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61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
evolutionary trends:
increased __1__ and __2__ of nerve cells
__3__ of function
increased number of __4__ neurons
more complex __5__
formation of a __6__
1. number
2. concentration
3. specialization
4. association
5. synaptic contacts
6. head
central nervous system
brain and dorsal, tubular spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
sensory receptors, nerves
CNS protected by bone and __1__, cushioned by __2__
1. three meninges: dura mater, arachnoid, pia mater
2. cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
spinal cord transmits impulses to and from __1__ and controls many __2__
1. brain
2. reflex actions
spinal cord:
peripheral nerves enter through __1__ and are bundles of neurons carrying __2__
sensory neurons split when they enter the vertebral column through __3__
motor neurons leave CNS at __4__
1. intervertebral foramen
2. sensory & motor information
3. dorsal roots
4. ventral roots
gray matter of spinal cord contains nuclei that serve as __1__
1. reflex centers
__1__ tracts transmit information __2__
1. ascending/descending
2. to/from brain
cells involved in withdrawal reflex
path of reflex action
sensory receptors, sensory neurons, interneurons, motor neurons, effectors
receptor cell -> sensory neuron -> sensory neuron's cell body in dorsal root ganglion -> synapse between sensory and interneuron -> interneuron in central canal of spinal cord -> nerve cell body of motor neuron -> muscle (effector cells)
brain development:
brain and spinal cord arise from __1__
anterior end of tube differentiates into __2__
1. neural tube
2. forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain
hindbrain is made up of __1__.
1. cerebellum, medulla, pons
cerebellum functions in __1__ (3)
medulla functions (3)
pons function
1. muscle tone, posture, equilibrium
2. vital centers, other reflex centers, communicates with central canal of spinal cord
3. connects various parts of the brain
midbrain:
center for __1__ and __2__ reflexes in reptiles, birds, and mammals.
largest part of brain in __3__ and __4__.
main __5__ area, linking __6__ and __7__
1. visual
2. auditory
3. fishes
4. amphibians
5. association
6. sensory input
7. motor output
components of brain stem
1. medulla, pons, midbrain
forebrain differentiates to form __1__ (which develops into __2__ and __3__) and __4__ (which develops into __5__ and __6__)
1. diencephalon
2. thalamus
3. hypothalamus
4. telencephalon
5. cerebrum
6. olfactory bulbs
diencephalon: thalamus:
relay center for __1__ and __2__ information, decides where __3__ go, decides which __4__ tract
1. motor
2. sensory
3. signals
4. descending
diencephalon: hypothalamus:
controls __1__ functions, links __2__ and __3__ systems, controls __4__ (3), as well as __5__ and __6__ responses (__7__ system)
1. autonomic
2. endocrine
3. nervous
4. temperature, appetite, fluid balance
5. emotional
6. sexual
7. limbic
telencephalon: cerebrum:
surface is highly folded/convoluted with deep furrows between folds (__1__), shallow grooves (__2__), and ridges (__3__). divided into __4__
1. fissures
2. sulci
3. gyri
4. right and left hemispheres
4 cerebral lobes and function
frontal - thought processes
parietal (anterior) - sensory
temporal - hearing/speech
occipital - vision
sensory areas of cerebrum receiving incoming __1__, are located in __2__ lobes, just __3__ to central sulcus. motor areas control __4__ movement and are located __5__ to central sulcus.
1. sensory
2. parietal
3. posterior
4. voluntary
5. anterior
functions of association areas of cerebrum (5)
1. link sensory and motor areas
2. learning
3. language
4. thought
5. judgement
cerebral cortex: grey matter has folds/convolutions and houses cell __1__, white matter houses cell __2__, __3__ accounts for large part of cerebral cortex and is an __4__
1. bodies
2. axons
3. neocortex
4. association area
__1__ matter of cerebrum lies beneath cerebral cortex. the __2__ is a large band of __1__ matter that connects the right and left hemisphere (fxn: __3__)
1. white
2. corpus callosum
3. relay between hemispheres for communication
in white matter of cerebrum, the __1__ has areas of __2__ matter (cluster of __3__) buried deep within __4__ matter, important centers for __5__ .
