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159 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Supporting cells of the CNS
astrocyte
microglial
ependymal
oligodendrocyte
astrocyte
most common
anchor neurons to nutrients supply
absorb excess K+
recycle neurotransmitters
communicate among themselves
microglial
CNS "macrophage"
protect CNS from invasion
phagocytosis of neuronal material
ependymal
line cns cavities

permeable barrier between cerebrospinal fluid and extracellular fluid

beating cilia help circulate cerebrospinal fluid
oligodendrocyte
produce myelin sheaths around large neurons
supporting cells of the pns
schwann cells

satellite cells
schwann cells
produce myelin sheaths in pns
satellite cells
surround soma and help control external environment
dendrites
receptive field of cell (process)
cell body
biosynthetic region; produces proteins
axon
long tail (process)
axonal terminal (bouton)
where neurotransmitters are stored and released
axon hillock
where action potential that causes release is produced
multipolar neurons
many processes extend from the cell body; all dendrites except for a single axon

most common
biplar neurons
two processes extend from the cell body: one is a fused dendrite, the other is an axon

rare; come with sense (eyes, ears, etc)
unipolar neurons
one process extends from the cell body and forms central and peripheral processes, which together comprise an axon.
where are unipolar neurons mostly found?
the pns
Neuron is more ______ charged on the inside of the cell
negatively
There are more ______ ions outside the cell than inside when @ rest
Sodium
there is more _______ inside than outside when the cell is at rest
potassium
Which is more permeable through the cell membrane, potassium or sodium?
potassium
what are the 2 mechanisms that keep the inside of the cell more negative than the outside? (resting membrane potential, -70mv)
Sodium/Potassium Pump and membrane (potential)
membrane mechanism
potassium diffuses (it moves along its concentration gradient)

sodium leaks in, but membrane lets more k go out than na go in

since more is going out, inside is more negative
sodium channel opens ________
quickly
potassium channel opens ______
slowly
Sodium and Potassium pumps are _______ gated channels
voltage gated (respond to electricity)
when stimulated...
na rushes in, initially reaches equilibrium
@ 30 mv
sodium channels close; then K+ channels open, K+ goes out
3rd stage of action potential
channels close (but 2 other mechanisms are working and the charge goes back up to -70 mv)
depolarizing
charges becoming less different
propagation
how action potential moves down membrane

