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154 Cards in this Set

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Physical Topology
Physical layout or pattern of the nodes on a network. It depicts in broad scope: doesn't specify device types, connectivity methods or addressing schemes. The word "Topology" used by itself usually refers to physical topology.
Bus Topology
Consists of a single cable connecting all nodes on a network without connectivity devices. Every node share the bus's total capacity. (Examples: Thinnet and Thinnet using coaxial cable).
Signal Bounce
Term used to describe when signals on a bus travel endlessly between 2 nodes of a bus network.
Ring Topology
Each node is connected to the 2 nearest nodes so that the entire netowrk forms a circle. Data is transmitted clockwise - each device acts as a repeater.
Active Topology
All workstations participate in data delivery on a network (Example: Ring Topology).
Star Topology
Every node on the network is connected through a central device, such as a hub or switch. This topology is usually built with twisted-pair or fiber-optic cabling.
Hybrid Topologoy
Complex combination of physical topologies: Star-wired ring, star-wired bus.
Star-wired Ring Topology
Uses the physical layout of a star in conjuction with the ring topology's data transmission method - benefits from the fault tolerance of star topology and reliability of token passing.
Star-wired Bus Topology
Groups of workstations are star-connected to hubs and then networked via a single bus.
Network Backbone
Network cabling that connects hubs, switches and routers which is capable of more throughput than workstation cabling because of heavy traffic.
Serial Backbone
Network backbone that consists of 2 or more internetworking devices connected to each other by a single cable in a daisy-chain fashion.
Daisy-Chain
Linked series of devices.
Enterprise
Entire organization, including its local and remote offices.
Distributed Backbone
Network backbone that consists of a number of connectivity devices connected to a series of central connectivity devices, such as hubs, switches or routers, in a hierarchy.
Collapsed Backbone
Network backbone that uses a router or switch as the single central connection point for multiple subnetworks - the single router or switch is the highest layer of the backbone.
Parallel Backbone
Network Backbone (most robust) is a variation of the collapsed backbone, but instead consists of more than one connection from the central router or switch to each network segment. It's more expensive and requires more cable, but it offers increased performance and better fault tolerance.
Logical Topology
Way in which data is transmitted between nodes, rather than the physical layout of the paths the data takes. Most common logical topologies are bus and ring.
Switching
Component of a network's logical topology that determines how connections are created between nodes. 3 common methods: circuit, message and packet switching.
Circuit Switching
Connection is established between 2 network nodes before they begin transmitting data. This method monopolizes its piece of bandwidth while the 2 stations are connected. (Example: ISDN, T1 and ATM).
Message Switching
Establishes a connection between 2 devices, transfers the information to the second device, then breaks the connection. Information is stored and forwarded from the 2nd device after a connection between that device and a third device on the path is established, continuing this way until the data reaches its destination.
Packet Switching
Breaks data into packets before they are transported. Packets can travel any path on the network to their destination because each packet contains the destination address and sequencing information. Packets find the fastest circuit available. (Not optimal for live audio/video).
Jamming
In CSMA/CD, when a collision occurs, NICs issue a special 32-bit sequence that indicates to the rest of the network that its previous tranmission was faulty and those data frames are invalide.
Collision Domain
Portion of a network in which collisions occur if 2 nodes transmit data at the same time. Switches and routers can separate collision domains, but not repeaters.
Data Propagation Delay
Length of time data takes to travel from one point on the segment to another point.
Shared Ethernet
Supplies a fixed amount of bandwidth that must be shared by all devices on a segment (traditional) - all nodes share the same collision domain.
Switched Ethernet
Enables multiple nodes to simultaneously transmit and receive data over different logical network segments. Each node can individually take advantage of more bandwidth.
Ethernet Frames
May use one or a combination of 4 kinds of data frames: 802.2 (Raw); 802.3 (Novell); Ethernet II (DIX); Ethernet SNAP. Almost all networks nowadays use Ethernet_II. Frame types are specified through NIC software, and most NICs automatically sense frame type (called auto-detect or autosense).
Preamble
Part of frame field that signals to the receiving node that data is incoming and indicates when the data flow is about to begin.
Start-of-Frame Delimeter (SFD)
Part of frame field that identifies where the data field begins.
Padding
Extra bytes in a frame that have no significance.
Token Passing
3-byte packet, called a token, is transmitted from 1 node to another in a circular fashion around the ring. Stations with something to send pick up the token, change it to a frame, and add the header, information and trailer fields. This method avoids collisions.
Active Monitor
A workstation that maintains the timing for the ring passing, monitors frame transmission, detects lost tokens and corrects errors.
Token Ring Connectors
3 types of connectors: RJ-45, DB-9 and Type 1 IBM.