the __6__ is a layer of gray substance containing numerous deeply pigmented, __7__ cells
1. basal ganglia
2. grey
3. nuclei
4. white
5. motor function
6. substantia nigra
7. multipolar nerve
the __1__ is 4 rounded bulges on back of __2__ between cerebrum and cerebellum, arranged in pairs: __3__, which are separated from one another by __4__ and are responsible for movement of __5__ in response to __6__
1. corpora quadrigemina
2. thalamus
3. superior and inferior colliculi
4. crucial sulcus
5. head and eyes
6. sound and visual stimuli
superior colliculi are __1__ and __2__ in color than inferior, __3__ in shape, and associated with sense of __4__.
inferior colliculi are __5__ (shape), more __6__ than superior, and associated with sense of __7__
1. larger
2. darker
3. oval
4. sight
5. hemispherical
6. prominent
7. hearing
the __1__ is a cone-like structure between cerebrum and cerebellum (slight depression in __2__) which is a __3__ composed of __4__ tissue. in humans it's covered by cerebrum but has __5__ to tell it about __6__
1. pineal body
2. crucial sulcus
3. third eye
4. retinal
5. nerve connections from eyes
6. day length
the sleep-wake pattern is regulated by the __1__ and __2__. an __3__ is a recording of __4__ and indicates __5__ areas of the brain.
1. hypothalamus
2. brain stem
3. EEG
4. electrical potentials
5. active
relaxed state = __1__ waves
heightened mental activity = __2__ waves
non-REM sleep = __3__ waves with slower frequency and higher amplitude
1. alpha
2. beta
3. delta and theta
the __1__ is the arousal system. its neurons filter __2__ and select which information is transmitted to the __3__.
location: __4__
sleep is an __5__ period during which a person can be __6__
1. Reticular activating system (RAS)
2. arousal
3. cerebrum
4. through central core of medulla, pons
5. unconscious
6. aroused
REM sleep is characterized by __1__ waves and __2__. non-REM sleep is characterized by __3__ waves, __4__ slows, __5__ of cerebral cortex slows
1. beta
2. dreaming
3. delta
4. metabolic rate
5. electrical activity
stimulation of the __1__ of hypothalamus results in non-REM sleep
1. preoptic nucleus
the __1__ is the main biological clock. it receives information about __2__ and transmits it to other nuclei that regulate __3__.
1. suprachiasmatic nucleus
2. light and dark
3. sleep
__1__ nuclei in brain stem appear to be involved in producing REM sleep.
many neurons projecting from here release __2__ (involved in sleep)
1. Raphe
2. serotonin
sleep is important in __1__ and in processing __2__. not sleeping for long periods causes __3__ and __4__.
1. learning
2. memories
3. fatigue
4. irritability
limbic system includes parts of frontal lobe, temporal lobe, hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, hypothalamus, several nuclei in midbrain and the neural pathways that connect these structures.
it's responsible for __1__ aspects of behavior, __2__, __3__ behavior, __4__ responses, and __5__.
1. emotional
2. motivation
3. sexual
4. autonomic
5. biological rhythms
parts of limbic system: __1__ categorizes information and consolidates memories. __2__ evaluates incoming information and signals danger.
1. hippocampus
2. amygdala
acquiring information as a result of experience is __1__. __2__ is the process by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.
1. learning
2. memory
two types of memory
implicit memory is the unconscious memory for perceptual and motor skills
explicit memory is the factual memory of people, places, and objects
__1__ memory: recall information for up to a few minutes, involves changes in __2__ of __3__, information can be transferred to __4__.
1. short term
2. neurotransmitter receptors
3. postsynaptic neurons
4. long term memory
__1__ memory involves __2__ activation and __1__ functional changes at __3__.
1. long term
2. gene
3. synapses
1. location of memory circuits
1. throughout the brain, not one particular place
memories are store in various __1__ areas, __2__ system, __3__, and __4__.
