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65 Cards in this Set

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What is the purpose of the Application layer and what protocols does it use?
Facilitates communication between software applications and lower-layer network services. Protocols: HTTP, FTP, SMTP
What is the purpose of the Presentation Layer and what are its protocols?
Accepts Application layer data & formats it so taht one type of application & host can understand data from another type of application & host. Encoding: ASCII & EBCDIC. Manages encryption/decryption.
Which layer coordinates & maintains communications between two nodes.
session layer
What layer has the functions of establishing & keeping alive the comm. link for duration of the session, keeping communication secure, synchronizing dialog.
session layer
What layer manages end-to-end delivery, correct sequence and without error of data?
transport layer
What layer handles flow control
transport layer
What is a checksum
a unique character string that allows the receiving node to determine if an arriving data unit matches exactly the dta unit sent by the source.
Which layer breaks large data units into smaller unites called segments and handles segmentation?
transport layer
Define MTU
Maximum transmission unit. Largest data unit carried on a network.
What term is associated with the method of identifying segments that belong to the same group of subdivided data.
sequencing
Translates network addresses into physical & decides how to route data from sender to receiver.
network layer
IP is a member of which layer in the OSI model?
network layer
Subdivides the segments it receives from the Transport layer into smaller packets.
Fragmentation, part of the Network layer.
The function of the _____ divides data it receives into distinct frames that can be transmitted by the next layer.
Data link layer
Error checking accomplished by a 4-byte field, purpose to ensure data at destination exactly matches data issued from source.
FCS. Frame Check Sequence.
Takes values of all of preceding fields in frame and generates a unique 4-byte number.
CRC. Cyclic Redundancy Check
Provides an interface to the Network layer protocols, manages flow control, issues requests to lower sublayer of Data link layer.
Logical Link Control
Manages access to the physical medium
MAC. Media Access Control.
Provides interface between applications & network for interpreting application requests and requirements
Application (layer 7)
Allows hosts & applications to use a common language; performs data formatting, encryption and compression
Presentation (layer 6)
Establishes, maintains, and terminates user connections
Session (layer 5)
Ensures accurate delivery of data through flow control, segmentation and reassembly, error correction and acknowledgement.
Transport (layer 4)
Establishes network connections; translates network addresses into their physical counterparts and determines routing
Network (layer 3)
Packages data in frames appropriate to network transmission method
Data Link (layer 2)
Manages signaling to and from phsical network connections
Physical (layer 1)
Process of wrapping one layer's PDU with protocol information so that it can be interpreted by a lower layer.
Encapsulation
Internetworking. Routing, bridging, and network-to-network communications
802.1
Logical Link Control. Error and flow control over data frames.
802.2
Ethernet LAN. All forms of Ethernet media and interfaces
802.3
Token Bus LAN. All forms of Token Bus media and interfaces.
802.4
Token Ring LAN. All forms of Token Ring media and interfaces
802.5
Class A range
1-126
Class B range
128-191
Class C range
192-223
Class D range
224-239
Class E range
240-254
Class A private addressing
10.0.0.0 through 10.255.255.255
Class B private addressing
172.16.0.0 through 172.31.255.255
Class C private addressing
192.168.0.0 through 192.168.255.255
Automatic Private IP Addressing
169.254.0.1 through 169.254.255.254
means ‘stealing’ bits from the host portion, which in turn means more bits to create different sub-networks, but each with less available host addresses
subnetting
Classless
mask is not Class A, B, or C
Network layer protocol used for exchanging control information and messages.
ICMP. Internet Control Message Protocol
Network layer protocol that is used for registering and sharing multicast group membership information.
IGMP. Internet Group Management Protocol
Authentication protocol primarily used for remote access PPP connections. Server sends challenge request to client, client replies w/ challenge response that is hased.
CHAP. Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol
MS-CHAP
Microsofts version of CHAP. Technology from CHAP combined w/ microsoft authentication & encryption
an extension of PPP to provide an interface for different authentication methods.
EAP. Extensible Authentication Protocol.
Provides authentication to clients that connect to a remote access server by using SLIP or PPP dialup connection & an authentication protocol such as PAP, CHAP, or EAP.
RADIUS. Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service.
Kerberos
Advanced authentication protocol. Default in W2k and 2k3 environments. Centralized authorization server called Key Distribution Center (KDC) issues ticket to client when it successfully logs on network.
RAS
Remote Access Services. Allows remote clients to dial-in & connect and logon to network.
PPP
Point-to-point protocol. Used by RAS. Used for router-to-router connections in WANs. Operates @ network layer. Supports MS-CHAP, EAP, PAP, CHAP.
Link Control Protocol
(LCP)
protocol under PPP. establishes, configures, maintains, and terminates the point-to-point connection.
Network Control Protocol
(NCP)
provides and interface for various upper-layer Network protocols such as IP, IPX, AppleTalk, and NetBEUI, and is used to encapsulate the upper-layer protocols' data and transfers it over the link created by the LCP
PPTP
Point to Point Tunneling Protocol. encapsulates PPP packets to transfer through tunnel over internet. MPPE to provide encryption. Port 1723
L2TP
Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol. combining PPTP w/ Cisco L2F. supports tunneling through Frame Relay, X.25 and ATM. Operates @ Data Link layer. Port 1701
IPSec
Internet Protocol Security. Encryption framework for IP networks. End-to-End security @ Network layer.
DHCP
Used in TCP/IP networks to provide automatic IP address configuration for network hosts.
DNS
Domain Name System. Resolves host names to IP addresses and vice versa. Maintains hierarchical database/directory, which contains a zone for each domain.
NAS
Network Attached Storage. File server runs on specialized device directly connected to network.
SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol. used to monitor and gather information about network systems and devices.
ISDN
Integrated Services Digital Network. Circuit-switching network.
ATM
Asynchronous Transfer Mode. Packet-switching network. Data transmitted in small 53-byte fixed length cells. ATM supports Sonet OC-3, OC-12. T3/E3, 155 Mbps UTP, 100 Mbps FDDI
Frame Relay
Packet-switching. Physical network medium and the available badwidth is dynamically shared between end nodes.
SONET/OCx
Synchronous Optical NETwork.
OC-1 = 51.85 Mbps. Only need to remember OC-1, OC-18 is 18 times the speed of OC-1.
T1/E1 & T3/E3
T1 is a digital leased line made up of 24 channels (DS0, 1 DS0 is 64K.