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75 Cards in this Set

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What are meninges?
Meninges are specialized membraines that surround the cerebrun and spinal cord.
Name two subdivisions of meninges?
Cranial meninges and spinal meninges.
What is dura mater?
Dura is the outermost superficial covering of the cerebrum and spinal cord.
How soed the dura mater differ in the vertebral colum in comparison to the cranium?
in the skull: the outermost layer of the dura mater is fused to the skull. it helps to ancor the cerebrum in place. In the sppine: the outer layer of the dura is not attached to the vertebrae.
what is the functional sugnifiance of the epidural space in the vertebral column.
A layer of adipose tissue between the vertebra and the dura mater. epidurals are ofter given in this area to releive pain during childbirth.
what is the arachnoid? what cell type does it consist of.
It is cobweb like.it is the middle meninge. it is a layer of squamous cells.
what space is located beneath the arachnoid? What soes it contain?
The sub arachnoid. it is a space filled with CSF.
What is the Pia mater? what is it firmly attached to?
Inner most meninge. delicate, sits on the surface of the cerebrum.
List some general characteristics of the brain.
Weighs 3 lbs.
Very metabolicaly active.
Uses alot of ATP.
Complex (35 billion neurons)
The outer regoin composed of gray mater. The inner frgion is composed of white mater.
Regulates emotions, intelligence, memory, concious, ect.
what are the 6 major regions of the brain?
Cerberum, Diencephalon, Midbrain, Pons, Medula Oblongata, and Cerebellum
What is the cerebrum divided into?
2 hemispheres right and Left. it is the superior part of the brain.
What are ventricles? How many are there? Where are they located?
Ventricles are hollow internal cavites filled with CSF. there are 4 ventricles found within the cerebrum.
What fluid is located within the ventricles of the brain and the spoinal cord?
CSF
is the cerebrum well vascularized? why?
Yes, You need lots of O2 ond glucose to make ATP. Both are needed to maintain high metabolic activity of the cerbrum.
what is the circle of Willis?
A circular rout found at the base of the cerebrum. cercbral arteries branch into arterials then into capillaries.
What is the BBB?
Blood Brain barrier.
Cerebral capillaries form the BBB. the capillaries are not fenestrated. Cells have tight junctions and thick basement membrain cells that compose the capillarys
What materials pass easily through the BBB?
Glucose, AA's, O2, Resp. gasses. ECT.
what materials do not pass easily through the BBB?
Pathogens. and Materials such as Drugs.
what does the BBB do?
it is a protective barier theat protects your brain from pathogens and drugs.
What is CSF?
A clear fluid. We produce aprox 500ml each day. CSF helps to deliver various materials. CSF helps to surround the exposed surfaces of the CNS via subarachnoid space. CSF is found in the ventricles of the brain and in the spinal cord. it protects from physical injury by absorbing shock.
What materials does the CSF transport?
Nutrients ie. Glucose.
Resp gasses. ie. CO2 and O2
Hormones
ions
What transport mechanism do these materials utilize when entering the CSF from interstitial fluid?
Deffusion
what produces CSF?
Epindymal cells associated with a special capillary system produces CSF called chorcid plexus is lines brain ventricles.
What is Hydrocephaly?
water on the brain. The CSF isn't draining into the spinal cord. CSF is backed up into the brain.
Where is the cerebral cortex located on the cerebrum? What is it composed of and describe its color.?
The cerebral cortex is located externally. it is the superficial region. It is composed of gray matter, which is Un mylinated nerve fibers.
What lies beneath the cerebral corte?.
White matter composed of mylinated nerve fibers. Embeded in the white mater are oval masses of gray matter.
what are Gyri?
elevated ridges at the cerebral cortex.
what is sulci?
Shallow groves or valleys between the gyri.
What are fissures? What is the longitudial fissure?
fissures are deep groves. the longitudinal fissure is a dep grove that divides the brain into a right and left hemisphere.
what is the signifiance of the ammount of gyri?
It is believed that the more gyri a species has the more intelligent the are.
What are some of the different lobes of the cerebrum named after?
Frontal Lobe
Parietal Lobe
Occipital Lobe
Temporal Lobe
What are located within various lobes of the cerebrum?
SENSORY Areas:recieve information
aSSOCIATION Areas: recieves information from many areas.
MOTOR Area: initates a motor response.
Receives visual information.
Visual Cortex
Responsible for coordinating learned body movements.
Somatic motor association
Allows for visual tracking to occur.
Visual association area
Receives auditory information.
Auditory cortex
receives sensation of taste.
Gustatory cortex
Allows you to pinpoint origination of a touch sensation.
