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oats, groats
Common Name of Avena sativa
Family: Graminaceae
Family name of Avena sativa
Botanical Description:
An erect plant with narrow, linear leaves that grows to a height of 0.6 – 1.0 meter. The flowering top presents as spikes with 2 – 3 florets in loose panicles. The seed is used as a cereal grain. The oat seed is picked in the milking stage.
Botanical Description of Avena sativa
Part Used: Milky oat seeds
Part used of Avena sativa
Active Constituents:
Alkaloid (gramine, in seed), avenacoside triterpenoids saponins, flavones (avenacoside), mono and oligo- saccharides, nutrients (iron 39 mg/kg dry, Mn 8.5 mg/kg dry, silica, zinc 19.2 mg/kg dry, calcium, magnesium).
Active Constituents of Avena sativa
Taste/Energy: sweet, cooling, moistening (-Vata –Pitta/ +Kapha)
Taste/Energy of Avena sativa
Medicinal Actions:
Anti-depressant, cardiac tonic, demulcent, nervine, tonic to the nervous system, nutritive
Medicinal Actions of Avena sativa
It is one of the best remedies to “feed” the nervous system and acts as the premiere nervous system trophorestorative. It is indicated to restore normal function to weakened, debilitated nervous systems. It treats nervous exhaustion whether due to lifestyle or illness.
Medicinal use of Avena sativa
It is used to treat addictions and can help people rebound from addiction to caffeine, tobacco opium and other drugs.
Medicinal use of Avena sativa
It is an herb to use in treatment of any condition including nervous exhaustion, neuralgia, herpetic eruptions, cardiac weakness from nervous exhaustion, heart palpitations due to anxiety, anxiety, ADD, depression, epilepsy and insomnia.
Medicinal use of Avena sativa
Use for impotence in men under middle age from nervous exhaustion, sexual excess or nocturnal emissions.
Medicinal use of Avena sativa
If taken over time, it will strengthen the nervous system and increase stamina.
Medicinal use of Avena sativa
Treatment is usually long term with frequent dosing.
Medicinal use of Avena sativa
It is especially indicated for treatment of insomnia where the patient has difficulty staying asleep.
Medicinal use of Avena sativa
Use to treat weak or broken hair, nails and skin.
Medicinal use of Avena sativa
It is used to strengthen limbs if there is weakness or numbness.
Medicinal use of Avena sativa
It is mucilaginous and therefore is soothing and anti-inflammatory if used topically. A bath can be made putting it into a thin sock or muslin bag and added to the bath. Allow it to steep in the bath and when the water is tepid enter bath and wring sock several times. Such treatment would be used for conditions such as: pruritic insect bites, varicella, eczema, poison oak/ivy, contact dermatitis.
Medicinal use of Avena sativa
It is high in silica and is used as a nutritive and to strengthen connective tissue.
Medicinal use of Avena sativa
Toxicity: None
Toxicity of Avena sativa
Pharmacy:
Infusion: 1 heaping Tbl./qt water QD, steep until cools to room temperature or infuse overnight
Infusion: 1 heaping tablespoon of crushed milky oat seeds per cup of wate
Tincture (1:5): 5 ml TID
Fluid Extract (1:3, 1:1): 1 – 3 ml TID-QID
Pharmacy of Avena sativa
California Poppy
Common name of Eschscholzia californica
Family: Papaveraceae
Family of Eschscholzia californica
Botanical Description: A perennial with erect, hairless flowering stems that grow 10-50 cm tall. Leaves are mostly basal, numerous and finely divided. Flowers are solitary atop long stalks, yellow to orange, showy and saucer-shaped. Petals are usu 4, 1-5cm long. Stamens are numerous. Grows along roadsides, clearings, dry rocky slopes at low elevations. Native from the Columbia gorge south; widely cultivated as an ornamental and often escaping.
Botanical description of Eschscholzia californica
Part Used: Whole plant
Part of Eschscholzia californica used
Active Constituents:
Alkaloids (isoquinoline, chelerythrine, sanguinarine, chelidonine, cryptidine), flavone glycosides
Active constituents of Eschscholzia californica
Taste/Energy: bitter (-Pitta/+Vata)
Taste/energy of Eschscholzia californica
Medicinal actions:
Analgesic, antispasmodic, nervine, hypnotic, anxiolytic, sedative
Medicinal actions of Eschscholzia californica
It is a non-addictive and less powerful alternative to the Opium Poppy. It contains alkaloids with sedative and hypnotic properties but its action is to establish equilibrium and is not narcotic. It does not contain the more powerful alkaloids found in the Opium Poppy.
Medicinal uses of Eschscholzia californica
It is used to treat children with overexcitement of the nervous system and sleeplessness.
Medicinal uses of Eschscholzia californica
It also is indicated for treatment of insomnia and pain, specifically when the pain is sharp and colicky in the digestive tract or pelvis. It combines well with Piscidia, Viburnum, Stachys, Belladonna, and Aconite for the relief of pain.
Medicinal uses of Eschscholzia californica
It can be dosed throughout the day to reduce anxiety and is indicated when the patient is over-excited whether due to emotion or to pain.
