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111 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Central Nervous System (CNS)
Consists of Brain and Spinal Cord
Receives and processes information
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Consists of cranial and spinal nerves
Carries information to and from the cns
Neuron
Base cell of the nervous system
Carry inpulses
Have a Cell Body, Dendrites, and Axon
Cell Body
Central portion of the neuron where the nucleus is located
Dendrites
Projections from the cell body of a neuron that collect impulses
Axon
Long projection that carries impulses away from the cell body of a neuron

End in Terminal End Fibers
Synapse
Space between the terminal end fibers of one neuron and another neuron or cell
Neurotransmitters
Chemicals that carry information across a synapse
Glial Cells
AKA Neuroglia

supportive and connective cells of the nervous system

can replicate
Myelin
White protective coating along the axons of some neurons that enables them to transmit a signal more effeciently
White Matter
tissue made of myelinated nerve fibers
Gray Matter
tissue made of unmyelinated nerve fibers
Nerve
one or more bundles of neurons
Nerve Tract
bundle of nerve fibers located within the brain or spinal cord
Ganglion
Cluster of nerve cell bodies outside of the CNS
Plexus
network of intersecting nerves
Innervation
the supply of nerves to a body part
Receptors
sites that receive sensory information
Meninges
Three connective tissue membranes that surround and protect the brain and spinal cord
Dura Mater
Tough, fibrous outer meningial layer surrounding the brain
Arachnoid
Second layer of meninges

Connected to the underlying layer with attachment strands
Pia Mater
Thin inner meningial layer surrounding the brain
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
Clear colourless watery fluid produced in the ventricles of the brain

Nourishes, cools, and cushions the brain and spinal cord
Cerebrum
Largest and uppermost part of the brain

Responsible for thought, memory, sensation, intelligence, etc
Corpus Callosum
Thick band of nerve fibers that connects the two hemispheres of the cerebrum together
Ventricles
Produce and contain the cerebrospinal fluid

there are 4
Thalamus
Relays information from the sense organs and cerebellum to the cerebrum
Hypothalamus
Located below the thalamus

Maintains homeostasis
Diencephalon
Structure consisting of the Thalamus and the Hypothalamus
Cerebellum
Motor center of the brain - produces smooth, coordinated movements - manages balance and posture
Anesthesiologist
physician who specializes in administering anesthetic agents and monitors patient during surgery
Anesthetist
Professional who administers anesthetics - not necessarily a physician
Neurologist
Physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the nervous system
Psychiatrist
Physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating mental illness - is allowed to prescribe medication
Psychologist
Professional trained to evaluate and treat emotional problems and mental illness
Cephalgia
Headache
Migraine Headache
syndrome characterized by sudden, throbbing pain, nausea, and photosensitivity
Cluster Headache
characterized by concentrated pain on one side of the head that occurs one or more times a day for weeks or months
Encephalocele
herniation of the brain through a gap in the skull
Meningocele
herniation of the meninges through a defect in the skull or spinal column
Hydrocephalus
abnormally increased amount of CSF within the ventricles of the brain
Meningitis
inflammation of the meninges - may be bacterial or viral
Alzheimer's Disease
Form of dementia

degeneration of brain structure that leads to impairment of memory, cognition and personality
Parkinson's Disease
Chronic, degenerative CNS disorder - leads to progressive loss of control over movement
Encephalitis
inflammation of the brain
Reye's syndrome
vomiting, listlessness, and disorientation that can occur during recovery from a viral infection
Tetanus
AKA Lockjaw

bacterial infection acquired through deep wounds
Amnesia
memory disturbance
Concussion
jarring or shaking of the brain
Cerebral Contusion
Bruising of the brain tissue
Cranial Hematoma
collection of blood trapped in the tissues of the brain
Conscious
alert, aware
Unconscious
unaware - unable to respond to stimuli
Syncope
fainting - brief loss of consciousness
lethargy
lowered level of consciousness characterized by listlessness, drowsiness, apathy
stupor
impaired awareness, will respond to strong stimuli
Coma
State of deep unconsciousness - no response to stimuli
Delirium
sudden onset of confusion and anxiety

