Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

86 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a neurotransmitter C7H17NO3 released at autonomic synapses and neuromuscular junctions, active in the transmission of nerve impulses, and formed enzymatically in the tissues from choline
action potential
a momentary reversal in electrical potential across a plasma membrane (as of a nerve cell or muscle fiber) that occurs when a cell has been activated by a stimulus.
elating to, characterized by, or producing analgesia, which is nsensibility to pain without loss of consciousness
a star-shaped cell; especially : any comparatively large much-branched glial cell
basal ganglia
a mass of gray matter within the brain or spinal cord that is crucial to survival
essential for maintaining the fundamental vital activities of an organism (as respiration, heartbeat, or excretion);
biogenic amines
any of a class of organic compounds produced by living organisms that are derived from ammonia by replacement of one, two, or three hydrogen atoms with alkyl groups
blood-brain barrier
a naturally occurring barrier created by the modification of brain capillaries (as by reduction in fenestration and formation of tight cell-to-cell contacts) that prevents many substances from leaving the blood and crossing the capillary walls into the brain tissues -- abbreviation BBB
the portion of the vertebrate central nervous system enclosed in the skull and continuous with the spinal cord through the foramen magnum that is composed of neurons and supporting and nutritive structures (as glia) and that integrates sensory information from inside and outside the body in controlling autonomic function (as heartbeat and respiration), in coordinating and directing correlated motor responses, and in the process of learning
cell body
the nucleus-containing central part of a neuron exclusive of its axons and dendrites that is the major structural element of the gray matter of the brain and spinal cord, the ganglia, and the retina -- called also perikaryon, soma
central nervous system
he part of the nervous system which in vertebrates consists of the brain and spinal cord, to which sensory impulses are transmitted and from which motor impulses pass out, and which supervises and coordinates the activity of the entire nervous system -- compare AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM, PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
a large dorsally projecting part of the brain concerned especially with the coordination of muscles and the maintenance of bodily equilibrium, situated between the brain stem and the back of the cerebrum and formed in humans of two lateral lobes and a median lobe
cerebral cortex
the convoluted surface layer of gray matter of the cerebrum that functions chiefly in coordination of sensory and motor information -- called also pallium
of or relating to the brain and spinal cord or to these together with the cranial and spinal nerves that innervate voluntary muscles
transmission through or by means of a conductor; also : the transfer of heat through matter by communication of kinetic energy from particle to particle with no net displacement of the particles
Processess that branch out and conduct the transfer of electronic impulses toward the nerve cell. These processess, in themselves, are protoplasmic.
loss of polarization; especially : loss of the difference in charge between the inside and outside of the plasma membrane of a muscle or nerve cell due to a change in permeability and migration of sodium ions to the interior
the posterior subdivision of the forebrain -- called also betweenbrain, interbrain
a group of organisms forming part of a larger group; specifically : a primary category of the plant kingdom; he act or process of dividing : the state of being divided, such as cell division.
a monoamine C8H11NO2 that is a decarboxylated form of dopa and occurs especially as a neurotransmitter in the brain and as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of epinephrine -
effector cells
a bodily organ (as a gland or muscle) that becomes active in response to stimulation; a molecule (as an inducer, a corepressor, or an enzyme) that activates, controls, or inactivates a process or action (as protein synthesis or the release of a second messenger)
electrical synapse
The space between neurons across which an electronic impulse or an action potential is fired.
