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26 Cards in this Set

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a) What is the link between the brain and PNS?
b) Where is this link contained
c) It goes from where to where?
a) The spinal cord
b) Within the vertabrae
c) Foramen magnum to L2
Which grows more spinal cord or bone growth?
Bone growth
What are the two types of matter within the spinal cord and where are they in relationship to each other?
The central canal is surrounded by gray matter and is H shaped on cross section
Outer layer is white matter
Describe the inside of the central canal
The central canal is filled with Cerebrospinal fluid and two tracts
Describe the two types of nerves and in which direction they go in the central canal
Ascending - sensory
Descending - motor
a) Where do spinal reflexes happen?
b) And what is another word for them?
a) In the spinal cord
b) Primal protective reflexes
How is the brain involved with spinal reflexes?
The brain is not involved.
What is a soundbite description of a 'Reflex Arc'?
A pathway where an impulse is received, goes to CNS and sends a reflexive response in return
What are the steps in the Reflex arc process?
1.Distal end of a dendrite receives a stimulus
2.Sensory neuron (afferent) takes impulse to CNS
3. The integration center is the spinal cord
4.Motor neuron (efferent) takes impulse from spinal cord
5.Effector - muscle or gland that responds
Describe the process of a stretch reflex
The stretched muscle responds by contracting to prevent it from tearing and its antagonist relaxes due to reciprocal inhibition
How many neurons are involved in a spinal reflex?
2; the sensory neuron and the motor neuron
What neurotransmitter is released by the synapse?
Acetylcholine
Describe a tendon reflex.
The stretched tendon responds by relaxing the muscle tendon to prevent the tendon from tearing and its antagonist contracts due to reciprocal inhibition
How many spinal nerve pairs are there and how are they named?
31; by where in the spinal cord area they arise from
Where do the spinal nerves attach?
At the root.
What are the spinal nerve roots called and what are their functions and where are they located?
Dorsal roots are sensory and are in the back.

Ventral roots are motor and are in the front.
Explain the concept of 'plexus' .
Braided network of spinal nerves
Name the plexuses.
The cervical plexus, the brachial plexus and the lumbosacral plexus
Where on the spinal cord does each plexus reside ?
1. the cervical plexus is C1-C5
2. The brachial plexus is C6-T1
3. The lumbosacral plexus is T12-S5
Describe what areas each plexus serves (major nerve and section of body).
1. Cervical - phrenic nerve, diaphram
2. Brachial- Median nerve (carpal tunnel), shoulder, arm
3. Lumbosacral - sciatic nerve, pelvis and legs
What parts of the vertebrae has no plexuses?
T1-T12 - serves ribs and torso
What is a dermatome?
A map of skin segments that are served by a single nerve.
Note: Skin of face and scalp are excluded.
Describe the autonomic nervous system.
- Motor division of peripheral nervous system
- controls involuntary functions
Name two divisions of ANS
Sympathetic and parasympathetic
Describe 'sympathetic' system. 5 characteristics
- fight or flight
- mobilize for emergency
- speed up body processes
- thoracolumbar output
- widespread, long lasting effect
Describe 'parasympathetic' system. 6 characteristics
- Rest and digest
- slows down body processes
- elimination, repair
- craniosacral output
- more localized, short term effects
- salivation,lacrimation, urination, defecation