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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define stroke.
An 'abrupt onset' of focal or global neurological symptoms caused by ischemia or hemorrhage lasting >24 hours.

3rd leading cause of death.
Define TIA.
Transient ischemic attack - the term used if the symptoms (of stroke) resolve within 24 hours.

1/3 will have stroke sometime in the future.
Causes of TIA and stroke

Predisposing factors: hypertension, heart disease, smoking, diabetes, migraine.
Epidural Hematoma
an accumulation of blood between the calvarium adn the dura. Usually results from a blow to the side of the head that fractures the temporal bone—can transect the branches of the middle meningeal arteries and blood can escape into the epidural space. Generally fatal. Hematoma enlarges  increased intracranial pressures  venous sinuses compressed  cerebral ischemia and hypoxia.
Subdural Hematoma
an accumulation of blood in the subdural space as a consequence of bleeding from torn bridging veins. Cause of death follwing head injuries and victims of child abuse.
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
bleeding into the subarachnoid space from any cause. 2/3 of the cases reflect the rupture of a pre-existing arterial aneurysm.
Cerebral contusion
bruise of the cortical surface of the brain that virtually always is a sresult of head trauma.

PERMANENT- forms a local scar, and the lesion persits as a telltale crater.
The localized enlargement of a blood vessel, usually an artery, that forms a bulge or sac
Intracerebral Hemorrhage
occurs at preferential sites (basal ganglia 65%m pons 15%, cerebellum 8%). The integrity of cerebral arterioles is compromised by hypertension through the deposition of lipid and hyaline material in their walls. The resulting weakening of the wall leads to formation of Charcot-Bouchard aneurysms, located on the trunk of a vessel.
: either congenital or acquired; an excessive amount of CSF with consequent dilatation of the ventricular system.
-Non-communicating: obstruction is within the ventricular chambers.
Cerebral abscess
micro-organissms carried by the bloodstream lodge in the cerebral cortex. They replicates and elicit an acute inflammatory reaction and regional edema. Lequifaction necorosis converst the lesion to an expanding absecess. Fibroblasts knit a capsule around the absecess; astrocytes multiply but don’t help much. Abscess must be excised or drained or pressure will build Edema develops, region is disposed to ischemia. A “daughter” abscess frequently forms underneath the “mother” abscess and carries the inflammatory process inward. Pus passes through the chambers, through the foramina of MAgendi and Luschka and onto the meninges  fatal.
Multiple sclerosis
Alzheimer's Disease
Prion Disease
Communicating hydrocephalus
impaired reabsorption of CSF.


sequel to meningitis.
NOn-communicating hydrocephalus
obstruction within the ventricular chambers. Flow obstructed by:
congential malformation

common location: aqueduct of Sylvius
Coup contusion vs. contrecoup contusion
coup: cerebral contusion occurs at the point of impact.

contrecoup: when the occipital area hits the grouns, the resulting abrasions are prone to occur on the OPPOSITE side of the brain-- opposite to the point of contact.
a. Developmental arterial defects that occur at branch points of the carotid system and cause a high mortality rate when they rupture
Berry aneurysms.
b. A fusiform-shaped arterial defect usually located at the trunk of a blood vessel caused by hypertension
Charcot-Bouchard aneurysms
8. Name the form of bleeding in the CNS that is caused by trauma to the front or back of the head that ruptures bridging veins and is a significant cause of mortality
subdural hematoma
9. Name the viral infection of the CNS that is caused by the virus that causes cold sores and is predominantly located in the temporal lobes of the brain
herpes encephalitis
The most common cause of epidemic bacterial meningitis is
Neisseria meningitidis
11. The degenerative disease of the CNS characterized by loss of neurons in the substantia nigra and Lewy body inclusions in residual neurons is
Parkinson's disease
12. The astrocytoma with the highest incidence and poorest prognosis is the
Glioblastoma Multiforme
13. A tumor derived from proliferation of all cellular elements of the peripheral nerve is the
14. The hereditary degenerative disease of the CNS caused by trinucleotide repeat expansion is
HUntington disease
Name the altered protein that forms amyloid plaque
amyloid beta protein
Name the altered protein that forms neurofibrillary tangle
Tau protein (altered phosphorylation)
16. The infectious agent in Spongiform Encephalopathy is called a
The human spongiform encephalopathy caused by consumption of contaminated beef is called
variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
17. An error of morphogenesis in which an organ develops in a site other than its normal anatomic location is called
18. The most common cause of acquired mental retardation is
fetal alcohol syndrome
19. A karyotype that does not contain an exact multiple of the haploid number of chromosomes is called