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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Nervous System Functions
Homeostasis
Sensory Function
Integration Function
Response(motor) Function
Homeostasis
State of "normalcy" in body.
Works with endocrine system to maintaine homeostasis.
Sensory function
receptors sense change in:
external environment
internal environment
Integration function
brain and spinal cord(C.N.S.)
analysis sensory info. & problem solving.
Response(motor) function
C.N.S. decides response through muscle contraction & glandular secretion.(motor will make muscle contract)
Organization
1. Central nervous system (C.N.S.)
2. Peripheral nervous system (P.N.S.)
Central nervous system (C.N.S.)
Brain
Spinal cord
(doesn't include cranial and spinal nerves)
Peripheral nervous system
(p.n.s.)
12 pairs cranial nerves
31 pairs spinal nerves
Somatic nervous system:
sensory(afferent) neurons
motor(efferent) neurons
sensory(afferent) neurons
p.n.s.
carry impluses from receptors to c.n.s.
motor(efferent) neurons
p.n.s.
carry impulses from c.n.s. to effectors (skeletal muscle only)
Automic nervous system (A.N.S)
Involuntary
sensory(afferent)neurons
motor(efferent)neurons
a.n.s.
sensory(afferent)neurons
carry impulses from visceral receptors to C.N.S.
a.n.s.
motor(efferent) neurons
carry impulses from c.n.s. to visceral -effectors-
smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands
Sympathic division(s.n.s)

*remember like an s.o.s*
prepares body for stress
fight or flight
Parasympathetic divison
(P.N.S.)
rest, relaxation response
Enteric nervous system
(E.N.S.)
*involuntary* consists of enteric plexuses
Histology: 2 major types of cells
1.Neurons(nerve cells)
2.Neuroglial(glial cells)
In central nervous system
(C.N.S.)
1.astrocytes
2.oligodendrocyte
3.microglia
4.ependyma(ependymacytes)
astrocytes
in C.N.S. connect nerves to vessels; numerous; star-shaped
(astrocytes wrap around vessels forming sheath and endothelial cells joined by tight junctions
oligodenrocytes
form myelin sheath in C.N.S. only
microglia
brain microphages
ependyma (ependymacytes)
resemble epithelial cells; singal layers; simple cuboidal; ciliated; move from c.s.f. from ventricles to central canal of sp. cord
In peripheral nervous system
(P.N.S.)
1.neurolemmocytes(schwann cells)
2.satellite cells
nerolemmocytes(schwann cells)
form myelin sheath in P.N.S.
satellite cells
flat cells associated w/ ganglia
Neuron(nerve cell body) Structure
Cell body
Dendrites
Axon
cell body
*contains nucleus
*nerve fibers-any extension or process from cell body
unique features
*lipofuscin- clumps of yellow pigment(increases w/age may be produced by lysosomes
*chromatophic substance(nissl bodies)- like rough E.R makes proteins for repair or neurotransmitters
*Nerufibrils- for support and transport
*intermediate filaments- a cytoskeletal
Dendrites
tree like receptors @ ends of sensory neurons
Axon:
axon hillock
origin of axon
(branches from cell body)
Axon:
neurofibrils
for support ans transport
(thick part of dendrite)
axoplasm
cytoplam of axon; has mitochondria; no nissl bodies
axolemma
plasma membrane of axon
axon collaterals
side branches of axon
axon terminals (telodendria)
first end branches of axon
synaptic end bulbs
(feet, plates, or knobs)
supply several 100,000 muscle fibers
synaptic vesicles
contain neurtransmitters
neurotransmitters
Ap. 40-50 known
Meylin sheath
for insulation; helps in regeneration of lg. neurons; multi. layered; segmented; conduct faster
unmyelinated(gray) fibers
surrounded by "1" layer(membrane) of a schwann cell
myelinated(white)fibers
surrounded by many layers of schwann cell membrane; thus membrane fats 5 sheath a "whitish" appearance
formation of myelin sheath by schwann cells are found ony in?
P.N.S.
Jelly Roll Theory:
mylin sheath
axons surrounded by liped layer electricaly increses speed of nerve impulse
Jelly Roll Theory:
neurolemma (sheath of schwann)
refers to the outer layer only
neurofibral node (node of ranvier)
Jelly Roll Theroy
exposed nerve membrane between segments of myelin sheath
saltatory conduction
Jelly Roll Theory
saltere=to leap
Ex grasshoper
Neuro classification:
by structure
# of processes exiting cell body
Neuro classification by structure:
multipolar neurons
many processes; located in central nervous system (brain & spinal cord)
Neuro classification by structure:
bipolarneurons
two processes; located in retina of eye; inner ear and olfactory tissue
Neuron class. by structure:
unipolar
one processes located posterior(dorsal or sensory)root ganglia of spinal nerves; cranial nerve ganglia thar carry somatic sensory impulses
Neuron classification:
by function
based on direction of impulse
neuron class. by funct.:
sensory(affernet) neurons
always enter through dorsal root -to spinal cord from receptors to C.N.S.-
neuron class. by funct.:
motor(effertent) neurons
away fron spinal cord
-from C.N.S. to effectors muscle and glands
neuro class. by func.:
Association, connector or interneurons
connect sensory and motor neurons in the C.N.S. only
Nerve Fiber Classification:
general somatic afferent fibers
from skin, skeletal muscle, joints to c.n.s.(volentary)
Nerve fiber class:
general somatic efferent fibers
carry impulses from c.n.s. to efferent skeltal muscles
nerve fiber class.:
general visceral afferent fibers
from viscera to c.n.s
nerve fiber class:
general visceral efferent fibers
from c.n.s. to visceral effectors= smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and gland (involentary)
ganglion
group og nerve cell bodies outside the c.n.s.
nucleus (center)
group of nerve cell bodies inside c.n.s.
nerve
group of fibers (axon) outside the c.n.s.
tract
group of fibers (axon) inside the c.n.s.