generated/begins in axon hillock
neurons fire in response to ________
stimulation
rate coding
number of times action potential is produced in a given amount of time
synapses
joining of buton to another neuron
axosomatic
axon and soma joining (least)
axodendritic
axon to dendrite (most)
axoaxonic
axon to axon
does an action potential cross a synapse?
no
inhibitory synapse
negative goes in (Cl)- hyperpolarizing
excitatory synapse
depolarizes membrane, Na goes in
do inhibitory synapses make it easier or harder to generate an action potential?
harder
ligand gated channels open in response to ________
chemicals
where are Na/K channels located?
dendrites
inhibitory synapse
make it hard to generate an action potential; negative goes in (hyperpolarizing)
excitatory synapse
makes in easier to generate an action potential; depolarized membrane; Na goes in
What happens when an action potential hits a Ca channel?
they open up (b/c they are voltage gated) and Ca goes rushing in (down the c.g.); vesicles startto migrate toward the membrane, then bind to the membrane and become part of it, then the contents of the vesicles go outside the neuron
the vesicles contain________ which go to the ___________
neurotransmitters; synaptic cleft
synaptic cleft
space between axon and other membrane in a synapse
4 things that can happen to the neurotransmitter
1. it can get washed away
2. enzymes in the extracellular fluid can eat them
3. it can get taken back up by the buton (axonal terminal)
4. neurotransmitters can bind to receptors
how do neurotransmitters bind to receptors?
receptors are specific to the transmitter; when a n.t. hits a receptor, it brushes up against it, hesitates for a fraction of a second and receptor vibrates and changes
where are na channels located?
axon
where are k channels located?
axon
where are Ca channels located?
buton
where are Cl channels located?
lots of places
what is the most common inhibitory neurotransmitter?
GABA
When GABA is released...
it binds to specific receptors that are bound to Cl channels and Cl is released and gets more (-) and is hyperpolarized and it is keeping neuron from generating an action potential
in order to generate an action potential you have to get the charge up to _____ mv
-55 mv
the GABA receptor is a ______ gated channel
ligand (chemical)
what are the differences between action potentials and postsynaptic potentials?
postsynaptic potentials are:
1. graded potentials
2. localized
3. ligand gated
what is the most common chemical that causes epsp?
glutamate
4 types of neural integration of epsps and ipsps at the axonal membrane of the postsynaptic cell
1. subthreshold (epsp)
2. temporal summation (epsp)
3. spatial summation (epsp)
4. spatial summation of epsp & ipsp
subthreshold
neuron 2 has excitatory synapse- you get an EPSP- doesn't get to -55mv so you don't get an AP (no summation)
summation
taking all psps to see if you get an ap
temporal summation
the closer the epsps, the higher the membrane potential (1st synapse fires twice)
spatial summation
2 different synapse fire at the same time or close
spatial summation of ipsp and epsp
don't get an ap
types of circuits in neuronal pools
1. divergence in teh same pathway
2. divergence in different pathways
3. convergence
4. convergence with a single neuron
5. reverberating circuit
6. parallel after discharge
divergence in the same pathway
one neuron stimulates 2 neurons and so on- called amplification
divergence in 2 pathways
same as in the same pathway but in different directions (NOT amplification)
reverberating circuit
keeps firing around circuit
parallel after discharge
complex circuit
3 parts of brainstem
midbrain
pons
medulla
regions of the diencephalon
thalamus
amygdala
hypothalamus
pituitary gland
hippocampus
corpus callosum
thalamus
decides what goes to cortex and where it goes
amygdala
emotional region of the brain; generates negative feelings; frontal cortex controls amygdala (can turn bad feelings on or off)
hypothalamus
bridge b/t what goes on in brain and body; controls thirst, brainstem, sexual desire, hunger
pituitary gland
"master gland: controls other glands throughout the body
hippocampus
memory center- closely related to the amygdala
corpus callosum
connects R and L side of brain (lets them communicate)(upside down C)
basal nuclei
part of diencephalaon
critical for motor control (feed back to cortex whether info sent out is correct)
frontal lobe
consciousness, regulation of motor activity
temporal lobe
hearing and long term memory
parietal lobe
sensory input
occipital lobe
main region for vision
central sulcus
big groove b/t frontal and parietal lobe
precentral gyrus
primary motor cortex

region of the brain that controls movement
postcentral gyrus
primary somatosensory cortex

where most sensory info that reaches your consciousness goes
association cortex
takes sensory info from different areas and makes them useful
general interpretation area
allow you to interpret sensory input
lateral ventricles
hold cerebrospinal fluid (R & L lateral ventricles) - send it to 3rd ventricled along midline of brain
interventricular foramen
allow cerebrospinal fluid to go from L and R ventricles to 3rd ventricle
cerebral aqueduct
allows cerebrospinal fluid to go from 3rd ventricle to 4th ventricle (dorsal brainstem)
central canal
c.s. fluid flows down
~ then to base, goes back up, then to brain again
________ cells line inner surface of canals and ventricles to keep cerebrospinal fluid moving
ependymal
the limbic system
emotional system (thalamus, hippocampus, amygdala)
reticular formation
controls alterness

moving around activates r.f.
corona radiata
neurons that go from the thalamus to the rest of the brain
3 types of tracts (fibers)
commissural fibers
association fibers
projection fibers
commissural fibers
run across corpus collosum and connect R and L brain
association fibers
localized to one region
projection fibers
run a long way (motor cells taht go from motor cortex down spine->parametal cells
where to parameter cells crossover
parametal decasation (in the medulla of the brainstem)
CN #1
olfactory

