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97 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is an afferent neuron?
Sensory neuron that sends info from the PNS back to the brain to be processed
What is Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis ALS?
Degeneration of motor neurons in the motor cortex and the anterior horn of the spinal cord
What is Apraxia?
The inability to plan motor tasks
What is the Arachnoid Layer?
The middle layer of the meninges
What are the four main structures of the brain?
Cerebrum
(Deep Brain Structures)
Cerebellum
Brainstem
What are the three main fissures/sulci in the brain
Longitudinal Fissure: Splits left and right
Lateral Fissure: Splits Temporal lobe from frontal and parietal
Central Sulcus: Splits frontal and parietal
What are the major Gyri along the Central Sulcus?
Pre-Central Gyrus: motor info in frontal lobe
Post-Central Gyrus: sensory info in parietal lobe
What are the functions of the frontal lobe?
motor, movement, cognitive, intellect, processing, judgement, mood, inhibition
What is the main function of the parietal lobe?
sensory
What are the major functions of the temporal lobe?
auditory, long-term memory, language comprehension
What is the major function of the occipital lobe?
vision
What normally occurs in each hemisphere of the cerebrum
Left hemisphere: language, computation, logical reasoning
Right hemisphere: spatial reasoning, face recognition, music
What are two different ways to label the brain?
by lobes: structure
by areas: function
What is the Primary Sensory Cortex area?
It discriminates among different intensities and qualities of sensory info
What is the Sensory Association Cortex area?
It integrates and interprets sensory info. Perceives and attaches meaning to sensory input
What is the Assocation Cortex area?
It controls behavior, interprets sensation, and processes emotions and memories
What are the Motor Planning areas?
They organize movements
What is the Primary Motor Cortex area?
It provides control of motor output
What is Wernicke's area?
The understanding of written and spoken language
What is Broca's area?
Speech production
Basal Nuclei
Regulates posture and muscle tone
Limbic System
strong, primitive emotions
Cerebellum
Controls balance and coordination
Midbrain
Upper part of brainstem. Fiber tracts connect cerebrum, cerebellum, and spinal cord. Visual and auditory reflexes
Pons
Middle part of brainstem. Important for level of consciousness and sleep. Aids regulation of respiration rate
Medulla
Bottom part of brainstem. controls respiration and heart rate. reflex center for vomiting, coughing, sneezing. connects to spinal cord
reticular activating system
group of cells that run through different parts of brainstem, responsible for arousal (consciousness)
Blood Brain Barrier
Allows water, glucose, amino acids
Doesn't allow urea, proteins, most drugs
Layers of the Meninges
Superficial to Deep
Dura Mater: meshes with periosteum
Arachnoid
Pia Mater
Dural Spaces
(Between Meninges)
Superficial to Deep
Epidural Space
Subdural Space
Subarachnoid Space
Epidural Space
Between skull and dura mater
Subdural Space
Between dura mater and arachnoid
Subarachnoid Space
Between arachnoid and pia mater. Contains CSF, blood vessels for cerebral cortex
Ventricles
Fluid filled spaces. Create CSF.
Cerebrospinal Fluid
(CSF)
Provides nutrients to brain and spinal cord. Cushions and protects brain and spinal cord. Flows around brain and spinal cord
Nerve Cells
(Neurons)
Afferent Neurons
Efferent Neurons
Interneurons
Interneurons
Connect other neutrons
Afferent Neurons
Sensory from periphery to brain
Efferent Neurons
Motor from brain to periphery
Glial Cells
(Neuroglia)
Cells that support neurons.
Astrocytes
Oligodendrocytes
Microglia
Astrocytes
anchor neurons to capillaries. Part of Blood Brain Barrier
Oligodendrocytes
What creates the myelin sheath
Microglia
Garbage trucks, phagocytes. Removes dead cells and bacteria etc.