any of a group of endogenous peptides (as enkephalin and dynorphin) found especially in the brain that bind chiefly to opiate receptors and produce some of the same pharmacological effects (as pain relief) as those of opiates;
either of two pentapeptides with opiate and analgesic activity that occur naturally in the brain and have a marked affinity for opiate receptors
a colorless crystalline feebly basic sympathomimetic hormone C9H13NO3 that is the principal blood-pressure-raising hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla, is prepared from adrenal extracts or made synthetically, and is used medicinally especially as a heart stimulant, as a vasoconstrictor (as to treat open-angle glaucoma and life-threatening allergic reactions and to prolong the effects of local anesthetics), and as a bronchodilator -- called also adrenaline
tending to induce excitation (as of a neuron) <excitatory substances> '<excitatory and inhibitory pathways from the brain; exhibiting, resulting from, related to, or produced by excitement or excitation <an excitatory postsynaptic potential>
having particles that easily move and change their relative position without a separation of the mass and that easily yield to pressure : capable of flowing
he anterior of the three primary divisions of the developing vertebrate brain or the corresponding part of the adult brain that includes especially the cerebral hemispheres, the thalamus, and the hypothalamus and that especially in higher vertebrates is the main control center for sensory and associative information processing, visceral functions, and voluntary motor functions -- called also prosencephalon
an act of giving form or shape to something or of taking form : DEVELOPMENT
a molecule or part of a molecule (as an amino acid sequence in a protein) that acts (as by a change in conformation) in response to a stimulus to permit or block passage through a cell membrane
glial cells
cells in supporting tissue that is intermingled with the essential elements of nervous tissue especially in the brain, spinal cord, and ganglia, is of ectodermal origin, and is composed of a network of fine fibrils and of flattened stellate cells with numerous radiating fibrillar processe
gray matter
neural tissue especially of the brain and spinal cord that contains cell bodies as well as nerve fibers, has a brownish gray color, and forms most of the cortex and nuclei of the brain, the columns of the spinal cord, and the bodies of ganglia -- called also gray substance
the posterior division of the three primary divisions of the developing vertebrate brain or the corresponding part of the adult brain that includes the cerebellum, pons, and medulla oblongata and that controls the autonomic functions and equilibrium -- called also rhombencephalon
hyper polarization
to produce an increase in potential difference across (a biological membrane)
a basal part of the diencephalon that lies beneath the thalamus on each side, forms the floor of the third ventricle, and includes vital autonomic regulatory centers (as for the control of food intake)
of, relating to, or producing inhibition : tending or serving to inhibit
a neuron that conveys impulses from one neuron to another -- called also association neuron, associative neuron, internuncial, internuncial neuron -- compare MOTOR NEURON, SENSORY NEURON
medulla oblongata
he somewhat pyramidal last part of the vertebrate brain developed from the posterior portion of the hindbrain and continuous posteriorly with the spinal cord, enclosing the fourth ventricle, and containing nuclei associated with most of the cranial nerves, major fiber tracts and decussations that link spinal with higher centers, and various centers mediating the control of involuntary vital functions (as respiration)
plural of menix, which is any of the three membranes that envelop the brain and spinal cord and include the arachnoid, dura mater, and pia mater
the middle division of the three primary divisions of the developing vertebrate brain or the corresponding part of the adult brain that includes a ventral part containing the cerebral peduncles and a dorsal tectum containing the corpora quadrigemina and that surrounds the aqueduct of Sylvius connecting the third and fourth ventricles -- called also mesencephalon
the smallest particle of a substance that retains all the properties of the substance and is composed of one or more atoms
motor (efferent)
conducting outward from a part or organ; specifically : conveying nervous impulses to an effector <efferent neurons>
sensory (afferent)
bearing or conducting inward; specifically : conveying impulses toward the central nervous system
motor neurons
n vertebrates, the term motor neuron (or motoneuron) classically applies to neurons located in the central nervous system (CNS) which project their axons outside the CNS and directly or indirectly control muscles. The term is synonymous with efferent neurons.
multiple sclerosis
a demyelinating disease marked by patches of hardened tissue in the brain or the spinal cord and associated especially with partial or complete paralysis and jerking muscle tremor
one of the cells that constitute nervous tissue, that have the property of transmitting and receiving nervous impulses, and that are composed of somewhat reddish or grayish protoplasm with a large nucleus containing a conspicuous nucleolus, irregular cytoplasmic granules, and cytoplasmic processes which are highly differentiated frequently as multiple dendrites or usually as solitary axons and which conduct impulses toward and away from the nerve cell body -- called also nerve cell
an endogenous peptide (as an endorphin or an enkephalin) that influences neural activity or functioning
a substance (as norepinephrine or acetylcholine) that transmits nerve impulses across a synapse
node of Ranvier
neurofibril nodes are regularly spaced gaps in the myelin sheath around an axon or nerve fiber. About one micrometer in length, these gaps expose the axonal membrane to the extracellular fluid. (The myelin sheath is the fatty tissue layer coating the axon.)
