speed
In Token-Ring networks, the ring speed on the NIC is
set to either 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps.
Ring Topology
In a Ring topology, the devices are connected in a
continuous loop.
RJ-11
Connector Connector used with standard telephone wire. Flat cable
with 2 or 4 conductors.
RJ-45
Connector Connector used with UTP and STP network cables. Will
hold up to 4 pairs of conductors.
Routable Protocol
A protocol that can be routed over the internet or
through routers on a network.
Router
A device that forwards packets between networks.
SAN
Storage Area Network
Satellite Microwave
A wireless network that utilizes microwave signals to
transmit data.
Scatter
Infrared Transmission rates are slower with this type, as the
signal is designed to bounce off of walls, ceilings, etc.
until it reaches the receiver. The effective distance of the
signal is limited to about 100 feet.
SDH
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
Security
The system used to protect data on a network from
unauthorized use.
Server
A computer on a network that provides services to other
computers.
Server Software
Software that resides on a server.
Session Layer
The Session layer handles such things as security
authentication, data transfer, acknowledgments (ACK),
connection establishment and release.
Sharing
Allowing files to be shared from one computer to
another.
Shielded Twisted Pair
A type of cable in which pairs of conductors are twisted
together to prevent possible cross-talk from nearby
wiring.
Simplex
A uni-directional data channel, as opposed to duplex.
Single-Frequency Radio
Narrow-Band Radio Transmission
SLIP
Serial Line Internet Protocol, defined in RFC 1055, is
software that allows the Internet Protocol (IP), normally
used on Ethernet, to be used over a serial link.
SMAU
Smart Multistation Access Unit
SMTP
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is used to transfer E-mail
between computers, usually over Ethernet.
SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol, the Internet
standard protocol defined in STD 15, RFC 1157, was
developed to manage nodes on an IP network. SNMP is
not limited to TCP/IP.
SONET
Synchronous Optical Network
Spread-Spectrum Radio
Spread-spectrum broadcasts over a range of frequencies,
so it is less susceptible to eavesdropping. This type of
transmission is commonly used to connect multiple
LAN segments together.
SSL
Secure Sockets Layer
Star Topology
A LAN topology in which all workstations are wired
directly to a central workstation called a hub. If the hub
fails, the entire network goes down.
Subnet Mask
Using binary addition, a router can determine what
addresses are local and what addresses are for other
subnets within the network.
Subnetting
The process of subdividing a network into logical units.
TCP/IP
Transmission Control Protocol over Internet Protocol,
the official protocol of the Internet.
TDR
Time-Domain Reflectometer – A cable tester.