Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/90

Click to flip

90 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
General External Features:
Location:
Shape:
Location: w/in spinal (vertrbral) canal; from brain stem to conus-ap.L2; foramen mag. is diivision between brain and sp. cord.
Shape: longitudinal view Flattened in dorsal
cervical enlargement
origin for nerves supplying upper extrmity
lumbar enlargement
origin for nerves supplying lower extremity
conus medullaris
cone shaped ending of sp. cord ap. T12-12
filum terminal
tissue from conus (pia mater) to coccyx
causa equina
"horses tail" group of spinal nerves inside spinal canal
(hangs off conus)
spinal segments
there are 31; one pair of spinal nerves arises from each segment
R & L sides
anterior median fissure
posterior median sulcus
anterior median fissure
a deep wide groove on the anterior side
posterior median sulcus
a shallow narrow furrous on the posterior dorsal side
segment is a misnomer
cord only appears segmented in early stages of development
Shape= cross section
lateral white column &
posterior white column
white matter
surrounds gray matter; consists of myelinated fibers
anterior(ventral) white column
is column shaped in longitudinal view
anterior white commissure
pronounced "kom" is sure; connects white colimns
Grat matter
unmyelinated fibers & cell bodies (not myelinated); of multipolar neurons
anterior(ventral) gray horn
term "horn" is used when cord seen in x.s.
Lateral (gray) horn
between the anterior & posterior gray horns present only in the thoracic, upper lunbar, & sacral segmentes of sninal coed
Posterior (gray) horn
contain somatic & autonomic sensory nuclei
Gray commissure
on either side (surrounds) central canal of sp. cord
central canal of spinal cord
continuous w/ ventricles (cavities) of brain; contains c.s.f. (cerebral spinal fluid)
anterior median fissure
deep, wide groove on the anterior(ventral)side groove penetrates whiter matter on spin. cord & divids the L&R side
Posterior median sulcus
shallower narrow furrow on the posterior dorsal side
Tracts
running inside the C.N.S.
Ascending tracts
is a sensory tract (consists of sensory or afferent neurons)
Desending tracts
is a motor tract (consists of motor or efferent neurons)
Protective Coverings of the Spinal Cord:
vertebral column
meninges
vertebral column
strongest
vertebral (spinal) canal
made up of indiv. fratebrem
Cranial meninges
conn. tissue encircle the brain
spinal meninges
conn. tissue surrounding spinal cord
dura mater
outer layer or outer meninx
epidural space
between dura & bone of vert. column; has fat, vessels; it injection site for anesthetics
subdural space
contains interstitial fluid
Arachnoid
middle layer or middle menix
(spiter webb like)
subarachnoid space
contains c.s.f.
(below arachnoid memebrane)
Pita mater
inner layer or inner menix
Denticulate ligament
runs laterally between tracts from pia to dura mater; helps to anchor chord in vertebral canal
3 layers form protective cover:
P
A
D
Pia
Arachnoid
Dura
Two major spinal cord functions
connect periphery & brain
Intergrate reflexes
connect periphery & brain
away from c.n.s. is periphery
integrate reflexes
volentary or involentary
impulse conduction
function is carried out by ascending & desending tracts; names of the tracts indicate the white column or funculus in which the tracts travel
Integration of reflexes
a fast involuntary response to a change (stimulus) helps maintain homeostasis
conduction pathway
the path an impulse travels from it's origin to it's point of termination
posterior or dorsal (sensory) root ganglion
nerves outside c.n.s
these ganglia contain unipolar neurons
(swelling)
anterior or ventral (motor) root
in gray matter cord; cell bodies that originate in anterior gray horns supply skeletal muscels (a.n.s.)
Reflex arc & conduction pathway
involuntary conduction pathway
receptor
end of a dendrite either naked or associated w/ adjacent tissue
(picks up reseptors all over body)
sensory neuron
conducts impulse from recptors to c.n.s.
(travels through out)
center (brain ans spin. cord)
impulses translated, slowed, redirected
(can do anything)
association neuron may or may not be present
motor neuron
carries impulse from c.n.s. to effector
(directly stimulated)
effector
muscle or gland
(knee jerk reflex
types of reflexs:
spinal
involves sp cord only
types of reflexs:
somatic
inv. skeletal muscle
types of reflexes:
cranial
inv. brain centers & cranial nerve
types of reflexes
visceral(autonomic)
inv. involuntary effectors=smooth & cardiac muscles; glands
cervial #
C1-C8
thoracic #
T1-T12
lumbar #
L1-L5
sacral #
S1-S5
coccygeal #
1 PAIR
sensory (afferent)
to c.n.s.
motor (efferent)
away c.n.s.
mixed
includes all spinal nerves & all directions
gross anatomy of a spinal nerve
for all nerves - myeliated or not
epineurium
surrounds entire nerve
fascicles (fasciculi)
bundle of nerve fibers (axons)
perineurum
surrounds or difines fascicles
endoneurum
surrounds each nerve fiber
branches (rami) of a spin. nerve
ramus=means branch
branches close to cord
dorsal ramus
sm. ramus of two; supplies deep muscle & skin of back of trunk
ventral ramus
supplies superfical back muscles, all extremities; lateral & ventral trunk
rami communicants
branches of sp. nerves; belongs to the a.n.s.
plexuses
network of vessels, nerves, lymphatics, ect. These spinal plexuses are formed from the venral rami of all sp. nerves except T2-T12
dermatomes
derma=skin tome=thin skin segments; somatic sensory & motor system are involved in the regulation of dermatomes
sensory (afferent)
to c.n.s.
motor (efferent)
away c.n.s.
mixed
includes all spinal nerves & all directions
gross anatomy of a spinal nerve
for all nerves - myeliated or not
epineurium
surrounds entire nerve
fascicles (fasciculi)
bundle of nerve fibers (axons)
perineurum
surrounds or difines fascicles
endoneurum
surrounds each nerve fiber
branches (rami) of a spin. nerve
ramus=means branch
branches close to cord
dorsal ramus
sm. ramus of two; supplies deep muscle & skin of back of trunk
ventral ramus
supplies superfical back muscles, all extremities; lateral & ventral trunk
rami communicants
branches of sp. nerves; belongs to the a.n.s.
plexuses
network of vessels, nerves, lymphatics, ect. These spinal plexuses are formed from the venral rami of all sp. nerves except T2-T12
dermatomes
derma=skin tome=thin skin segments; somatic sensory & motor system are involved in the regulation of dermatomes