Medicinal uses of Eschscholzia californica
Toxicity/Contraindications: It should not be used in pregnancy due to the uterine stimulating effects from the alkaloid, cryptopine.
Toxicity/Contraindications of Eschscholzia californica
Drug Interactions: None known
Drug interactions of Eschscholzia californica
Pharmacy:
Infusion: 1 tsp/cup water BID to QID
Tincture (1:5): 1 – 5 ml BID to QID; 1-4 ml hs to promote sleep
Fluid Extract (1:1): 1 –3 ml TID
Use as a glycerine with children
Pharmacy of Eschscholzia californica
Hops
Common name for Humulus lupulus
Family: Cannabaceae
Humulus lupulus Family
Habitat & Botanical Description:
Humulus grows in swamps and damp hedges and is cultivated through the world. It is a 3 – 6 meter tall plant that always twines to the right. The leaves are coarse, 3 – 7 lobes with petioles and a serrated margin. There are 2 – 4 cm long yellow-green female flowers. The flowers are cone like with a small seed like fruit at the base.
Habitat & Botanical description of Humulus lupulus
Part Used: Strobile or flower inflorescence
Parts of Humulus lupulus used
Active Constituents:
Bitters, flavonoids (kaempferol, quercitin), mono- and sesquiterpenes, phenol-carboxylic acids (ferulic, chlorogenic), resins (humulone, lupulone), tannins, volatile oils, 8-prenyl naringenin
Active constituents of Humulus lupulus
Taste/Energy: drying, bitter, cooling
Taste/Energy of Humulus lupulus
Medicinal Actions:
Anaphrodisiac, anodyne, bitter, hypnotic, nervine, sedative, phytoestrogenic
Medicinal actions of Humulus lupulus
It is a mild sedative, stimulating to the gastrointestinal tract and used to decrease sexual excitement. This indicates the three areas that it is most often used: insomnia, nervous GI complaints and to decrease sexual libido.
Medicinal uses of Humulus lupulus
The traditional and most popular use for this herb has been for the treatment of insomnia due to anxiety or worry. It is also a muscle relaxant to smooth and skeletal muscle and is diffusely relaxing to aid sleep. A herb pillow has been a traditional treatment for insomnia. It is not as strongly sedating as Valerian, and is usually combined with other herbs for treatment of anxiety and insomnia.
Medicinal uses of Humulus lupulus
In the gastrointestinal system, it is a bitter and is helpful to increase digestion, especially with patients that have indigestion due to anxiety. It will both tonify and strengthen the GI system while restoring normal peristalsis. It combines well with other bitters and carminatives.
Medicinal uses of Humulus lupulus
It is also phytoestrogenic and historically, young girls that would pick hops in the fields would have an early onset of menses. It is used in the first phase of biphasic formulas to balance female hormones.
Medicinal uses of Humulus lupulus
It is an aphrodisiac, esp for men and can be used to treat excessive libido as well as premature ejaculation. The sedative properties of the plant allow for increased relaxation and prolong parasympathetic stimulation which is required for maintaining erection.
Medicinal uses of Humulus lupulus
Contraindications: Pregnancy
Humulus lupulus contraindications
Drug Interactions: None known
Humulus lupulus drug interactions
Toxicity: None known
Humulus lupulus toxicity
Pharmacy:
Infusion: 1 tsp per cup TID or hs
Tincture (1:5): 2 – 5 ml TID, usually 40 – 50 ml per week maximum
herb Pillow
Topical Compresses or baths to relax muscles and reduce inflammation
Humulus lupulus pharmacy
St. John's Wort
Hypericum perforatum, spp. common name
Family: Hypericaceae
family of Hypericum perforatum, spp.
Habitat/Botanical Description:
Native to Europe and naturalized to North America. It is a 60 cm tall herbaceous plant. It has a yellowish-green hollow stem with two longitudinal opposite ridges bearing translucent, dotted leaves. The flowers are yellow with long stamens and lanceolate, sharply pointed sepals. The leaves have small perforations in the leaves compared to ornamental varieties which do not.
Hypericum perforatum, spp. habitat/botanical description
Part Used: Flowering tops
part of Hypericum perforatum, spp. used
Active Constituents:
Choline, flavones (hyperforin, hyperoside, procyanidins, quercitin), naphthodianthrones (hypericin, pseudohypericin), pectin, tannins, volatile oil
Active constituents of Hypericum perforatum, spp.
Taste/Energy: bitter, pungent, cooling (-Pitta, -Kapha/+Vata)
Taste/energy of Hypericum perforatum, spp.
Medicinal Actions:
Antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, anti-viral, nervine, vulnerary, analgesic
Medicinal actions of Hypericum perforatum, spp.
It is best known for its effects on the nervous system. It is useful for elevating mood in patients with mild to moderate depression. Treatment for this condition will require two to three months, however, some effect may be seen after several weeks. It is indicated for depression due to feelings of isolation, lack of community and a sense of being disconnected from the rest of the world.
Medicinal uses of Hypericum perforatum, spp.
It is also useful in treatment of seasonal affective disorder especially combined with light therapy. It can act somewhat like a serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, extending the half life of serotonin.
Medicinal uses of Hypericum perforatum, spp.
