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68 Cards in this Set

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Cells functioning in reception of stimuli; receiving end of sensory nerves
Affectors
Part of the neuron that conducts impulses away from the cell body; each cell has one
Axon
Automatically regulates the action of the glands, the smooth muscles of the hollow organs, and the heart, often without one being aware of it.
Autonomic Nervous System
Part of the neuron that acts as a sending and receiving center, carries on metabolism, and stores energy
Cell Body
Consists of nerve tissues that form the brain and spinal cord; controls voluntary acts
Central Nervous System
Outer later of gray matter of the cerebrum
Cerebral Cortex
Watery fluid protecting the brain and spinal cord
Cerebrospinal Fluid
Part of the neuron that carries impulses to the cell body
Dendrite
Nerve endings that carry out actions
Effectors
A tracing of the electrical activity of an individual's brain
Electroencephalogram
(EEG)
A deep groove or furrow in an organ such as the brain
Fissure
Mass of nerve tissue, principally nerve cell bodies, outside the central nervous system
Ganglion
Nerve tissue of a grayish color consisting primarily of non-myelinated nerve fibers; contains large numbers of cell bodies of neurons
Gray Matter
Either half of the cerebrum or cerebellum
Hemisphere
A fairly well-defined part of an organ such as the brain separated by boundaries
Lobe
The tough, 3-layered membrane protecting the spinal cord and the brain
Meninges
Covered with myelin
Myelinated
(medullated)
Noncellular, fatty covering of a nerve fiber
Myelin Sheath
Ending of a nerve at a muscle
Myoneural Junction
Bundle of nerve fibers, blood vessels, and connective tissue outside the central nervous system
Nerve
Threadlike projections of cytoplasm from the cell body of a neuron; axons & dendrites
Nerve Fibers
System of the body dealing with the brain, spinal cord, and nerves which coordinates body activities
Nervous System
Supporting structure for nerve tissue consisting of blood vessels, connective tissue, and specialized cells found only in the brain & spinal cord
Neuroglia
Study of the nervous system
Neurology
Basic nerve cell
Neuron
Provides input from sensory receptors to the central nervous system and output from the central nervous system to effectors
Peripheral Nervous System
A network of nerves
Plexus
Repair, regrowth, or restoration of a part
Regeneration
Any agent or influence that produces a response or increase in activity in living protoplasm
Stimulus
A slight groove, furrow, or depression in an organ, especially of the brain
Sulcus
Junction of an axon & one or more dendrites which transmits nerve impulses in one direction only
Synapse
One of the cavities of the brain
Ventricle
Nerve tissue consisting of myelinated nerve fibers
White Matter
How long is the adult spinal cord?
16 to 18 inches
In adults a spinal tap is normally performed where?
between the 3rd & 4th or 4th & 5th lumbar vertebrae
Where does the Cauda Equina begin?
Bottom of L1 or top of L2
Cranial or Spinal Nerves emerge from the cord by 2 short roots.
Spinal nerves. The dorsal (posterior) root contains sensory axons. The ventral (anterior) root contains axons of motor neurons.
Components of Cerebrospinal fluid
Water, Glucose, Protein, Sodium Chloride, Waste Products such as urea.
3 layers of the Meninges
Dura Mater: outer layer that provides protection Arachnoid: Middle layer. Resembles cobwebs and has cerebrospinal fluid flowing through it Pia Mater: Inner Layer . It is a thin vascular layer (blood vessels provide nutrients & carries away waste
Frontal Lobe Functions
Controls voluntary muscles & judgment.
Parietal Lobe Function
Control sensory function e.g. pain, touch , temperature interpretation
Temporal Lobe Functions
Controls hearing, taste, & smell
Occipital Lobe Functions
Controls vision
Thalamus Functions
Serves as a relay center & monitors sensory stimuli
Hypothalamus Function
Controls body temperature, Balance of water in the body, sleep, appetite, fear, & pleasure. Controls both divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System
Mid Brain Functions
Serves as the reflex center. Also the site of the 3rd & 4th cranial nerve nuclei
Hind Brain Components
Pons, Medulla Oblongata, Cerebellum
Pons Functions
Pons: Relays impulses between the cerebrum& cerebellum and the cerebrum & the medulla oblongata. Site for cranial nerves V, VI, VII, & VIII.
Medulla Oblongata Functions
Medulla Oblongata: Controls vital functions - breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, swallowing, coughing. Site of cranial Nerves IX - XII. Most vital part of the brain.
Cerebellum Function
Cerebellum: Maintains body balance, Coordination, equilibrium, & muscle tone.
Fissure of Sylvius
The lateral fissure that separates the temporal lobe from the rest of the brain
Fissure of Rolando
The central (longitudinal fissure of the brain that separates the 2 cerebral hemispheres.
Lateral Ventricles
1st and 2nd Ventricles. Located in the frontal lobe. Each has posterior, inferior, & anterior horns. The Inferior horn extends into temporal lobe.
3rd Ventricle
Communicates to lateral ventricles via the foramina of Monro. Communicates to 4th ventricle through the cerebral aqueduct of Sylvius.
4th Ventricle
Communicates to the subarachnoid space through 3 openings: median- aperture of Megendie, 2 lateral apertures of Luschka
Arteries of the Brain
4 arteries: 2 internal carotid, 2 vertebral, Form Circle of Willis, Either insufficient O2 or excessive CO2 causes dilation of the arteries to bring more blood to the head.
Circle of Willis
the circular arrangement of the vertebral and carotid arteries at the base of the brain which equalizes the circulation of blood and provides an alternate passageway for blood in the case of blockage of 1 of the arteries.
How much of the total output of the heart is required for normal brain function?
approximately 15%
How long can blood supply to brain be halted before irreversible changes take place?
Normally 6 to 10 minutes.
"Window" where the spinal nerves exit the spinal column
Intervertebral foramen
Runs thru the vertebra, holds the spinal cord, holds meninges, adipose tissue to support & protect, blood vessels
Spinal Canal
Spinal Canal cross section
Cross section shows inner H shape. H shape is composed of Grey Matter. Outside the gray matter is white matter.
Spinal Canal Function
Acts at great conduction pathway of impulses between the peripheral nerves to and from the brain. Functions in all sensations & movements in the body
2 Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System
Sympathetic (Thoracic-Lumbar Region), Parasympathetic:(Cranio-Sacral Region)
Autonomic Nervous system deals with activities that are voluntary or involuntary?
Involuntary
Autonomic Nervous System controlled by the ______________.
Hypothalamus
Divisions of both the Sympathetic & Parasympathetic divisions
1. Preganglionic 2. Post Ganglionic
How fast do nerve impulses travel?
~395 ft/second