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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the CNS?
central nervous system; contains the brain and spinal cord
What is the PNS?
peripheral nervous system; contains cranial and spinal nerves
What is CSF?
cerebrospinal fluid; cushions and protects nervous tissue
what is the myelin sheath?
schwann cells covering the axon of a nerve cell
nerve cell process that carries nerve impulse toward cell body
dendrite
nerve fibers that carry impulses to CNS from PNS
sensory division
nerve fibers that carry impulses from CNS to effector organs, muscles, and glands
motor division
voluntary nervous system
somatic
involuntary nervous system
autonomic
fight or flight aspect of the ANS
sympathetic
aspect of the ANS controlling digestion and excretion
parasympathetic
supporting cells in the CNS
neuroglia
glia that provide blood-brain barrier
astrocytes
phagocytes that dispose of debris
microglia
glia that protect the cell body
satellite cells
metabolic center of the neuron
cell body
generate nerve impulses and conduct them away from cell body
axon
branches at end of axon that release neurotransmitters
axonal terminals
gap between neurons
synaptic cleft
gaps between schwann cells
nodes of Ranvier
collections of cell bodies found outside the CNS
ganglia
white matter
dense collections of myelinated nerve fibers
grey matter
mostly unmyelinated fibers and cell bodies
nerves that connect motor and sensory neurons in neural pathways
interneurons
structural classifications of neurons
unipolar, bipolar, multipolar
plasma membrane of a neuron
sarcolemma
what makes a resting neuron polarizied?
fewer positive ions on the inner face than on the outer face of the sarcolemma
autonomic reflexes
regulate smooth muscles, heart, and glands
somatic reflexes
stimulate skeletal muscles
Most reflexes originate in the _____.
spinal cord
cranial nerve that carries impulses for the sense of smell
olfactory
cranial nerve that carries impulses for vision
optic
cranial nerve that carries impulses that direct eyeball
oculomotor
cranial nerve that carries impulses for superior oblique eye muscle
trochlear
cranial nerve that carries impulses from skin of face and mucosa of mouth and nose
trigemal
cranial nerve that supplies motor fibers to lateral rectus muscle that rolls the eye laterally
abducens
cranial nerve that activates facial expressions
facial
cranial nerve that carries impulses for hearing and balance
vestibulocochlear
cranial nerve that supplies motor fibers for swallowing
vagus
cranial nerve that supplies motor fibers that activate sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles
accesssory
supplies motor fibers that control tongue movements
hypoglossal
deep grooves that seperate larger regions of brain
fissures
_____ divide cerebral hemispheres into ____.
Sulci, lobes
four cerebral hemphere lobes
frontal, temporal, occipital, parietal
outermost grey matter of brain
cerebral cortex
brain area that rests on top of brain stem, enclosed by cerebral hemispheres
diencephalon
major structures of diencephalon
thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus
relay station for impulses passing upward to sensory cortex
thalamus
area of diencephalon that helps regulate ANS
hypothalamus
area of diencephalon that contains pineal gland
epithalamus
major areas of brain stem
midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata
area of brain stem that controls heart rate, blood pressure, vomiting
medulla oblongata
area of brain stem that regulates breathing
pons
area of brain stem containing reflex centers for vision and hearing
midbrain
area of brain that controls balance and equalibrium
cerebellum
three connective tissue membranes covering CNS
meninges
slight brain injury
concussion
brain injury with marked tissue damage
contusion
inflammation response to a brain injury
cerebral edema
stroke
CVA; cerebralvascular accident