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62 Cards in this Set

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What are the receptors for pain called?
Nociceptors
Scientists now understand that pain is not a hard-wired system connecting nociceptors to the brain. True or False?
True
When were local and local anesthesia compounds discovered?
19th century
Where do biologists think that integration of pain information is taking place?
In the spinal cord.
What are the two major categories of pain?
Chronic and acute
Give three main areas that makes a pain symptom 'acute'.
1. Mainly results from disease, inflammation or tissue injury.
2. Generally comes on suddenly, such as after trauma or injury.
3.Can usually be diagnosed and treated
Give three main areas describing chronic pain.
1. Represents the disease itself
2.Can be made much worse by environmental or psychological factors
3.Persists over a longer period of time and is resistant to most medical treatments
What are the 5 ways damage can happen to the spinal cord?
1. Concussion - tissue is jarred/irritated
2.Contusion - bleeding in spinal cord damages tissue
3.Compression - pressure on cord due to tumor or bone spur
4.Laceration - partially cut
5. Transection - severed
What is an injury to the spinal cord called that effects lower extremities and and lower abdomen?
Paraplegia
What is tetra or quadriplegia?
Paralysis from the head down
Injury to the anterior portions of the spinal; cord means ..... functions are affected.
Motor
If your senses of touch, propioception and vibration has been affected which part of the spinal cord has been damaged?
Damage to posterior aspects of the spinal cord
If senses of pain and temperature have been affected, which part of the spinal cord has been injured?
The lateral parts of the spinal cord
What is the 3rd leading cause of death in the US?

What is the most common CNS disorder?
1. Stroke
2. Stroke
What are the two most common forms of ischemic stroke?
1.Cerebral thrombosis - a clot blocks a cerebral artery

2. Embolism - fragments of clots and plaque from other parts of the body to the brain
What is another term for stroke? What is it?
1. Cerebrovascular accident - CVA

2. Lack of oxygen to the brain damaging brain cells
What is a warning sign for stroke?
TIA - Transient ischemic attack
What is the % split of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke?
80/20%
Mention up to 13 risk factors for stroke.
High blood pressure, smoking, high cholesterol, C-reactive protein, long term inflamation, atrial fibrilation, alcohol, drugs, obisity, diabetes, high estrogen birth control, hormone replacement therapy, depression and overall stress.
Up to 6 signs/symptoms for stroke?
Sudden unilateral weakness, blurry vision, slurred speech, dizziness, extreme headaches, possible loss of consciousness.
Massage for stroke victims?
Inquire about cardiovascular health.

Not if numbness or paralysis or issues with language.
What is the most common type of headache?
Tension headache
7 potential causes of tension headache?
Muscle tension, bony misalignment,
postural patterns, eyestrain, TMJ, myofascial pain syndrome, ligament irritation.
What is a vascular headache? Give some examples types of vascular headaches..
Collection of too much fluid in the head.
Could be classic migraine, migraine cluster headaches triggered by stress/food/hormones, sinus headaches
What kind of headache group is due to low blood sugar, dehydration including hangovers, hormone shifts, rebound headaches, exposure to toxins.
Chemical headache
What is the underlying problem of a traction-inflammatory headache?
Indicates serious underlying problems such as tumor, aneurysm, stroke, infection.
1.What headaches respond well to massage?
2. What headaches are sensitive to touch and other stimulus?
1. Tension headaches
2. Vascular headaches
What are the most common destinations in the brain for pain signals in sequential order?
The brain stem, then the thalmus and then the cortex.
Pain: Chemicals in brain and spinal cord transmit nerve impulses from one cell to another by binding to a receptor on the receiving cell. True or false?
True
What portions of the brain store 'body image'?
Thalmus an cortex.
1. Who put forward the 'gate-control' theory?
2. What is this theory?
1. Ronald Meizack

2. Only one of all the many sensory impulses can get to the CNS and through the 'gate' at one time, like a race.
What travels faster to the CNS, chronic pain or touch?
Touch
Pain that is projected back to an area different from the part where the receptors are stimulated is called ......?
Referred pain
What is 'radiating pain'?
Pain that travels from the original site to distant places.

Ex: Sciatica pain in lower extremities
Mention 4 ways pain receptors can be stimulated?
Injury, ischemia, irritation and pressure.
What does 'parasthesia' feel like?
Needles and pins
What is 'anasthesia; in regards to pain sensation?
Partial or total loss of sensation
What is another term for 'without pain'?
Analgesia
Describe the pain-spasm-pain cycle in 4 steps.
1. Pain causes tightening of muscles resulting in hypertonicity
2. Hypertonicity causes ischemia
3. Ischemia causes secondary pain
4. The new pain causes further tensing of muscles
2 main reasons why is massage indicated for pain reduction?
1. The increased circulation can reduce ischemia, clear out built-up waste products and decrease muscle tension
2. The gate-control theory can decrease pain
Three things MTs should always watch for in regards to cautions for massage?
Numbness, verbal/nonverbal communications and medications.
Give 2 examples of chronic degenerative disorders?
Alzheimer disease, multiple sclerosis
Give 1 example of a movement disorder?
Parkinson disease
Give 1 example of an infectious disorder?
Herpes Zoster
Give 3 examples of Nervous System injuries?
Bell palsy, spinal cord injuries and stroke
Massage for seizure disorder clients?
If no seizure activity - indicated
What is a seizure?
Millions of neurons are giving off an electric discharge.
What are the leading causes of Alzheimer Disease?
Plaques and tangles -
Plaque causes an inflammatory response and kills nearby cells.

Tangles - cells fall out of relationship and become tangled and die
What 5 issues may contribute to Alzheimer Disease?
Chronic inflammation, head injury, exposure to toxins, high cholesterol, low estrogen.
Name 6 other memory loss diseases/causes.
Vascular dementia, stroke/TIA, Parkinson disease, Lewy body dementia, Huntington disease and Mad Cow
If you gave someone medication to prevent reuptake of acetylcholine and mood behavior medications, what might they suffer from?
Alzheimer disease
Inflammation and degeneration of myelin sheaths in CNS is the cause of......?
Multiple Sclerosis -
What happens to the immune system when someone is diagnosed with an autoimmune ailment?
It starts to attack itself.
What disease is called the 'Great Imitator'?
Multiple Sclerosis
Describe most of the MS victims?
White and away from the equator, younger women.
Give up to 10 other illnesses that could look like MS?
Lyme disease, HIV/AIDS, scleroderma, vascular problems in the brain, complications with encephalitis,
herniated/ruptured disc, lupus, CNS tumor, fibromyalgia and B12 deficiency.
Massage and MS?
- Safe in remission - do NOT overstimulate
- Exacerbated by heat - consistent temperature important
Parkinson Disease - describe etiology.
Basal nuclei help with voluntary movement and need dopamine. With dopamine shortage basal nuclei won't work and voluntary movement degrades.
Massage for Parkinson disease?
Indicated - Vibration can open up rigid extremities and muscles
Another word for 'shingles'?

Describe shingles.
1. Herpes Zoster
2. Viral infection in sensory dendrites
What does PHN stand for?
Postherpetic neuraglia
Massage for Herpes Zoster?
Contraindicated while painful - may only be local contraindication
- PHN could be soothed or irritated