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22 Cards in this Set

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Describe Hypervolemic hyponatrema
> in total body Na, BUT
and even greater > in total body water

Edema formation results
Describe Euvolemic hyponatrema
Normal body Na, But there's an > in total body water; therefore hyponatremia results by dilution
Describe Hypovolemic hyponatremia
Occurs in Extrerenal and renal volume loss

Total body Na is decreased

ADH is released, leads to water retention without Na retention
What are the causes of Renal Loss (hypovolemic hyponatremic)?
Mineralocorticoid deficiency
Diuretics
Renal tubular acidosis
Anion gap acidosis
Partial UT obstruction
What are the causes of Euvolemic hyponatremia
Post operative hyponatremia
Hypothyroidism
SIADH
What causes Hypervolemic hyponatremia?
Nephrotic syndrome
CHF
Cirrhosis
Renal failure
What causes Pseudohyponatremia?
Hypertriglyceridemia
Multiple Myeloma
What causes Redistributive hyponatremia?
Hyperglycemia
Mannitol infusion
Where do you see hypernatremia?
commonly in the elderly
infants with diarrhea
diabetes insipidus
S/Sx of hypernatremia?
Dry mouth and mucosa
Flushed skin
Fever
Oliguria and anuria
Confusion
Convulsions
Hyperventilation
Hyperreflexia
Low urine sodium with polyuria
Diabetes Insipidus

Leads to hypernatremia
What is the treatment of hypernatremia if sodium >200
Dialysis
What can rapid correction of hypernatremia cause?
Pulmonary edema
What are the clinical Features of hypokalemia
Cardiovascular:
Ventricular arrhythmias
Cardiac arrest
Hypotension

Neuro:
Skeletal muscle weakness
Cramps
Ileus and constipation
EKG findings with hypokalemia
Flattened T waves
Causes of Hyperkalemia
Renal failure
ACE inhibitors
Cell death: Burns, Rhabdo
acidosis
Clinical presentation of hyperkalemia
Arrhythmia
Cardiac arrest

Neuro:
Numbness
Tingling
Flaccid paralysis
Tx for hyperkalemia
Calcium gluconate
Sodium bicarbonate
Glucose
Insulin
Kayexalate
Causes of hypercalcemia
lung cancer
Vitamin D intoxication
Hyperparathyroidism
Sarcoidosis
These symptoms are characteristic of what electrolyte imbalance:

Anorexia
Nausea
Constipation
Polyuria
Polydipsia
Dehydration
Decreased QT
Hypercalcemia
How do you treat hypercalcemia?
Calcitonin
Bisphosphonates
These are the symptoms of what electrolyte imbalance?

Paresthesias
Seizures
Tetany
Increased QT
Hypocalcemia