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39 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the 2 basic steps neurons take in regulating physiologic processes?
axonal conduction: conducting an action potential down the axon
& synaptic transmission: carrying information across the gap between neuron and postsynaptic cell
What are the only drugs that alter axonal conduction?
local anesthetics suppress transmission in any nerve they reach
What are the 5 steps in synaptic transmission?
1) transmitter synthesis
2) transmitter storage
3) transmitter release
4) receptor binding
5) termination of transmission
What are three ways in which a transmitter action is terminated?
1) reuptake
2) enzymatic degradation
3) difussion
How do all neuropharmacological agents produce their effects?
either directly or indirectly altering receptor activity
What is receptor activation, anyway?
an effect on receptor function equal to that produced by the natural neurotransmitter at that synapse
What effects can a drug have on transmitter synthesis?
it can increase, decrease, or cause the synthesis of a more effective transmitter than the natural one
Why does interferring with transmitter storage cause receptor activation to decrease?
Disrupting storage depletes storage vesicles of their transmitter content, leaving less transmitter available for release
What are the 3 principal functions of the ANS?
1) regulation of the heart
2) regulation of the secretory glands
3) regulation of smooth muscles
What is the mechanism of neostigmine (Prostigmin)?
Cholinesterase inhibitor:
prevents the enzyme from inactivating ACh, increasing the amount of ACh available at the receptor sites
What are two therapeutic uses for neostigmine (Prostigmin)?
1) myasthenia gravis: increases muscle strength

2) reverses nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents after surgery
What are the side effects of neostigmine (Prostigmin)at what are they caused by?
GI motility, bradycardia, GI secretions, urinary urgency, etc. d/t excessive muscarinic stimulation
How can side effects of neostigmine (Prostigmin)be treated?
muscarinic effects can be treated with atropine
What is the mechanism of action of tubocurarine (Tubarine) & succinylcholine (Anectine)?
neuromuscular blocking agents:
block ACh at neuromuscular junction resulting in muscle relaxation and hypotension. Does not cross blood/brain barrier; complete paralysis can be achieved without LOC or decreased pain sensation
What are the therapeutic uses of tubocurarine (Tubarine) & succinylcholine (Anectine)?
*adjunct to general anesthesia to promote muscle relaxation
*control spontaneous respiratory movements in ventilated pts
*succinylcholine: seizure control d/t ETC; et tubes & endoscopy
What are the most serious side effects of tubocurarine (Tubarine) & succinylcholine (Anectine)?
respiratory arrest from paralyzed respiratory muscles

malignant hyperthermia (muscle rigidity & high temp)
drugs that mimic or activate receptor activity
Agonists
drugs that block or decrease activation of a receptor
Antagonists
How is the PNS divided?
somatic motor
autonomic
*parasympathetic
*sympathetic
How to poisons affect PSNS?
actions are stuck "on":
increased GI secretion, slowed HR, incontinent bowel/bladder, pupil constriction, bronchial constriction
what is the only organ that does not receive dual enervation of the SNS and PSNS?
vascular system (blood vessels)
What are the prinipal neurotransmitters of the PNS?
acetylcholine
norephinephrine
epinephrine
dopamine (mainly in CNS)
What neurotransmitters mediate the cholinergic receptors, and with branch of the PNS do they affect?
acetylcholine; PSNS
What neurotransmitters mediate the adrenergic receptors, and with branch of the PNS do they affect?
epinephrine & norepinephrine; SNS
What is the most important feedback loop of the ANS and why?
baroreceptor reflex regulates blood pressure
What are the subtypes of adrenergic receptors?
α1 α2
β1 β2
dopamine
What are the subtypes of cholinergic receptors?
muscarinic
nicotinic m
nicotinic n
Where are α1 receptors located?
eyes, vessels, bladder and prostate
Where are the β1 receptors located?
heart and kidneys
What effect does β1 activation have on the heart?
increases: force of contraction, heart rate, and velocity of AV node conduction
What effect does β1 activation have on the kidney?
renin release
Where are β2 receptor sites located?
arteries, lungs, uterus,liver, skeletal muscle
What effect does β2 activation have on the arteries?
vasodilation
What effect does β2 activation have on the lungs?
bronchiodilation
What effect does β2 activation have on the skeletal muscle?
enhanced contraction
What effect does β2 activation have on the uterus?
relaxation of the uterine muscle
What effect does β2 activation have on the liver?
glycogenolysis
mechanism of action of bethanechol
muscarinic agonist: direct-acting, reversable
therapeutic uses of bethanechol
nonobstructive urinary retention
GERD
Ileus
post-operative abdominal distention