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40 Cards in this Set

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afferent
Sensory. Carries from receptors to CNS
Efferent
Motor. Carries from CNS to muscles
Sensory
Same as afferent
Somatic
Same as Efferent
Autonomic
the father system that subdivides into PNS & SNS
ANS
Centers, nuclei, tracts, ganglia, and nerves involved in the unconscious regulation of visceral functions; includes components of CNS and PNS
cranial nerves
peripheral nerves originating at the brain
spinal nerves
31 pairs of nerve that originate on the spinal cord form anterior and posterior roots
neurons
a cell in neural tissue that is specialized for intercellular communication through changes in membrane potential and synaptic connections
glial
cells of the CNS and PNS that support and protect neurons
astrocytes
one of four types of neuroglia in the CNS responsible for maintaining the BBB by stimulation of endothelial cells
oligodendrocytes
CNS neuroglia that maintain cellular organization within gray matter and provide a meylin sheath in areas of white matter
Microglia
phagocytic neuroglia in the CNS
Ependymal cells
layer of cells lining the ventricles and central canal of the CNS
BBB
isolation of the CNS from the general circulation; the result of astrocyte regulation of capillary permeability
schwann cells
neuroglia responsible for surrounding axons in sheaths in PNS
ganglia
collection of neuron cell bodies outside the CNS
Satelitte cells
provide nutrients and cushion cells for neurons and PNS
grey matter
areas in the CNS dominated by neuron cell bodies, neuroglia, and unmyelinated axons
White matter
regions in CNS dominated by MYELINATED axons
Neuron
cell in neural tissue specialized for intercellular communication through changes in membrane potential and synaptic connections
dendrites
sensory process of a neuron (Receiving end)
cell body
body of a neuron; also called soma
perikaryon
cytoplasm that surrounds nucleus in cell body of a neuron
nissl bodies
ribosomes, golgi, rough ER, and mitochodnria of perikaryon of a typical neuron
axon hillock
elongate extension of a neuron that conducts an action potential
initial segment
proximal portion of the axon where an action potential first appears
axon
elongate extension of a neuron that conducts an action potential
collateral branches
dont know
telodendria
terminal axonal branches that end in synaptic knobs
synaptic knob
the part of the synapse that resembles a bulb before it reaches another neuron or terminal ending
neurotransmitters
bla bla
synaptic cleft
gap between the end of a neuron and its joining of another
neuromuscular junction
a synapse between a neuron and a muscle cell
myelin
insulating sheath around an axon; consists of multiple layers of neuroglial membrane; significantly increases the impulse propagation rate along the axon
nodes of ranvier
area between adjacent neuroglia where myeling covering of an axon is incomplete
asolemma
no idea
neurolemma
outer surface of a neuroglia that encircles an axon
presynaptic cell
synaptic surface where neurotransmitter release occurs
postsynaptic cell
portion of membrane part of synapse