Virtual Circuits
Connections between network nodes that appear to be direct, dedicated links between nodes.
Cell
ATM packet, which is a fixed packet size (48 bytes plus 5 byte header) - fixed packet size allows ATM to provide predictable network performance, but requires more overhead.
Association
When you bring your laptop to a local internet cafe, it prompts you to log on to the cafe's wireless network to gain access to the Internet.
Scanning
With wireless protocols running, the computer periodically surveys its surroundings for evidence of an access point.
Active Scanning
Stations transmit a special frame, known as a probe, on all available channels within its frequency range.
Passive Scanning
Wireless station listens on all available channels with its frequency range for a special signal, known as a beacon frame.
SSID
Service Set Idenifier - a unique character string used to identify an access point.
Reassociation
When a station chooses a different access point when a mobile user moves out of one access point's range and into another.
Bluetooth
Mobile wireless networking standard that uses FHSS RF signaling in the 2.4-GHz band. Used between multiple devices including cordless phones, PDAs, computers, printers, keyboards, etc.
Dedicated Line
Continuously available communications channel from a telecommunications provider (local phone company or ISP).
WAN Link
Connection between one WAN site (point) and another (Point to Point).
Bus Topology WAN
WAN in which each site is directly connected to no more than two other sites in a serial fashion. Each site depends on every other site in the network to transmit and receive traffic. It uses different locations, each connected to another by point-to-point links.
Ring Topology WAN
WAN in which each site is connected to two other sites so that the entire WAN forms a ring pattern. It connects locations rahter than local nodes and in most WANs, a ring topology uses 2 parallel paths for data.
Star Topology WAN
Mimics the arrangement of a star topology LAN. A single site acts as the central connection point for several other points.
Mesh Topology WAN
Incorporates many directly interconnected sites. Data can travel directly from its origin to its destination. Router can redirect data easily and quickly - most fault tolerant topology.
Full Mesh WAN
Type of mesh topology in which every WAN site is directly connected to every other site.
Partial Mesh WAN
Only critical WAN sites are directly interconnected and secondary sites are connected through star or ring toplogies.
Tiered Topology WAN
Sites connected in star or ring formations are interconnected at different levels, with the interconnecion points being organized into layers to form hierarchial groupings.
Last Mile (Local Loop)
Portion of the PSTN that connects your house to the nearest central office.
X.25
Analog, packet-switched technology designed for long-distance data transmission - standardized by ITU in mid-70s; maximum throughput of 2048 Mbps; protocols at the Physical, Data Link and Network layers of OSI; verifies transmission at every node.
Frame Relay
Updated, digital version of X.25 that also relies on packet-switching; operates at Data Link layer of OSI; supports multiple different Network and Transport layer protocols like TCP/IP and IPX/SPX; higher throughput than X.25.
B Channel
ISDN channel that uses circuit-switching techniques to carry voice, video and audio ("Bearer").
D Channel
"Data" channel that uses packet-switching techniques to carry information.
T-Carrier
Technology standards specify a mode of signaling, which means they belong to the Physical layer of the OSI model - uses TDM (Time Division Multiplexing) over 2 pairs to divide a single channel into multiple channels. Medium: ordinary telephone wire, fiber-optic or wireless link.
Signal Level
T-Carrier's physical layer electrical signaling characteristics as defined by ANSI.
Fractional T1
Use of only some of the channels on a T1 line and be charged according to the number of channels used - leased in multiples of 64 Kbps.
Assymetrical (DSL)
Technology that offers more throughput in one direction than in the other (ADSL and VDSL).
Symmerical (DSL)
Technology that offers equal capacity for data traveling both upstream and downstream (HDSL, SDSL and SHDSL).
Cable Modem
Device used to connect broadband cable - operates at the Physical and Data Link layer of OSI.
Head-end
Nodes that connect to the cable company's central office.
Cable Drop
Fiber-optic or coaxial cable connecting node to the customer's business or residence.
Self-healing
SONET process of automatically rerouting traffic to the backup ring without loss of service.
Hot Spots
Places where wireless Internet access is available to the public.
Uplink
Creation of a communications channel for a transmission from an earth-based transmitter to an orbiting satellite before transmission to prevent unauthorized interception. Opposite of downlink.
Transponder
Device that receives the uplink satellite signal.
Dial Return
Satellite access by which a subscriber receives data from the Internet via a satellite downlink transmission, but sends data via an analog modem (dial-up) connection.
Satellite Return
Sattelite access by which a subscriber sends and receives data to and from the Internet using a satellite uplink and downlink.
Dial-up Networking
Dialing directly into a private network's or ISPs remote access server to log on to a network (uses PSTN, X.25 or ISDN).