Potentially reversable
Dementia
slowly progressing decline in mental ability
Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA)
AKA Stroke

damage to the brain caused by disruption of blood flow
Ischemic Stroke
occur when blood flow is blocked due to narrowing of the carotid artery or blood clots in the brain
Hemorrhagic Stroke
occur when blood vessels of the brain leak or rupture
Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)
temporary interruption of blood flow that causes numbness, blurred vision, dizziness, loss of balance
Aphasia
loss of the ability to speak, write and or comprehend the written or spoken word
Insomnia
prolonged abnormal inability to sleep
Narcolepsy
sleep disorder consisting of recurring episodes of falling asleep during the day
Somnambulism
sleepwalking
somnolence
condition of unnatural sleepiness or semiconsciousness approaching coma
myelitis
inflammation of the spinal cord
poliomyelitis
contagious viral infection that inflames the spinal cord and brainstem resulting in paralysis
radiculitis
pinched nerve due to inflammation of the root of a spinal nerve
Multiple Sclerosis
autoimmune disorder characterized by scattered patches of demylination of nerves in the CNS
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
AKA Lou Gehrig's Disease

degenerative disease of the motor nerve cells of the brain and spinal cord
Bell's Palsy
temporary paralysis of the seventh cranial nerve

Causes facial drooping
Sciatica
inflammation of the sciatic nerve which results in pain, burning, and tingling along the thigh and leg
Tic douloureux
Trigeminal neuralgia

inflammation of the fifth cranial nerve that causes intense pain on one side of the face
-triggered by touch or movement
Cerebral Palsy
condition of poor muscle control, spasticity, speech defects, and other neurological deficiencies
Epilepsy
disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of seizures or convulsions
Grand Mal Epilepsy
severe form of epilepsy characterized by generalized seizures and convulsions
Petit Mal Epilepsy
mild form of epilepsy characterized by frequent but partial seizures and no convulsions
Causalgia
persistent, severe, burning pain following injury to a sensory nerve
Hyperesthesia
excessive sensitivity to stimuli
Paresthesia
abnormal sensation in the extremities
Electroencephalography
recording of electrical activity of the brain
Myelography
radiographic study of the spinal cord with contrast media
TENS
Transcutaneous Electronic Nerve Stimulation

application of electrical impulses to the nerve endings through the skin
Analgesic
medication that relieves pain
Sedative
medication that depresses the CNS to produce calm
Hypnotic
medication that causes sleep
anticonvulsant
medication that prevents seizures and convulsions
anesthesia
absence of normal sensation
Topical anesthetic
medication that numbs the tissue surface
Local anesthetic
medication that causes loss of sensation in a limited area
Regional anesthetic
medication that causes loss of sensation in an area and is administered by injection at the root of the nerve
General anesthetic
medication that causes total loss of body sensation
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
electroshock therapy
Lobectomy
surgical removal of a portion of the brain to treat brain cancer or seizure
Neuroplasty
surgical repair of a nerve
neurorrhaphy
surgical suturing the ends of a severed nerve
neurotomy
surgical incision or dissection of a nerve
autism
group of conditions in which a young child cannot develop normal social relationships
Dyslexia
Developmental reading disorder due to the inability of the brain to process symbols
Psychotic disorders
mental disorders characterized by loss of contact with reality and deterioration of normal social functioning
schizophrenia
psychotic disorder characterized by a combination of delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, catatonic behaviour
Dissociative disorders
occur when normal thought is separated from consciousness
Depression
disorder characterized by lethargy and sadness, and a loss of interest or pleasure in normal activities
Bipolar disorders
disorders characterized by the occurence of manic or hypomanic episodes alternating with depressive episodes
Anxiety disorders
characterized by anxiety or fear out of proportion to real danger
phobia
persistent, irrational fear of a specific thing or situation
somatoform disorders
characterized by physical complaints or concern's about one's body which are out of proportion to reality
Factitious disorders
condition in which a person acts as if he or she has a physical ailment when they are not really sick