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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 3 mechanisms of water conservation?
Kidneys
Instestines
Sweating
What 2 hormones does the kidney secrete?
Renin
EPO
Name some things you can see in a urine analysis
Blood- not normal
Glucose-not present above 0.3g/24 hr
Keytone bodies- present during fasting (check diet)
Protein-usually not present above 150mg/24 hr
Bilirubin-usually not present
Urine pH- 5-7.5 depending on diet
What are keytone bodies?
Metabolites of tissue protein
If you see intact RBCs in urine, what may be the problem?
Kidney stones in ureter, or trauma (grey turner syndrome
If you see hemoglobin in urine, what may be the problem?
Hemolysis: could be sickle cell or other
If you see myoglobin in urine, what may be the problem?
Trauma
If glucose is being spilled into urine, what should you expect?
Polyuria because of osmotic pressure
What is the normal specific gravity?
1.000-1.025
What type of crystals will you see with acid urine?
Cystine and Uric acid (Gout and red meat)
What type of crystals will you see with alkaline urine?
Calcium phosphate and calcium oxalate
Your pt has RBCs, WBCs, and epithelial cells in urine, what’s the most likely Dx?
Stones until proven otherwise
How do you get a “clean catch” urine sample?
Cathether
Needle in bladder
What is the normal GFR?
115-125 ml/min
Name 3 renal function test
GFR
Urine concentrating ability-18-24 hr water deprivation; check osmolarity; should reach 900mOsm/kg
Urine diluting ability
What is the normal mOsm/kg?
50-1000 mOsm/kg
What test assesses the contribution of each kidney?
Radionuclide scanning test
What test is used to eval renal masses?
MRI
What test is indicated for pts with protenuria(nephritic syndrome), hematuria, or lupus?
Renal biopsy
Which test and meds do you avoid with decreased GFR
Dye tests
Aminoglycosides(nephrotoxic/ototoxic)
What are casts?
Elements formed in disease states associated with low intra-renal urine flow or heavy proteinuria
Where are casts formed?
ureters
RBC casts in urine indicate what?
problem within the kidney
what is a hyaline cast?
An empty cast made of protein