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20 Cards in this Set

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patient presents with a blow to the head, he is initially knocked unconscious and later recovers and is alert. then suddenly develops evidence of increased ICP
epidural hematoma
usually mechanism of epidural hematoma
linear fracture through the temporal bone passing across the middle meningeal artery
hematoma resulting from tearing of bridging veins
subdural hematoma
where are the bridging veins located
between the arachnoid and superior sagittal sinus
hematoma more likely seen with atrophy of the brain - alzheimers or alcoholism
subdural hematoma
differentiate acute, subacute, and chronic subdural hematoma with how soon after the injury surgery is required
acute - within 24 hours
subacute - 2 to 14 days
chronic - more than 14 days
how does a cyst form in a large subdural hematoma
two neomembranes remain separate and a cyst forms between them
two causes of subarachnoid hemorrhage
1. sudden rise in systolic pressure causing rupture of weakened blood vessel wall
2. direct trauma from hyperextension or hyperrotation
differentiate contusion and hemorrhagic infarct histologically
contusion - primarily affects the crown of the gyri and spares the sulci
infarct - primarily affects the deeper sulci with less involvement of the crowns of the gyri
what happens in a person with multiple episodes of cranial trauma - chronic alcoholic
extensive healed contusions resulting in much gliosis and hemosiderin deposition leading to cerebral dysfunction
why does the anterior-inferior skull most likely cause the injury no matter the site of impact
has multiple bony projections and irregularities on the surface
explains why frontal impact results in coup injuries while occipital impact results in contrecoup injuries
the skull is accelerated into the brain causing what type of injuries
coup - contrecoup are absent due to low energy transfer to the brain
injuries to the scalp and skull may be severe, but brain damage is much less severe
stationary and supported head struck by moving object
pugilistic dementia
boxer's brain - permanent brain dysfunction from repeats episodes of trauma
what two findings suggest child abuse
retinal hemorrhages
separation of cortex from white matter
most affected cranial nerve in cerebral trauma
CN III
examples of delayed CNS effects from cerebral trauma
1. subarachnoid hemorrhages may cause communicating hydrocephalus
2. contusions and hemorrhages may result in focal gliosis and seizures
where are fat emboli found
diffuse petechial hemorrhages in the white matter
where are fat emboli from
disrupted bone marrow from severe trauma
where do spinal cord injuries most commonly occur
cervical and lumbar spine