It has shown weak monamine oxidase inhibition in-vitro. It also seems to inhibit GABA uptake. This is an unusual combination of actions. The true mechanism or mechanisms of action are not well understood.
Medicinal uses of Hypericum perforatum, spp.
It is not indicated for the treatment of psychosis or severe depression with suicidal ideation. It may be a viable addition to standard treatment for these patients.
Medicinal uses of Hypericum perforatum, spp.
It has effects on the immune system. There are many in-vitro studies indicating an antiviral effect, especially against herpes, CMV and some influenza viruses. It has exhibited photochemical alterations of the viral capsid, inhibiting viral reproduction, inhibits transmission of the viral signals, inhibits viral maturation and interferes with the ability of the virus to inhibit host immune defenses.
Medicinal uses of Hypericum perforatum, spp.
It has also been used as a vulnerary, promoting healing and repair of wounds. Wounds heal more quickly and with less secondary infection and inflammation. It is especially useful with spinal injuries and crushing wounds to nerve-rich areas or any trauma to nerves. It may be used both topically and internally to achieve this effect. It should be considered with all chronic pain associated with nervous exhaustion or pain with a sharp shooting characteristic. The oil is used externally for neuralgia and a cream can be applied to burns.
Medicinal uses of Hypericum perforatum, spp.
It is also used to treat nocturnal enuresis. It will reduce incidents occurring during sleep, especially in children. It has also been shown to reduce the incidence of night terrors in children.
Medicinal uses of Hypericum perforatum, spp.
In TCM, it is used to treat Qi stagnation. It also regulates and circulates the Qi, tonifies kidney Qi, resolves phlegm and wheezing, and clears wet heat. It is classified within this system as drying.
Medicinal uses of Hypericum perforatum, spp.
Contraindications: Persons with identified photosensitivity as it may enhance that reaction. If patients are on high doses, they will need to monitor sun exposure, especially in more tropical climates. It is contraindicated in pregnancy due to emmenagogue effects. Since it appears to inhibit serotonin uptake and combining serotonin uptake inhibitors with monoamine oxidase(MAO) inhibitors can cause dangerous rises in blood pressure, until more information is available it would be unwise to combine it with MAO inhibitors.
Hypericum perforatum, spp. contraindications
Drug Interactions: Its use should be closely monitored when the patient is taking serotonin uptake inhibitors or in combination with MAO inhibitors. The combination of an SSRI and MAO inhibitor can lead to elevated BP. The symptoms of serotonin syndrome include confusion, fever, shivering, perspiration, diarrhea, and muscle spasm. Watch for any alteration of mental function, autonomic activity and any neuromuscular abnormality. If starting it while reducing anti-depressant drugs, watch the half-life and titrate the drug down while you titrate the herb dose up. Drug interactions with it are likely due to its effect on inducing isoenzyme (3A4) of the cytochrome P450 system. This causes increased clearance and decreased effectiveness of some medications including: cyclosporine, OCPs, indinavir, warfarin, digoxin, theophylline.
Hypericum perforatum, spp. drug interactions
Toxicity: None
Hypericum perforatum, spp. toxicity
Pharmacy:
Infusion: 1 rounded teaspoon per cup TID
Tincture (1:5): 1 – 5 ml TID
Fluid Extract (1:1): 1 – 3 ml TID
Standardized Extract: 300 mg TID, standardized to 0.3% hypericin
Hypericum perforatum, spp. pharmacy
Family: Lamiaceae
Mints have square stems & opposite leaves & volatile oils
Lavendula officinalis (Lavender)
Part Used: Flowers
Lavendula officinalis (Lavender)
Active Constituents:
Volatile Oils (linalyl acetate, linalol, cineole, limonene, geraniol), sesquiterpenes
Lavendula officinalis (Lavender)
Taste/Energy: bitter, pungent, cooling (+Pitta +Kapha)
Lavendula officinalis (Lavender)
Medicinal Actions:
Antispasmodic, carminative (dispels gas & griping), antidepressant (mild), mild hypnotic, antimicrobial
Lavendula officinalis (Lavender)
It enhances a patient’s sense of well being as it is uplifting in its nature. For depression, combine with Melissa, Rosemary, Centella, Hypericum, Avena and the adaptogens. Very mild anti-depressant.
Lavendula officinalis (Lavender)
It is restorative to nervous function, and will help return a patient to normal function when chronic stress or worry has depleted the nervous system.
Lavendula officinalis (Lavender)
It can be used to treat tension headaches, either by oral administration or by using the volatile oil on the scalp.
Lavendula officinalis (Lavender)
· In TCM, it is considered cooling and is a treatment for Qi stagnation. It regulates and circulates the Qi, calms the shen and clears heat from the body.
Lavendula officinalis (Lavender)
It is also used in the treatment of insomnia, restoring normal sleep patterns. To aid sleep, combine with Humulus, Nepeta, Valerian, Piper or Scutellaria.
Lavendula officinalis (Lavender)
It reduces muscular pain, especially when applied topically or used in a bath. Consider combining lavender with rose, Chamomile, Stachys and Scullcap in a bath to relax muscular tension and decrease muscle spasms.