Primary sensory Cortex. and somatic sensory association area.
Receives information from touch, temperature, pressure, and pain receptors.
Primary sensory cortex
controls couuntary muscular contractions
Primary motor cortex
Allows you to distinguish sound as noise, music or speach
Auditory association area
Rrecrives sensation of smell.
Olfactory cortex
Allows for recognition of what is seen.
Visual association srea
Intergrates sensory information to produce an understanding of an object being felt
Somatic sensory association area
Sense of self and you actions. Heart of you concience.
Pre-frontal cortex
What is the function of Wernicke's area? where is it found?
wernicks is found in the Left hemisphere. It receives sensory information from all the sensory association areas. Interprets instructions and informtion that is seen, heard, or read.
Damage to the wernicke's area will hav ewhat affect?
Will have difficulty understanding spoken written or visual commands.
what is the function of Broca's area? is it found in both cerebral hemispheres?
Associated with Wernicke' s area L hemisphere. ((( SPEACH area)))
regulates patterns of breathing and vocalization for speach to occour.
Damage to Broca's area will have what affect?
Potential of no speach, or they may be able to talk constantly but use the wrong words. (babbling).
What is the split brain concept? What structure allows for information to pass freely between hemispheres?
One hemisphere is more dominate than the other in preforming task. The corpus callosum allows information ot travel from one hemisphere to the next.
What characteristics are associated with the left hemisphere?
90% of prople are left hemisphere dominate. L is responsibe for language, logic, thinking, reading, writing, speachs, The Left hemisphere controls the right side of the body.
What characteristics are associated with the right hemisphere?
Controls the Left side of the body. Controls spatial, visual skills. artistic awareness, imigination, poetry, music, ect.
What is an EEG. Why are they diagnostically useful?
Electroencephalogram; It is a non invasive means of monitoring nervous impulse's of the brain. it shows an electrical pattern of the brain.
What is the brain wave pattern found in normal resting adults?
Alpha. is is regular consistant waves.
What is the brain wave pattern normally found during intense concentration.
Beta. the pattern consists of infrequent waves.
what is the brain wave pattern normally found in children and in frustrated adults.
Theta
What is the name of the brain wave pattern normally found in deep sleep of adults and in certain pathological states.
Delta
What happens to neurons durring a seizure?
They og wild
What is memory?
Memory is the storage and retrevial of information.
Is remembering you adderss on example of a Fact or Skil memory?
fact
Is remembering how to play the piano and ride a bike an example of a fact or skill memory?
Skill
What ar eeshort term memories.
Memories that last hours days weeks or even a month.
What are long term memories?
Memories that last years or a lifetime.
whare are long term memories stored?
Regions of the cercbral cortex, hippocampus, and amygudala deep in the brain.
How are short term memories converted into long term memories?
Through repitition. or a shocking event. also when you are able ot make an association of old information with new information.
What is amnesia?
There are two types.
Anterograde: is the loss of STM. it samades the hippocampus and amygdala. long term memories are in tact but you cant form new ones.
Retrograde: Loss of LTM, tramatic injury loss of identy. it can be reservisible in some cases.
What are basal gangila? Where are they located?
Basal gangalia are paired masses of gray matter burried deep within the white matter of the brain in each ceriberal hemisphere.
what are the functions of basal ganglia?
Subconcious controll of skeletal muscle and cordination of learned muscular movement provide the basic movement of the movement. ie. arm movement while walking.
what is the limbic system?
a functional system made up of horse shoe shaped structures that encircle the brain stem. ie. the hippocampous and the lofactory cortex.
What are the functions of the lymbic system?
responsible for emotional state. ie. happy, mad, sad, glad, ect.
It is also responsible for long term memory storage and retrevial.
what are the three components of the diencephalon?
EPITHALAMUS ( pine cone shap[ed gland, secreats melatonin, helps with sleep.
THALAMUS
HYPOTHALMUS
Define the thalamus?
Oval paired masses of gray matter burried deep within white matter.
wha tis the function of the thalamus?
It is the "Post office" it routs specific sensory information to specific areas of the cerebral cortex. It plays a roll in screening out insugnificant sensory information.
Define the Hypothalamus?
The regon below the thalamus.
What are the functions of the hypothalamus? name 6
1. regulates body temp through dection of pyrogens.
2. Hunger / Staiety (satiety is when the stomach streches and the henger center turns off.
3. Thirst center / staiety
4. secretes hormones
5. helps with maintaining waking and sleeping patterns.
6. Plays a roll in subconcious skeletal muscle contraction, associated with rage. pain, and sexual stimulation.