smells

sensory
CN #2
optic

sees

sensory
CN #3
oculomotor

moves eyes

motor
CN #4
trochlear

moves eyes

motor
CN #5
trigeminal

chews, feels front of head

mixed
CN #6
Abducens

moves eyes

motor
CN # 7
facial

moves face/tastes/cries

mixed
cn # 8
vestibulocochlear

hears/regulates balance

sensory
cn # 9
glossopharyngeal

tastes/swallows/monitors bp
cn # 10
vagus

tastes/swallows/talks/thoracoabdominal viscera

mixed
cn #11
accessory

turns head/lifts shoulders

motor
cn #12
hypoglossal

moves tongue

motor
are spinal nerves sensory, motor, or mixed?
mixed
how many pairs of cervical nerves are there?
8
how many pairs of thoracic nerves are there?
12
how many pairs of lumbar nerves are there?
5
how many pairs of sacral nerves are there?
5
how many pairs of coccyx nerves are there?
1
where does the spinal cord end and what is below it?
L2

bundles of nerves called the cauda aquina
4 somatosensory pathway receptors
touch

proprioception

pain

thermal
touch receptors
mechanical stimulation of body surface
proprioception receptors
mechanical displacement of muscles and joints
pain receptors
noxious (tissue damage) stimuli
thermal receptors
cool and warm stimuli
stereognosis
knowing what something is because of activation of receptors
general somatic afferent (to your brain) pathways
discriminative touch = stereognosis

pain and temp and light crude touch

unconscious proprieception (balance movement)
concscious discriminative touch, pressure, and proprioception discriminative touch (deep pressure, spatial localization, stereognosis; shape size. texture; awareness of movement)
from the body: dorsal columns/medial lemniscal system

from the face:
pain and temperature, and light crude touch (stroking shin with cotton)
from the body: spinothalamic system/anterolateral system
unconscious proprioception (balance, movement)
fromthe body: spinocerebellar tract
fasiculus gracilis
medial dorsal column

carries discriminative touch info for legs

all levels of spinal cord have this
fasiculus cuneatus
upper thoracic and cervical region of spinal cord

lateral to f.g.

discriminative touch info for arms
discriminative touch info is traveling ________ to stimulus
ipsilaterally

(on teh same side)
spinothalamic tract
carries pain and temperature information; crosses over to the other side - info runs contralaterally
dorsal horn
collects sensory information
corticospinal tract
from cortex to spine

responsible for voluntary motor control

made of upper and lower motor neurons

activate muscles on the opposite side of the body
ventral horn
once information gets here it synapses onto another motor neuron (leaves ventral horn goes to ventral root to spinal nerve to effector organ)
medial lemniscal tract
carries discriminative touch info
medial lemniscus
where discriminative touch info crosses over to the other side of the body
anterior cerebral artery
feed medial parietal lobe and frontal lobes
middle cerebral artery
feeds lateral and superior parts of the brain
levels of processing
1. pattern recognition
2. quality discrimination
3. feature abstraction
4. spatial discrimination
5. magnitude estimation
6. perceptual detection
pattern recognition
place significance (some emotional value) onto recognizable patterns
quality discrimination
differentiate sub modalities of a particular quality (taste different flavors, etc)
feature abstraction
ability to breakdown and add back together specific features of a certain sense
spatial discrimination
ability to identify the site and/or pattern of a stimulus (need dermatone and humunculus)
magnitude estimation
intensity of a stimulus (rate coding)
perceptual detection
detecting that a stimulus has occurred (most simplistic level)
where does voluntary motor control information cross over?
decussation of pyramid
where are upper motor neurons?

what could cause injury to upper motor neurons?
brain or spinal cord

stroke or injury to spinal cord
what are the characteristis of an upper motor neuron defect?
spastic paralysis (muscles contracting)
no sign. muscle atrophy
no fibrillations
hyperreflexia
babinski reflex (may be present)
what are the characteristics on a lower motor neuron defect?
flaccid paralysis (muscle won't move and isn't contracting)

muscle atropy

fibrillations
hyporeflexia (reflexes are gone or almost gone)
no babinksi reflex
where do lower motor neuron defects occur
periferal nerves or ventral horn
if you have an upper motor neuron lesion on the L side (facial) what will happen?
your R lower lip will droop
what would happen if you had a lower motor neuron lesion on your L facial nerve?
your L face would droop
what feeds the font of frontal and medial parietal lobe?
anterior cerebral artery
motor information leaves spinal cord @ ________
level of effector organ (though the ventral root)
if you have a temp defecit @ the L2 dermatone and below,where is the lesion?
l1