Lavendula officinalis (Lavender)
· It is also indicated for use as an insecticide, in bedding, clothing, furniture, and in the garden.
Lavendula officinalis (Lavender)
It can be used diluted, alone or in combination on the skin. Do not use essential oils undiluted topically. Do no use essential oils internally.
Lavendula officinalis (Lavender)
· Its antimicrobial activity is useful topically for small cuts and abrasions. It is anti-microbial, due to the volatile oils, and is used as an anti-fungal in treatment of tinea pedis and tinea versicolor. To enhance the anti-fungal action, expose the treated area to sunlight for 15 – 20 minutes after applying. When using topically, either make a wash from an infusion or use the essential oil diluted (2-5gtts essential oil in 1 tsp oil).
Lavendula officinalis (Lavender)
Contraindication: Pregnancy
CI internally only.
Lavendula officinalis (Lavender)
Family: Asteraceae
Echinachea is in this family
Matricaria Chamomilla, Matricaria recutita (Chamomile, German Chamomile, Roman Chamomile)
Part Used: Flowers
Matricaria Chamomilla, Matricaria recutita (Chamomile, German Chamomile, Roman Chamomile)
Active Constituents:
Coumarins (umbelliferone, herniarin), flavonoids (methoxylated flavones and flavonols, apigenin, luteolin, quercitin), fatty acids, glycosides, mucopolysaccharides, salicylic acid, volatile oils (alpha bisabolol, chamazulene, tricyclic alcohols, bicyclic alcohols, dicyclic ethers)
Matricaria Chamomilla, Matricaria recutita (Chamomile, German Chamomile, Roman Chamomile)
Taste/Energy: bitter, pungent, cooling (-Pitta –Kapha)
Matricaria Chamomilla, Matricaria recutita (Chamomile, German Chamomile, Roman Chamomile)
Medicinal Actions:
Anodyne, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-spasmodic, carminative, febrifuge, diaphoetic, nervine, mild sedative, vulnerary, bitter
Matricaria Chamomilla, Matricaria recutita (Chamomile, German Chamomile, Roman Chamomile)
· In the nervous system, it has a trophorestorative (tonifying) effect, restoring normal function. It will reduce nervous irritability (restless, irritable, sensitive, argumentative, capricious). It is especially useful for children because it is so calming and gentle. It will reduce the negative effects of chronic stress on the system. It is specifically indicated to address patients whose experience of pain seems inordinate to the emotional response to the pain, especially when nerve pain is involved. It is also useful for people that are restless on trying to fall asleep or that experience nightmares. The action of it is slow and gentle, and the effects are long lasting.
Matricaria Chamomilla, Matricaria recutita (Chamomile, German Chamomile, Roman Chamomile)
· The volatile oils are the primary contributor for the anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic and antimicrobial actions. Chamazulene is the volatile oil that is converted to Azulene during distillation or infusion. The Azulene inhibits 5-lipoxygenase mediated synthesis of leukotrienes (thus is anti-inflammatory).
Matricaria Chamomilla, Matricaria recutita (Chamomile, German Chamomile, Roman Chamomile)
· In the GI tract, it is used to restore and repair mucosal integrity, so is useful in the treatment of GI ulcers. It can reduce the symptoms of GERD and promote healing of the tissue.
Matricaria Chamomilla, Matricaria recutita (Chamomile, German Chamomile, Roman Chamomile)
· It also works to reduce the spasm of gall bladder colic.
Matricaria Chamomilla, Matricaria recutita (Chamomile, German Chamomile, Roman Chamomile)
It is an excellent smooth muscle relaxer, decreasing gas and reducing spasm in the entire GI tract. This is useful for treatment of IBS, colic, gastritis and spastic diarrhea. It has been shown to protect the mucosal lining against ulcer formation caused by ingestion of both alcohol and indomethacin. Interestingly, it can treat both constipation and diarrhea. It will improve motor function and reduce spasm, making it useful in treatment of constipation and will also decrease muscle spasm, is antimicrobial, and reduce both diarrhea and nausea.
Matricaria Chamomilla, Matricaria recutita (Chamomile, German Chamomile, Roman Chamomile)
· It may be a useful alternative to ginger for the treatment of nausea.
Matricaria Chamomilla, Matricaria recutita (Chamomile, German Chamomile, Roman Chamomile)
· For the upper respiratory system, it is beneficial to reduce inflammation and catarrh. An infusion or steam inhalation is the most effective form to use for this purpose. In addition, Azulene is anti-inflammatory and a steam inhalation is a great way to breathe in the volatile oils and bring them in contact with irritated sinus and respiratory tissues.
Matricaria Chamomilla, Matricaria recutita (Chamomile, German Chamomile, Roman Chamomile)
· It is also used to treat teething babies.
Matricaria Chamomilla, Matricaria recutita (Chamomile, German Chamomile, Roman Chamomile)
· Homeopathically, keynotes for prescribing it include capricious children, oversensitivity to pain, irritability from pain, moaning and desire to be carried.
Matricaria Chamomilla, Matricaria recutita (Chamomile, German Chamomile, Roman Chamomile)
Contraindications: High dosing in early pregnancy before 12 weeks. Rarely, patients may experience hypersensitivity reactions causing contact dermatitis in those individuals allergic to plants of the Asteraceae family. Most anti-spasmodics are CI in pregnancy.