a catecholamine C8H11NO3 that is the chemical means of transmission across synapses in postganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system and in some parts of the central nervous system, is a vasopressor hormone of the adrenal medulla, and is a precursor of epinephrine in its major biosynthetic pathway -- called also arterenol, noradrenaline
a glial cell resembling an astrocyte but smaller with few and slender processes having few branches
parasympathetic nervous system
the part of the autonomic nervous system that contains chiefly cholinergic fibers, that tends to induce secretion, to increase the tone and contractility of smooth muscle, and to slow the heart rate, and that consists of (1) a cranial part made up of preganglionic fibers leaving and passing the midbrain by the oculomotor nerves and the hindbrain by the facial, glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves and passing to the ciliary, sphenopalatine, submandibular, and otic ganglia of the head or to ganglionated plexuses of the thorax and abdomen and postganglionic fibers passing from these ganglia to end organs of the head and upper trunk and (2) a sacral part made up of preganglionic fibers emerging and passing in the sacral nerves and passing to ganglionated plexuses of the lower trunk and postganglionic fibers passing from these plexuses chiefly to the viscera of the lower abdomen and the external genital organs
of, relating to, involving, forming, or located near a periphery or surface part (as of the body)
the action of polarizing or state of being or becoming polarized: as a (1) : the action or process of affecting radiation and especially light so that the vibrations of the wave assume a definite form (2) : the state of radiation affected by this process b : an increase in the resistance of an electrolytic cell caused by the deposition of gas on one or both electrodes c : MAGNETIZATION
a broad mass of chiefly transverse nerve fibers in the mammalian brain stem lying ventral to the cerebellum at the anterior end of the medulla oblongata
occurring after synapsis <a postsynaptic chromosome>; relating to, occurring in, or being part of a nerve cell by which a wave of excitation is conveyed away from a synapse
action potential
a momentary reversal in the potential difference across a plasma membrane (as of a nerve cell or muscle fiber) that occurs when a cell has been activated by a stimulus -- called also spike potential
potential (EPSP)
a temporary increase in postsynaptic membrane potential caused by the flow of positively charged ions into the postsynaptic cell. They are the opposite of inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs), which usually result from the flow of negative ions into the cell.
potential (IPSP)
increased negativity of the membrane potential of a neuron on the postsynaptic side of a nerve synapse that is caused by a neurotransmitter (as gamma-aminobutyric acid) which renders the membrane selectively permeable to potassium and chloride ions on the inside but not to sodium ions on the outside and that tends to inhibit the neuron since an added increase in potential in the positive direction is needed for excitation
relating to, occurring in, or being part of a nerve cell by which a wave of excitation is conveyed to a synapse <presynaptic terminals> <presynaptic inhibition> <a presynaptic membrane>
a : an automatic and often inborn response to a stimulus that involves a nerve impulse passing inward from a receptor to the spinal cord and thence outward to an effector (as a muscle or gland) without reaching the level of consciousness and often without passing to the brain <the knee-jerk reflex> b : the process that culminates in a reflex and comprises reception, transmission, and reaction
refractory period
the brief period immediately following the response especially of a muscle or nerve before it recovers the capacity to make a second response -- called also refractory phase -
restoration of the difference in charge between the inside and outside of the plasma membrane of a muscle fiber or cell following depolarization
resting potential
the membrane potential of a cell that is not exhibiting the activity resulting from a stimulus --
of, relating to, or forming a network <reticular layers in the adrenal cortex>
proceeding by leaps rather than by gradual transitions <saltatory conduction of impulses in myelinated nerve fibers>
Schwann Cells
a variety of neuroglia that mainly provide myelin insulation to axons in the peripheral nervous system of jawed vertebrates. The vertebrate nervous system relies on this myelin sheath for insulation and as a method of decreasing membrane capacitance in the axon, thus allowing for saltatory conduction to occur and for an increase in impulse speed, without an increase in axonal diameter. Non-myelinating Schwann cells are involved in maintenance of axons and are crucial for neuronal survival. Some group around smaller axons and form Remak bundles. Schwann cells are the peripheral nervous system's analogues of the central nervous system oligodendrocytes.
sensory neurons
nerve cells within the nervous system responsible for converting external stimuli from the organism's environment into internal electrical motor reflex loops and several forms of involuntary behavior, including pain avoidance. In humans, such reflex circuits are commonly located in the spinal cord. In complex organisms, sensory neurons relay their information to the central nervous system.