Glial Cells in PNS
Schwann Cells. Provide myelin for peripheral nerves
Three Parts of Neuron
Dendrites
Cell Body
Axon
Neuron Info
One axon, many dendrites per neuron. One neuron can have up to 10,000 synapses
Dorsal Root Ganglion
Where sensory neuron cell bodies are
Neurotransmitters
Acetylcholine
Glutamate
GABA
Dopamine
Norepinephrine
Acetylcholine
Interaction between motor nerves and skeletal muscle fibers. Regulates heart rate as well
Glutamate
Excitatory in CNS
GABA
Inhibitory transmittor, CNS
Dopamine
CNS, involved in basal nuclei, motor activity, behavior, cognition
Norepinephrine
Fight or Flight. Autonomic Nervous System
Nuclei
Group of cell bodies with similar functions in the CNS
Ganglion
Group of cell bodies with similar functions in the PNS
Tract
Group of axons in CNS
Nerve
Group of axons in PNS
Saltatory Conduction
Jumping conduction. Transmission of nerve impulse down axon of myelinated axon
Gray Matter
Unmyelinated axons, Cell Bodies and Dendrites. Processing, exchange of info, decision-making
White Matter
Nervous Tissue, Myelinated Axons. Transmission, travel of impulses, conduction
Anterior Horn
Motor cell bodies (anterior horn cells) The beginning of motor neurons that make skeletal muscle contract. Sends out axon through ventral spinal root
Motor Unit
A single alpha motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers that motor neuron innervates
Alpha Motor Neuron
Anterior horn cell. Innervates skeletal muscle fibers.
Gamma Motor Neuron
Anterior horn cell. Transmits impulses to muscle spindle
Spinal Cord Tracts
(White Matter)
Specific info being transmitted. Different parts of spinal cord have different functions. Bundle of axons in CNS
Afferent tracts
Sensory. Spinothalamic tract is major afferent tract
Efferent tracts
Motor. Corticospinal Tract is major efferent tract
Spinal Cord
Transmit info to and from brain. Coordination of motor info. Communication of sensory info. Subconscious reflexes
Bottom of spinal cord
Ends at L1-L2. Conus medullaris is bottom of spinal cord. Spinal nerves drop down below further
Vertebral Levels
Each vertebral level a spinal nerve comes off. Cervical C1-C7 spinal nerves come above respective vertebra. C8 comes above T1, rest come underneath respective vertebra
Cauda Equina
Group of spinal nerves
Spinal Roots
Ventral Root contains motor fibers
Dorsal Root contains sensory fibers
Roots come together at spinal nerve
Spinal Nerve
Quickly splits, becomes tangled and transitions to peripheral nerves
Rami
Leaves spinal nerve as dorsal rami and ventral rami. Both have sensory and motor info.
Brachial Plexus
Axillary, Musculocutaneous, Radial, Median, Ulnar
Both motory and sensory from multiple fiber levels
Transition of nerve fibers
Dorsal and ventral root to spinal nerve to dorsal and ventral rami to plexus and/or peripheral nerve
Brachial Plexus
Formed from anterior rami of spinal nerves C5-T1.
Axillary nerve
Shoulder Abduction
Deltoid, teres minor
Musculocutaneous nerve
Elbow Flexion
Biceps, Brachialis
Radial nerve
Elbow Extension, Wrist Extension, partial supination
Triceps, Supinators
Median nerve
Thumb and first two fingers flexion
Grip strength, pronation wrist flexion
Ulnar nerve
Ring and little finger flexion, ulnar deviation
Lumbosacral Plexus
(3 of the nerves)
Obturator
Femoral
Superior Gluteal
Inferior Gluteal
Common Peroneal (Deep and Superficial)
Tibial
Superficial Peroneal nerve
Peroneus Longus and Peroneus Brevis
Eversion
Deep Peroneal nerve
Tibialis Anterior and toe extensors
Dorsiflexion
Tibial nerve
Gastroc/Soleus and toe flexors
Plantarflexion, Partial inversion
Four Cranial Nerves to Know
V. Trigeminal
VII. Facial
X. Vagus
XI. Spinal Accessory
V. Trigeminal Cranial Nerve
Sensation from face and mouth. Chewing muscles
VII. Facial Cranial Nerve
Taste-front of tongue. Facial Muscles and more
X. Vagus Cranial Nerve
Swallowing and voice box muscles. ANS to heart, lungs, digestion and more...
XI. Spinal Accessory Cranial Nerve
Sternocleidomastoid and Upper Trapezius
Guillan-Barre Syndrome
(GBS)
Affects many nerves. Typically bilateral, symmetric. Predominately PNS. Demyelination or axon degeneration
GBS Acute Phase PT Interventions
ROM, positioning, preventing contractures and bed sores
Potential hypersensitivity.
GBS Post-Plateau Phase PT Interventions
Acclimation to upright position. Gradual strength progression. Breathing exercises
Diabetic Neuropathy
Stocking, glove distribution, symmetrical. Sensory and motor loss. Feet have a lot of problems. Feet care imperative
Alcoholic Neuropathy
Prolonged excessive alcohol use can cause nerve damage. Toxicity of alcohol and metabolites or deficit of nutrition as causes are being debated
Charcot-Marie-Tooth
(CMT)
genetic disorder. Stops above knees. Skin integrity important for orthotics.