1. associative
2. limbic
3. hypothalamus
4. thalamus
__1__ is important in complex thought processing and language, used when sounding out and learning new words. if it becomes damaged, __2__.
1. Wernicke's area
2. words can be out of order
pathway of information through nervous system
sensory input -> PNS -> CNS -> PNS -> motor output
peripheral nervous system includes __1__ pairs of nerve bundles going to and from __2__. __3__ pairs of __4__ nerves
1. 43
2. CNS
3. 12/31
4. cranial/spinal
most easily seen nerves of the PNS are __1__ nerves. functions: __2__ (4), necessary for __3__ (3), one pair supplies __4__ muscles, __5__ nerve branches to many organs (__6__), enter and leave skill via __7__ and pass through __8__ and __9__
1. cranial
2. special senses of sight, smell, taste, and balance
3. chewing, swallowing, salivation
4. neck
5. vagus
6. heart, lungs, kidney, liver, spleen, digestive
7. foramina
8. meninges
9. duramater
6 most important cranial nerves
olfactory
optic
oculomotor
trochlear
trigeminal
abducens
spinal nerves enter and leave spinal cord at __1__. 4 groups/plexes.
1. intervertebral foramen
2. cervical (head, neck, shoulders, back)
brachial (arms, chest, shoulders)
intercostal
lumbosacral (legs,hips)
PNS:
sensory = __1__
continuously inform CNS of __2__, cell bodies located in __3__, sensory doesn't imply __4__
motor = __5__
neurons transmit __6__ of CNS to appropriate __7__, cell bodies are usually located in __8__
1. afferent
2. changing conditions
3. dorsal root ganglion
4. awareness
5. efferent
6. decisions
7. muscles and glands
8. CNS
PNS:
__1__ division responds to changes in external environments and __2__ division regulates internal activities of the body
1. somatic
2. autonomic
somatic division of PNS always innervates __1__ muscle, cell bodies in CNS have long __2__, only neurons involved in carrying information from CNS to __3__, information always causes __4__
1. skeletal
2. axons
3. target muscles
4. contraction
autonomic division of PNS maintains __1__, innervates __2__ muscle and __3__, always involves 2 neurons that carry info to target (__4__), __5__ on these neurons are shorter, 2 types of stimulation (__6__)
1. homeostasis
2. smooth and cardiac
3. glands
4. one has cell body within CNS, one doesn't
5. axons
6. sympathetic, parasympathetic
sympathetic system permits body to respond to __1__. parasympathetic system influences __2__ to conserve and restore __3__.
1. stressful situations
2. organs
3. energy
sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves innervate __1__, fxn in opposite way (__2__)
1. many organs
2. sympathetic increases heart rate, parasympathetic decreases heart rate
always 2 cells involved in one __1__ signal, (where originate)
1. autonomic efferent
2. one in CNS, one outside CNS
sympathetic ganglia:
__1__ - where 2 cells meet occurring outside spinal cord, ganglia are located on each __2__ of spinal cord and are connected to __3__, chain of ganglia is __4__
parasympathetic ganglia:
located in __5__ near organs they innervate
1. synapse
2. lateral side
3. one another
4. synaptic trunk
5. terminal ganglia
drug actions and effects:
__1__ mood, increase/decrease concentrations of specific __2__ within brain
1. alter
2. neurotransmitters
CNS divided into __1__
PNS divided into __2__
1. brain and spinal cord
2. somatic and autonomic divisions
3 parts of somatic division
receptors, afferent (sensory) nerves (transmit info from receptors to CNS), efferent (motor) nerves (transmit from CNS to skeletal muscles)
3 parts of autonomic division, 2 parts of third part
receptors, afferent (sensory) nerves (transmit from receptors in internal organs to CNS), efferent nerves (transmit from CNS to glands, involuntary muscles): sympathetic nerves (stimulate activity resulting in mobilization of energy) and parasympathetic nerves (resulting in energy conservation/restoration)