a phenolic amine neurotransmitter C10H12N2O that is a powerful vasoconstrictor and is found especially in the brain, blood serum, and gastric mucous membrane of mammals
somatic sensory
of, relating to, or being sensory activity having its origin elsewhere than in the special sense organs (as eyes and ears) and conveying information about the state of the body proper and its immediate environment <somatosensory pathways>
relating to, occupying, or having the character of space <affected with spatial disorientation>
spinal cord
he thick longitudinal cord of nervous tissue that in vertebrates extends along the back dorsal to the bodies of the vertebrae and is enclosed in the vertebral canal formed by their neural arches, is continuous anteriorly with the medulla oblongata, gives off at intervals pairs of spinal nerves to the various parts of the trunk and limbs, serves not only as a pathway for nervous impulses to and from the brain but as a center for carrying out and coordinating many reflex actions independently of the brain, and is composed largely of white matter arranged in columns and tracts of longitudinal fibers about a large central core of gray matter somewhat H-shaped in cross section and pierced centrally by a small longitudinal canal continuous with the ventricles of the brain -- called also medulla spinalis
cumulative action or effect; especially : the process by which a sequence of stimuli that are individually inadequate to produce a response are cumulatively able to induce a nerve impulse
sympathetic system
the part of the autonomic nervous system that is concerned especially with preparing the body to react to situations of stress or emergency, that contains chiefly adrenergic fibers and tends to depress secretion, decrease the tone and contractility of smooth muscle, increase heart rate, and that consists essentially of preganglionic fibers arising in the thoracic and upper lumbar parts of the spinal cord and passing through delicate white rami communicantes to ganglia located in a pair of sympathetic chains situated one on each side of the spinal column or to more peripheral ganglia or ganglionated plexuses and postganglionic fibers passing typically through gray rami communicantes to spinal nerves with which they are distributed to various end organs -- called also sympathetic system -- compare
the place at which a nervous impulse passes from one neuron to another
synaptic knobs
The synapse is located at the end of each axonal end branch.
synaptic vesicles
also called neurotransmitter vesicles, store the various neurotransmitters that are released during calcium-regulated exocytosis at the presynaptic terminal into the synaptic cleft of a synapse. The vesicles are essential for the propagation of nerve impulses between neurons and are constantly recreated by the cell.
the anterior subdivision of the embryonic forebrain or the corresponding part of the adult forebrain that includes the cerebral hemispheres and associated structures
the terminal arborization of a nerve fiber -- used originally of dendrites but now especially of the main arborization of an axon
of or relating to the temples or the sides of the skull behind the orbits.
the largest subdivision of the diencephalon that consists chiefly of an ovoid mass of nuclei in each lateral wall of the third ventricle and serves to relay impulses and especially sensory impulses to and from the cerebral cortex
the point at which a physiological or psychological effect begins to be produced (as the degree of stimulation of a nerve which just produces a response or the concentration of sugar in the blood at which sugar just begins to pass the barrier of the kidneys and enter the urine) <below the threshold of consciousness> <the threshold of pain> <a high renal clearance threshold>
a cavity of a bodily part or organ: as a : a chamber of the heart which receives blood from a corresponding atrium and from which blood is forced into the arteries b : one of the system of communicating cavities in the brain that are continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord, that like it are derived from the medullary canal of the embryo, that are lined with an epithelial ependyma, and that contain a serous fluid -
visceral sensory
Brainstem visceral sensory and (nor)adrenergic neurons play crucial roles in modulating cardiovascular and respiratory functions. The origins and formation of these neurons are poorly understood
Voltage-sensitive membrane channels, the sodium channel, the potassium channel and the calcium channel operate together to amplify, transmit and generate electric pulses in higher forms of life. Sodium and calcium channels are involved in cell excitation, neuronal transmission, muscle contraction and many functions that relate directly to human diseases. Sodium channels--glycosylated proteins with a relative molecular mass of about 300,000 (ref. 5)--are responsible for signal transduction and amplification, and are chief targets of anaesthetic drugs and neurotoxins.
white matter
neural tissue especially of the brain and spinal cord that consists largely of myelinated nerve fibers bundled into tracts, has a whitish color, and typically underlies the gray matter