Matricaria Chamomilla, Matricaria recutita (Chamomile, German Chamomile, Roman Chamomile)
Family: Lamiaceae
Melissa Officinalis (Lemon Balm, Balm)
Part Used: Arial parts
Melissa Officinalis (Lemon Balm, Balm)
Active Constituents:
Bitters, flavonoids, resin, volatile oils (citral, citronellal, geraniol, linalol)
Melissa Officinalis (Lemon Balm, Balm)
Taste/Energy: pungent, sweet, cooling (-Kapha –Pitta)
Melissa Officinalis (Lemon Balm, Balm)
Medicinal Actions:
Anti-depressant, anti-spasmodic, anti-viral, carminative, diaphoretic, hypotensive, sedative, anti-thyroid, nervine
Melissa Officinalis (Lemon Balm, Balm)
· The use of it is indicated when there is altered function of the nervous system (restlessness, anxiety, HTN, palpitations, HA and irritability) associated with stress or hyperthyroidism. It is quite gentle and its effects are long-lasting.
Melissa Officinalis (Lemon Balm, Balm)
It is a specific treatment for children with hyperactivity.
Melissa Officinalis (Lemon Balm, Balm)
It will alleviate both depression and anxiety, naturally elevating the spirits. It brings joy and lightness to the heart.
Melissa Officinalis (Lemon Balm, Balm)
· In the GI system it works as a carminative to treat colic, poor digestion and flatulence when it is related to nervousness or anxiety.
Melissa Officinalis (Lemon Balm, Balm)
In the endocrine system, it has its primary action on the thyroid. In a hyperthyroid condition, such as Grave’s disease it will block the auto-antibodies from binding to the thyroid gland. It blocks the binding of TSH to thyroid cell membranes, prevents the incorporation of iodine into T4 and blocks conversion of T4 to T3. There are some studies that indicate these actions only occur in abnormal thyroid function, and not in euthyroid conditions. It works well with Lycopus and Leonurus in the treatment of Grave’s Disease & hyperthyroidism.
Melissa Officinalis (Lemon Balm, Balm)
It has anti-viral action and can be a useful addition to cold and flu teas and will promote free perspiration. It has anti-viral action against Herpes Simplex, both 1 and 2, when applied topically.
Melissa Officinalis (Lemon Balm, Balm)
Contraindications: Hypothyroidism, PG
Melissa Officinalis (Lemon Balm, Balm)
Family: Passifloraceae
Passiflora Incarnata (Passionflower)
Part Used: Flowers and leaves
Passiflora Incarnata (Passionflower)
Active Constituents:
Alkaloids (harman, harmoline), cyanogenic glycosides, flavonoids, glucosyl derivatives (homo-orientin, orientin, saponarin, vicenin, vitexin), volatile oils
Passiflora Incarnata (Passionflower)
Taste/Energy: bitter, cooling (-Pitta, -Kapha/ +Vata)
Passiflora Incarnata (Passionflower)
Medicinal Actions:
Anodyne, anti-spasmodic, hypnotic, sedative, hypotensive
Passiflora Incarnata (Passionflower)
Its strongest actions are as an anti-spasmodic and hypnotic.
Passiflora Incarnata (Passionflower)
It is best suited for use with patients that are restless and exhausted and where there is a tendency toward spasms. It will be less reliable with patients that have normal vitality.
Passiflora Incarnata (Passionflower)
· It is effective against imbalances arising from excessive tension and spasm, chronic over achievement with depletion of nervous function, worry, exhaustion from a long illness or old age.
Passiflora Incarnata (Passionflower)
It is a gentle sedative and will normalize all aspects of sleep without the patient feeling altered. It is especially indicated for individuals that lay awake at night unable to quiet their minds or unable have restful sleep.
Passiflora Incarnata (Passionflower)
It is a good antispasmodic herb and is effective in spastic conditions such as: asthma, dysmenorrhea, spastic cough, IBS, and colic.
Passiflora Incarnata (Passionflower)
It may be used to treat hypertension and heart palpitations that arise from anxiety or stress but it is best used in combination with other herbs to be effective.
Passiflora Incarnata (Passionflower)
· It may also be useful as an addition to a formula designed to treat pain, however, it is a gentle anodyne. This plant is safe for children and in long-term formulas.
Passiflora Incarnata (Passionflower)
· In TCM, it is considered a shen stabilizing herb, it tonifies heart yin, treats liver yang rising, regulates Qi stagnation and clears internal wind.
Passiflora Incarnata (Passionflower)
· According to legend, it was named for its ability to inspire spiritual love energy in humans.
Passiflora Incarnata (Passionflower)
Contraindications: PG due to harman and harmoline which stimulate the uterus. Use also contraindicated with other CNS depressants. Or while operating machinery.
