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91 Cards in this Set

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blood-brain barrier
Mechanism that blocks specific substances found in the bloodstream from entering the brain
cell body
Division of a neuron that includes the nucleus, cell organelles, and surrounding cytoplasm, but does not include the axon or dendrites
motor neuron
Physiological change transmitted trhough certain tissues, specially nerve fibers and muscles, resulting in activity or inhibition
neurology
Branch of medicine concerned with diagnosis and tratment of disorders of the nervous system
neurotransmitter
Chemical substance that transmits or inhibits nerve impulses at a synapse
organelle
Cytoplasm structure that provides specialized function for the cell
psychiatry
Branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders
sensory neuron
Neuron that transmits impulses from receptors in the skin, sense organs, and internal organs to the central nervous system (brain or spinal chord); also calles afferent neuron
synapse
Junction where a nerve impulse passes from an axon terminal to a neuron, muscle cell, or gland cell
cerebr/o
cerebrum
cerebr/o/tomy: incision of the cerebrum
crani/o
cranium(skull)
crani/o/malacia: softening of the cranial bones
dendr/o
tree
dendr/oid: resembling a branching tree such as cytoplasmic branches of a neuron
encephal/o
brain
encephal/0/cele: herniation of the brain
gangli/o
ganglion(knot or knotlike mass)
gangli/ectomy: excision of a ganglion
gli/o
glue;neuroglial tissue
gli/oma: tumor composed of neurological or supporting tissue of the nervous system
lex/o
word/phrase
dys/lex/ia: difficulty using and interpreting written forms of communication
kinesi/o
movement
brady/kinesia: slow movement
lept/o
thin,slender
lept/o/mening/o/pathy: disease of the leptomeninges
mening/o
meninges(membranes covering brain and spinal cord)
mening/o/cele: herniatin of the meninges through skull or spinal column
meningi/o
meningi/oma: slow-growing tumor that originates in the meninges
myle/o
bone marrow; spinal cord
inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord
narc/o
stupor numbness;sleep
narc/o/tic: relating to or producing stupor or sleep
neur/o
nerve
neur/o/lysis: loosening of adhesions surrounding a nerve
sthen/o
strength
hyper/sthen/ia: abnormal strength with excessive tension in all parts of the body
radicul/o
nerve root
radicul/algia: pain in the nerve roots
thec/o
sheath(usually refers ti meninges)
intra/thec/al: pertaining to the space within a sheath,especially in the meninges
thalam/o
thalamus
thalam/o/tomy: incision of the thalamus to treat intractable pain or psychoses
ton/o
tension
dys/ton/ia: any abnormality in muscle tone
ventricul/o
ventricle(of heart or brain)
ventricul/o/metry: measurement of intraventricular cerebral pressure
algesia
pain
an/algesia: abscence of a normal sense of pain
algia
pain
syn/algia: referred pain
asthenia
weakness,debility
my/asthenia: muscular weakness and abnormal fatigue
esthesia
feeling
hyper/esthesia:
increased sensitivity to sensory stimuli, such as pain and touch
kinesia
movement
hyper/kinesia: increased muscular movement and physical activity
lepsy
seizure
epi/lepsy: any disorder characterized by recurrent seizures
paresis
partial paralysis
hemi/paresis: paralysis of one side of the body; also called hemiplegia
phasia
speech
a/phasia: impairment in the ability to communicate through speech,writing, or signs because of brain dysfunction
plegia
paralysis
quadri/plegia: paralysis of all four extremities
plexy
stroke
cata/plexy: sudden, brief loss of the muscle control that commonly results in collapse
taxia
order,coordination
a/taxia: defective muscle coordination,especially when voluntary movements are attempted
trophy
development,nourshiment
disorder caused by defective nutrition or metabolism
contra
against
contra/later/al: pertaining to opposite sides
later: side, to one side
~al: pertaining to, relating to
pachy
thick
pachy/mening/itis: inflammation of the dura matter
mening: meniges (membranes covering brain & spinal cord)
~itis: inflammation
para
near,beside,beyond
para/plegia: paralysis of the lower part of the body and both legs
~plegia: paralysis
syn
union, together,joined
syn/esthesia: stimulation of one sense that causes a perception in one or more different senses
~estesia: feeling
uni
one
uni/later/al: pertaining to or affecting only one side
later: side, to one side
~al: pertaining to, relating to
agnosia
inability to comprehend auditory, visual, spacial, olfactory or other sensations
a-: without
gnos: knowing
-ia: condition
asthenia
weakness, debility or loss
ataxia
Lack of muscle
aura
premonitory awareness of an approaching physical or mental disorder; sensation that precedes seizures
autism
mental disorder characterized by extreme withdrawal and an abnormal absorption in fantasy usually accompanied by an inability to communicate
cerebral palsy
self limiting paralysis due
clonic spasm
alternate contraction and relaxation of muscles
closed head trauma
injury to the head in which the drua mater remains intact and brain tissue
coma
abnormally deep unconciousness with absence of voluntary rsponse to stimuli
dementia
broad term that refers to cognitive deficit, inclding memeory impairment
dyslexia
inability to learn and process written language despite adquate intelligence
guillain-barre syndrome
conditionof actue plyneuritis with progressive muscle weakness in extremeties
herpes zoster
painful, acute infectous disease of the posterior
Hunting chorea
inherited disease of the CNS
Hydrocephalus
accumulation of fluid on the brain
lethargy
abnormal activity or lack of repsonse to normal stimuli
neurosis
unconscious conflict that produces anxiety and othe rsyptoms and leads to maladaptive
psychosis
major emotional disorder where contact with reality is lost to point that the individual is incapable of meeting
paraestthesia
sensationof numbness, prickling, ingling, or heightened sensitivity
poliomyelitis
inflammation of the gray matter of thed spinsal cord caused by avirus
quadriplegia
paralysis of all four extremeties and usually the trunk
reye syndrome
actue encephalopathy and fatty infiltration of the brain, liver and possibly the pancreas in children younger than 15 with a viral infection
sciatica
severe pain in the leg along the course of the sciatic nerve fel at the baseof the spine
syncope
temporary loss of consciousness ude to the sudden decline of blood flow to the brain; also called fainting
trephination
technique that cuts a circular opening into the skull to reveal brain tissue and decrease intracranial pressure
vagotomy
interruption of the function of the vagus nerve to relieve peptic ulcer
AD
Alzheimers Disease
ALS
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; also called Lou Gehrig
ANS
autonomic nervous system
BEAM
brain electrical activity mapping
CNS
central nervous system
CP
cerebral palsy
CSF
cerebrospinal fluid
CT scan
computed tomography scan
CVA
cerebral vascual accident
electroencephalogram;
EEG
ICP
intracranial pressure
LOC
loss of consciousness
LP
lumbar puncture
MEG
magnetoencephalography
MRA
magnetic resonance angiogram
MRI
magnetic resonance imaging
MS
musculoskletal; multiple schlerosis
NCV
nerve conduction velocity
PET
positron emission tomography