Terminal Services
Multiple remote computers can connect to a terminal server on a LAN. It's a computer that runs specialized software that allows it to act as a host and supply applications and resource sharing to remote clients.
Thin Client
Workstation that uses terminal services to access a LAN.
Web Portal
Secure, web-based interface to an application.
Tunneling
Process of encapsulating higher-layer protocols to make sure a VPN can carry all types of data in a private manner over any kind of connection.
Redirector
Service on the client workstation that intercepts the request to determine whether it should be handled by the client or the server; Presentation layer of OSI.
Middleware
Software used to translate requests and responses between client and server; prevents the need for a shared application to function differently for each different type of client.
3-tier architecture
Client/server environment that incorporates middleware: 3 tiers are client, middleware and server.
Inherited
Permissions that are passed down from parent group (user profiles).
Object
According to LDAP, any thing or person associated with a network: including users, printers, groups, computers, data files and applications.
Attributes
Properties associated with objects according to LDAP. User's object's attributes may include name, location, email, etc. Printer object's attributes may include location, model number, printing preferences, etc.
Schema
Set of definitions of the kinds of objects and object-related information that the database can contain. LDAP compatible directories.
Classes
Also known as object classes, identify what type of objects can be specified in a directory.
Tree
Logical representation of multiple, hierarchical levels within a directory.
Per User
Software licensing option that allows only a certain number of clients to use the application simultaneously.
Per Seat
Software licensing option that reserves a certain number of clients, whether they're logged on or not.
Site License
Software licensing option in which a fixed price allows an unlimited number of users to legally access an application.
Multitasking
Ability of a processor to perform many different operations in a very brief period of time.
Preemptive multitasking
Also called time-sharing, servers perform one task at a time, allowing one program to use the processor for a certain period of time, then suspending that program to allow another program to use the processor.
Multiprocessing
Support and use of multiple processors to handle multiple threads. Used on servers; improves response time.
Symmetric Processing
Multiprocessing that splits all operations equally among two or more processors.
Assymmetric Processing
Assigns each subtask to a specific processor.
Windows Server 2003 Requirements
Processor: 133 MHz; Memory: 128 MB RAM; Hard Disk: 1.5 GB free space; NIC: HCL compatible; CD-ROM, Mouse.
Workgroup
Interconnected computers that share each other's resources without relying on a central server (type of peer-to-peer network). Each computer has its down database of user accounts and priviledges.
Domain Model
Type of client/server network that relies on domains rather than workgroups.
Domain
Group of users, servers and other resources that share a centralized database of account and security information - contained within Active Directory.
Domain Controllers
Computers on which a directory containing information about objects in a domain reside. 2 domain controllers are recommended for fault tolerance.
Member Servers
Computers that don't store directory information, therefore, they cannot authenticate users.
Replication
Process of copying directory data to multiple domain controllers - ensures redundancy (fault tolerance).
Domain Tree
Contains root domains (at the base of Active Directory) and child domains, which branch out from the root.
Forest
Collection of one or more domain trees - all trees in the forest share a common schema.
Two-way Transitive Trust
Relationship between domains and trees: users in domain A is recognized and can be authenticated by domain B, and vice versa. User in domain A may be granted rights to any of the resources managed by domain B, and vice versa.
Explicit One-Way Trust
Trust Relationship between domains: trust doesn't apply to other domains in the tree.
Namespace
Refers to the complete database of hierarchical names used to map IP addresses to their hosts' names. In Windows Server 2003, namespaces refer to a collection of object names and their associated places in the network.
Local Accounts
Accounts that only have rights on the server they're logged onto.
Domain Accounts
Accounts that have rights throughout the domain.
Domain Local Group
Group that allows its members access to resources within a single domain.
Global Group
Allows members access to resources witin a single domain like a Local Group, but a global group usually contains user accounts and can be inserted into a domain local group to gain access to resources in other domains.
Universal Group
Group that allows its members access to resources across multiple domains and forests.
The SCO Group
Company that owns the right to the UNIX source code.
The Open Group
Nonprofit industry association that own the UNIX trademark.
Proprietary UNIX
A licensed copy of UNIX is purchased from the SCO Group and implemented by private companies (Apple: Mac OS X Server; Sun: Solaris; IBM: AIX).
Solaris
UNIX system developed by Sun Microsystems. Used on its SPARC servers.
Linux
High-stable and free version of UNIX developed in 1991. Used for file, print and Web servers around the world.
Mac OS X Server
Released by Apple in 2001 to replace network operating system software AppleShare IP. Runs on XServe.
Special features of UNIX
UNIX-type systems allow you to change the server's configuration without restarting the server. You can easily modify a UNIX-type system while it's running. You can enable the tape driver, access the tape, and disable the tape driver without restarting the server. Memory is used more efficiently.