Passiflora Incarnata (Passionflower)
Family: Rubiaceae
Pausinystalia yohimbe, Coryanthe yohimbe (Yohimbe)
Part Used: Bark
Pausinystalia yohimbe, Coryanthe yohimbe (Yohimbe)
Active Constituents:
Indole alkaloids
Pausinystalia yohimbe, Coryanthe yohimbe (Yohimbe)
Medicinal Actions:
Aphrodisiac, Lipolytic, sympatholytic (in small doses) more sympathomimetic
Pausinystalia yohimbe, Coryanthe yohimbe (Yohimbe)
It is an alpha-2 antagonist.
Pausinystalia yohimbe, Coryanthe yohimbe (Yohimbe)
· The alkaloid blocks the alpha 2 receptor sites on the paraventricular nucleus in the CNS, inhibiting the feeling of hunger.
Pausinystalia yohimbe, Coryanthe yohimbe (Yohimbe)
· It is also useful as a weight loss agent due to binding to alpha-2-adrenergic receptors on the cell membranes of fat cells. The result of this action is to allow more NE to bind to β1 adiposities which encourages fat cells to burn rather than store fat. It is most effective on truncal obesity.
Pausinystalia yohimbe, Coryanthe yohimbe (Yohimbe)
· The sexual stimulant effect is due to the alpha-adrenergic blocking action. Alpha-adrenergic blocking agents interfere with the (increases release of NE) transmission of stimuli through pathways that normally allow sympathetic nervous excitatory stimulation. It prolongs the ability of the body to sustain parasympathetic innervation. In order for sexual arousal to occur, parasympathetic innervation needs to be predominant. It is most effective in men unable to obtain erection due to functional problems. In women it increases libido and increases vaginal lubrication.
Pausinystalia yohimbe, Coryanthe yohimbe (Yohimbe)
·
Contraindications: persons with renal disorders, children and pregnancy.
Pausinystalia yohimbe, Coryanthe yohimbe (Yohimbe)
Toxicity: Large doses and prolonged use may cause urinary retention, hyperhidrosis, hypertension, tachycardia, irritability, anxiety, tremor, nausea, vomiting and depression.
Pausinystalia yohimbe, Coryanthe yohimbe (Yohimbe)
Drug Interactions: None demonstrated, however caution is indicated in patients on pharmaceutical medication for the treatment of heart disease, depression and neurological disease.
Pausinystalia yohimbe, Coryanthe yohimbe (Yohimbe)
Family: Piperaceae
Piper methysticum (Kava Kava)
Part Used: Rhizome
Piper methysticum (Kava Kava)
Active Constituents: Resin
Piper methysticum (Kava Kava)
Taste/Energy: pungent, warm (-Kapha/ +Pitta)
Piper methysticum (Kava Kava)
Medicinal Actions:
Analgesic, anti-convulsant (mild), antifungal, anti-spasmodic, anxiolytic, hypnotic, sedative , anesthetic
Piper methysticum (Kava Kava)
It relaxes the body while increasing mental alertness. Its primary action is on the CNS. In small doses it produces a sense of euphoria and larger or repetitive doses cause extreme relaxation leading to sleep. It helps to promote sleep and relaxation without decreasing mental cognition.
Piper methysticum (Kava Kava)
· It reduces anxiety while improving vigilance, memory and reaction time. It also has anti-depressant effects, promoting a sense of well being. It is most useful in treatment of non-psychotic anxiety and mild to moderate depression. It does not decrease psychomotor function. It is not addictive. It is a good acute medicine for anxiety states or as a prophylactic to prevent anxiety attacks.
Piper methysticum (Kava Kava)
· Because of the smooth muscle relaxing properties, it is of great use for the gastrointestinal tract. Any GI spastic condition will benefit from use of it including: stone passage, spasm of UTI, IBS and acute cholecystitis.
Piper methysticum (Kava Kava)
It also has the ability to relax skeletal muscle. It has been used to treat muscle spasm and tension headaches. It is more effective in smaller than in larger doses. It combines well with Stachys, Viburnum and Lobelia for the muscle relaxing effects.
Piper methysticum (Kava Kava)
· It is also a local anesthetic and analgesic. One of the earliest known uses for it was in treatment of pain of urinary conditions. It is especially effective in reducing the pain and inflammation of interstitial cystitis and UTI. It is a mild diuretic and has a tonifying effect on function of the bladder and mucosal lining of the system.
Piper methysticum (Kava Kava)
In TCM, it is used to clear dampness and phlegm patterns. It is used to treat kidney Qi deficiency with wetness, spleen deficiency with wetness and relieves anxiety and depression.
Piper methysticum (Kava Kava)
It was used by the inhabitants of the south sea islands as a social lubricant. Usually the root is chewed to mix it with saliva, which activates the release of resins. It is then mixed with water or coconut juice. When first imbibed, the mouth is numbed; the person begins to feel relaxed. It has been used as an aphrodisiac due to the relaxation and feeling of warmth and heart centered energy that is triggered. Rosemary Gladstar asserts that, “There can be no hate in the heart when one has it.”
Piper methysticum (Kava Kava)
Contraindications: In higher doses, it may reduce muscle control. Do not use high doses while operating machinery. Contraindicated in pregnancy and nursing.
Piper methysticum (Kava Kava)
Toxicity: Human studies at therapeutic levels have failed to show a toxic effect. Does greater than 9 grams a day can elevate liver enzymes. Alcohol extractions or consumption increases toxicity. Prolonged use of a dose of 400 mg or more of isolated lactones daily can produce a pigmented, scaly, dry rash. It remits when dosage is stopped.
