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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Definition of leukemia
General term for a group of malignancies of either lymphoid or hematapoietic cell origin. inc number of circulating leukocytes.
Acute Leukemias
predom blasts; most often in children (ALL most common)
most common malignancy in children. predom of lymphoblasts; most responsive to therapy; CD10 marker
adults; predom of myeloblasts; responds to current therapy more poorly than ALL
Chronic leukemias
prolif of lymphoid or hemat cells that are more mature than those of the acute leukemias; longer, less devastating course
CLL definition
prolif of neoplastic lymphoid cells (B cells MC) Men > 60yo
Smudge cells
CLL characteristics
leukemic cells closely resemble normal mature peripheral blood lymphocytes - express B-cell markers CD19 and CD20; CD5+ and CD10(-); less capable of developing into anti-body producing cells
CLL complications
1. Warm Ab autoimmune hemolytic anemia
2. hypogammaglobulinemia
leukemic cells with hair-like projections and stain positive for tartrate-resistant acid phosphate (TRAP)
Hairy cell leukemia - responds to a-interferon, 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine, and deoxycoformycin
CML definition
neaoplastic clonal proliferation of myeloid stem cells (precursor to erythrocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, platelets)
CML characteristics
Philadelphia chromosome (9:22)= brc-abl fusion --> codes for a protein w/ tyrosine kinase activity
Myeloproliferative diseases
CML, polycythemia vera, chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis, essential thrombocythemia
erythrocytosis with decreased EPO
polycythemia vera
Causes of secondary polycythemia
1. chronic hypoxia, 2. inappropriate production of EPO (androgen Tx, adult polycystic kidney disease, tumors); 3. Endocrine abn (pheo, Cushings)
Tear-drop shaped erythrocytes
chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis (myelofibrosis w/ myeloid metaplasia)
Heterophil antibodies
Infectous mononucleosis
Infectious mono characteristics
atypical lymphocytes
heterophil antibodies
spleen sus to traumatic rupture
Multiple Myeloma
malignant plasma cell tumor usu affecting older persons that thypically involves bone
Multiple myeloma - tumor cells
produce lytic bone lesions, ("punched out") w severe bone pain; M protein
M protein and bence jones protein
= tumor cells in multiple myeloma produce lots of ident immunoglobulin molecule (seen electrophoretically as M spike); either IgG or IgA; kappa or lambda light chains in urine = BJ proteins
Rouleaux formation
in Multiple myeloma; RBCs stack together like poker chips
Myeloma kidney
prominent tubular casts of Bence-jones proteins, numberous multinuc macrophage derived giant cells, and metastatic calcification in multiple myeloma
Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia
lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, tumor cells produce monoclonal IgM
Hodgkin lymphoma
malignant neoplasm with features resembling an inflammatory d/o
Reed-Sternberg cells
Dx of Hodgkin lymphoma depends on this histologic finding = binucleated or multinucleated giant cells with inclusion - like nucleoli
Prognosis of Hogkin's lymphoma
severity of the disease directly proportional to the number of Reed-Sternbergs; greater number of reactive lymphocytes = better prog
Classification of Hodgkin lymphoma
lymphocyte predom - no EBV assoc; good prog
Lymphocyte rich - EBV
Mixed cellularity - EBV assoc
Lymphocyte depletion - majority EBV; poorest prognosis
Nodular Sclerosis - most frequent, young women, no EBV assoc; good prog
Non-hodgkin lymphomas
malignant neoplasms; most frequently originate within lymph nodes; tumor invlvement of the periaortic lymph nodes
Nodular sclerosis Hodgkin lymphoma
most frequent hodgkin, in young women, affected lymph nodes - fibrous bands and presence of lacunar cells, reed-sternbery
Non-Hodgkin lymphomas
small lymphocytic lymphoma
Follicular lymphoma
Mantle cell lymphoma
Extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma of MALT type
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
Precursor T lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukemia
Burkitt lymphoma
Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma
Follicular lymphoma
B-cell lymphoma, indolent course in older persons, MC form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma; t(14;18) w/ expression of bcl-2
Burkitt Lymphoma
aggressive B-cell lymphoma; close link to EBV; histo - "starry-sky"; cytogenic change t(8;14) --> inc expression of c-myc
Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas
1. Mycosis fungoides - cerebriform nuclei & Pautrier microabscesses
2. Sezary syndrome - circulating neoplastic cells and cerebriform nuclei
Fibrous bands and lacunar cells in woman with cervical and mediastinal lymphadenopathy
Nodular Sclerosis subtype of hodgkin lymphoma. (Lacunar cell is a variant of reed-sternberg cell) this variant not assoc w EBV