UNIX Kernel
Core of all UNIX-type systems - it's loaded into memory and runs when you turn on your computer. Primary function is to access your computer's hardware, such as disks, memory, keyboard and monitor.
Kernel Memory
File that contains instructions for performing a specific task such as reading data from and writing data to a hard drive.
Hierarchical File System
Method of organizing files and directories on a disk in which directories may contain files and other directories.
Ext3
Third Extension - native file type on Linux.
UFS
UNIX File System - native file system developed by Sun.
HFS+
Hierarchical File System - native file system for Mac.
NFS
Network File System - Sun Microsystems, it's a popular remote file system supported by UNIX.
Samba
Open source application that implements the Windows SMB and CIFS file system protocols. Samba is included with Solaris, most Linux distributions, and Mac OS X Server by default.
Command Interpreter
Program that accepts the commands you type on the keyboard and runs the commands for you.
File Globbing
On a UNIX-type system, it's similar to using wildcards in Windows and DOS.
i-Node
Information Node - UNIX-type file ssytem information storage area that holds all details about a file.
Pipe
Powerful ability to direct output from one command to the input of another command. Commands are compbined using a pipe "|".
Pipeline
Two or more commands connected by a pipe.
intraNetware
NetWare version that began supporting TCP/IP (4.11) - versions of NetWare prior to this require IPX/SPX. Version 4 also brought about the graphical interface to replace DOS-based commands.
NetWare 5.x
Novell's first NOS to be based solely on IP protocol.
NetWare 6.x
Novell's Netware NOS started eDirectory (equivalent to Active Directory of Windows Server), iManager and Server Consolidation Utility.
NetWare Integrated Kernel
Core of NetWare 6.5, this kernel is responsible for overseeing critical server processes like multiprocessing, multitasking, access to server's interupts, memory and I/O functions. Kernel is started by "server.exe".
GroupWise
Novell NetWare's email and scheduler software applications.
BoarderManager
Application from Novell that provides proxy and firewall services on NetWare servers.
ConsoleOne
Novell NetWare's graphical interface that provides access to console commands and object/directory management (similar to MMC of Windows).
X Server
NetWare 6.5 server's graphical desktop that is loaded by default when the server starts.
Remote Manager
A browser-based tool that enables network administrators to perform
server and object management in NetWare 6.5.
Pool
A feature of NSS (Novell Storage Services) that combines free storage space from multiple hard disks and CDs.
iManager
Primary GUI tool used to manage all objects in NetWare 6.5.
eDirectory
NetWare 6.5's directory database, which is its system for organizing and managing muliple servers and their resources, including storage devices, users, volumes, groups, printers, etc. eDirectory is similar to Active Directory in Windows Servers.
Base Schema
schema—The standard set of object classes and attributes installed as the default schema for NetWare’s eDirectory. The base schema can be extended through NetWare utilities.
Extended Schema
In NetWare, a set of object classes and attributes that is different from the
base schema.
Tree Object
Root of eDirectory (a tree can have only one root).
Context
The characteristic that indicates where an object belongs in an eDirectory tree. A
context is made up of an object’s organizational unit names, arranged from most specific to
most general, plus the organization name. Periods separate the organizational unit names in context.
Typeful (Notation)
Lengthy way of expressing context that includes identifiers for the organization and OUs (similar to distinguished name in Windows Servers). Example: User: Phil; Div: Receivables; Dept: Accounting; Company: Sutkin --> OU=Receivables.OU=Acctg.0=Sutkin
Typeless (Notation)
Notation that eliminates OU and O symbols. Typeful: OU=Receivables.OU=Acctg.0=Sutkin ... Typeless: Receivables.Acctg.Sutkin
Default Port of NetWare Server
8008 Example URL: https://10.11.11.11:8008
Traditional Client Access
Clients running Windows, Mac, UNIX-type OSs connected and accessed NetWare resources via a Novell client designed for that client (example: Novell Client for Windows).
Native File Access
NetWare is capable of providing clients with direct access to NSS using the clients' native file access protocol. Using native file access protocol means that users can browse folders and directories just as if they were connected to a server running the same kind of file system.
NetDrive
Software that allows Windows clients to access directories on a NetWare 6.5 server. NetDrive uses Internet protocols like HTTP and FTP.
Browser-Based Access
Users can navigate diretories and manage files on a server through NetStorage - only TCP/IP protocols are necessary to have installed and configured.
DirXML
Novell's tools for integrating eDirectory and Windows Active Directory; servers can share data; DirXML synchronizes changes in other directories.
Nterprise Linux Services
Services that consist of client tools for accessing eDirectory, development tools for integrating Linux servers with DirXML, plus brower-based file and print services.