Piper methysticum (Kava Kava)
Family: Laminaceae
Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary)
Part Used: Leaves and flowers
Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary)
Active Constituents: diterpenes, flavonoids (apigenin, diosmetin, diosmin, others), phenols , volatile oil (borneol, camphene, camphor, cineole, isobutyl acetate, limonene, linalool, terpineol, 3-octanone, verbenol)
Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary)
Taste/Energy: pungent, bitter, heating and dry (-Kapha –Vata/+Pitta)
Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary)
Medicinal Actions: Anti-depressant, carminative, circulatory stimulant, antispasmodic, antiseptic, choleretic, cholagogue, nervine, astringent, anti-apasmodic
Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary)
It is a circulatory stimulant, relaxing smooth muscle spasm, especially in arterioles and venules, enhancing blood flow to tissues. It has a tropism for cerebral vessels, so is especially effective in improving blood circulation to the brain and head. This can improve vision and memory, improve cognition and depression as well as aid in premature hair loss. It has been used to slow cognitive decline.
§ Tinnitis
§ Alzheimer's
§ Topically for hair loss
Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary)
· It also has a positive inotropic action on myocardial muscle and increases coronary blood flow so is strengthening to the heart. It is beneficial to use it for any cardiac weakness such as, hypotension or congestive heart failure.
Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary)
It is an effective tonic for deficient patients. It stimulates appetite and tonifies circulation and the nervous system, enhancing a sense of well-being and alertness.
Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary)
It is an effective tonic for deficient patients. It stimulates appetite and tonifies circulation and the nervous system, enhancing a sense of well-being and alertness.
Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary)
· It is also an excellent carminative, reducing gas and bloating after meals.
Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary)
The baths are stimulating, refreshing and tonic especially to run-down and hypotensive individuals. Externally, the essential oil can be applied to treat rheumatism and acute pains.
§ Refreshing or rejuvenating
Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary)
· Specific indications for use are pale, thin, weak individuals with weak digestion; cool skin; depression, nervousness, anxiety; weak cerebral circulation; headaches associated with weak liver function.
Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary)
It is a hot and dry herb. As such, it is most effective when treating cold conditions such as headache due to cold, coldness of the stomach, wind in the stomach and bowels, all external pains from a cold and moist cause
Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary)
Contraindications: Pregnancy due to emmenagogue effects.
Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary)
Family: Lamiaceae
Scutellaria laterifolia (Skullcap, Hoodwort, Quaker Bonnet, Helmet Flower)
Part Used: Leaf, stem and flower
Scutellaria laterifolia (Skullcap, Hoodwort, Quaker Bonnet, Helmet Flower)
Active Constituents: Flavonoid glycoside, iridoids (catalpol), minerals, tannins, waxes.
Scutellaria laterifolia (Skullcap, Hoodwort, Quaker Bonnet, Helmet Flower)
Taste/Energy: bitter, cooling (-Pitta, -Kapha)
Scutellaria laterifolia (Skullcap, Hoodwort, Quaker Bonnet, Helmet Flower)
Medicinal Actions: Antispasmodic, sedative, nervine
Scutellaria laterifolia (Skullcap, Hoodwort, Quaker Bonnet, Helmet Flower)
It is indicated for patients that are fearful, have restless sleep or insomnia, cardiac irritability, muscle tension and spasm. It calms and tonifys the nervous system.
Scutellaria laterifolia (Skullcap, Hoodwort, Quaker Bonnet, Helmet Flower)
It is often used for its ability to relax smooth muscle. This effect is especially enhanced when the cause of the spasm is due to underlying nervous tension or anxiety. Due to this antispasmodic action. It is added to formulas to treat asthma, headaches (migraine and tension) and IBS.
Scutellaria laterifolia (Skullcap, Hoodwort, Quaker Bonnet, Helmet Flower)
· Specifically, use this when there is irritation of the nerve conduction in the brain or spine seen in seizures or epilepsy. It is also indicated when states of heightened anxiety manifest as tremors or muscular tics. By controlling nervous irritability and muscular incoordination it gives rest and permits sleep. It allays excitability and restores control over deranged sensory and motor function.
§ Normalizes nerve conduction in the brain.
Scutellaria laterifolia (Skullcap, Hoodwort, Quaker Bonnet, Helmet Flower)
· It can be used to ease withdrawal from reduction of tranquilizers or sleeping pills.
Scutellaria laterifolia (Skullcap, Hoodwort, Quaker Bonnet, Helmet Flower)
Family: Tiliaceae
Tilia Europea, Tilia Cordata, Tilia platyphyllos (Linden Tree, Lime Flower)
Part Used: Flowers
Tilia Europea, Tilia Cordata, Tilia platyphyllos (Linden Tree, Lime Flower)
Active Constituents:
Flavonoids (hesperidin, quercitin, others), mucilage ( arabino-galactans), phenolic acids (chlorogenic, caffeic), tannins, volatile oils (farnesol)
Tilia Europea, Tilia Cordata, Tilia platyphyllos (Linden Tree, Lime Flower)
Taste/Energy: slightly sweet, slightly spicy, cooling
Tilia Europea, Tilia Cordata, Tilia platyphyllos (Linden Tree, Lime Flower)
Medicinal Actions:
Anxiolytic, anti-spasmodic, diaphoretic, hypotensive, calmative
Tilia Europea, Tilia Cordata, Tilia platyphyllos (Linden Tree, Lime Flower)
It is calming to the nervous system. It will relax nervous tension and reduce anxiety.
Tilia Europea, Tilia Cordata, Tilia platyphyllos (Linden Tree, Lime Flower)
· It is well tolerated, even in debilitated patients. It is mild in action and is most often used in combination with other herbs.
Tilia Europea, Tilia Cordata, Tilia platyphyllos (Linden Tree, Lime Flower)
· It is a reliable hypotensive specificially for hypertension due to nervous tension or atherosclerosis but must be used in combination as it is very gentle in its action. It is used prophylactically to reduce the formation of atherosclerosis as it decreases plaque formation.
Tilia Europea, Tilia Cordata, Tilia platyphyllos (Linden Tree, Lime Flower)
· In the immune system, this is used as a diaphoretic for reduction of fever. Its diaphoretic and nervine actions make it useful for feverish colds and flu.
Tilia Europea, Tilia Cordata, Tilia platyphyllos (Linden Tree, Lime Flower)
It is useful for hypertension and palpitations due to stress.
Tilia Europea, Tilia Cordata, Tilia platyphyllos (Linden Tree, Lime Flower)
· In TCM this is used to treat exterior wind heat. It also regulates Qi stagnation and treats liver yang rising.
Tilia Europea, Tilia Cordata, Tilia platyphyllos (Linden Tree, Lime Flower)
Family: Valerianaceae
Valeriana officinalis, Valeriana sitchensis (Valerian)
Part Used: Root
Valeriana officinalis, Valeriana sitchensis (Valerian)
Active Constituents: Alkaloids (non-volatile), iridoide esters sesquiterpene alkaloids (, alpha-kessyl alcohol, eugenyl and isoeugenyl isovalerate, bornyl acetate, bornyl acetate, faurinone, fauinols), volatile oils
Valeriana officinalis, Valeriana sitchensis (Valerian)
Taste/Energy: pungent, bitter, sweet, warming (-Vata, -Kapha/ +Pitta)
Smells like dirty feet
Valeriana officinalis, Valeriana sitchensis (Valerian)
Medicinal Actions:
Hypotensive, hypnotic, nervine, sedative, antispasmodic
Valeriana officinalis, Valeriana sitchensis (Valerian)
· The sedative action of this is due to a variety of constituents. The exact constituents and MOA of the sedative action remain unknown. These constituents have opposing and balancing actions. They seem to have a regulatory effect on the autonomic system. Some fractions are stimulating while others are sedating, so in combination they have an amphoteric effect.
Valeriana officinalis, Valeriana sitchensis (Valerian)
This is mainly used to treat insomnia, relax muscles or reduce pain. Other it include muscle tension, muscle spasm, IBS, nervous indigestion, colic, asthma, hypertension, palpitations and nervousness.
Valeriana officinalis, Valeriana sitchensis (Valerian)
· Clinical research shows that this improves overall sleep quality, shortens the time it takes to fall asleep and decreases the number of perceived awakenings during sleep. It is not addictive and will not cause lethargy or a “drugged sensation” like benzodiazepines. Its action is similar benzodiazepines but is much weaker, hence, it is a good alternative to sleep medications.
Valeriana officinalis, Valeriana sitchensis (Valerian)
· One possible mechanism by which this extract may cause sedation is by increasing the amount of gamma aminobutyric acid, GABA (an inhibitory neurotransmitter) available in the synaptic cleft. This extract may cause GABA release from and block GABA reuptake into brain nerve endings. In addition, it inhibits an enzyme that breaks down GABA. These extracts contain GABA in quantities sufficient to cause a sedative effect. Also, it contains glutamine, which after it crosses the blood brain barrier is converted to GABA.
Valeriana officinalis, Valeriana sitchensis (Valerian)
It can be used as an anxiolytic at lower doses throughout the day in combination with other calming herbs.
Valeriana officinalis, Valeriana sitchensis (Valerian)
This is often added to formulas to treat hypertension. Not only is it calming and antispasmodic, but it also contains alkaloids that are mildly hypotensive. It would be best to add it to other hypotensive herbs to have a significant effect on blood pressure.
Valeriana officinalis, Valeriana sitchensis (Valerian)
· Some individuals may have an idiosyncratic reaction to it and be stimulated instead of sedated.
Valeriana officinalis, Valeriana sitchensis (Valerian)
n TCM, this is used for Qi stagnation. It also is used to calm the shen, tonify Yin, relieve heart and kidney yin deficiency, and clear yin deficiency heat.
Valeriana officinalis, Valeriana sitchensis (Valerian)
Contraindications: Excess heat conditions, PG, lactation.
Valeriana officinalis, Valeriana sitchensis (Valerian)
Drug Interactions: Use caution when patient is also taking Benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants.
Valeriana officinalis, Valeriana sitchensis (Valerian)