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105 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Comte, Spencer, and Durkeim all were early what?
Sociologist
The Soc perspective can lead to the?
Sociological Imagination
What major event led to the development of sociology as a field of study?
Industrial Revolution
The 3 theoretical perspectives in soc. are the?
Functionalist, Interactionist, Conflict.
This man believed the economy affects social structure.
Karl Marx
The founder of Sociology is?
Auguste Comte
The empathetic understanding of meanings others attach to their actions is called?
Verstehen
A systematic explanation of the relationship among phenomena is called what?
Theory
Studying the societal consequences of the development of computers would most likely be of interest to?
Functionalist Sociologists
This social science focuses on societies and examines present simple cultures.
Anthropology
This science studies social interaction, emphasizes group behavior, and studies human society.
Sociology
This social science focuses on goods and services, and examines wants and needs.
Economics
This is a general description, was developed by weber, and examines essential features of an aspect of society.
Concept of ideal type
This social science studies the past to explain current social behaviors and examines the past.
History
This perspective focuses on meanings individuals attach to their actions, emphasizes symbols, and studies human interaction.
Interactionist Perspective
This was developed by spencer, is based on a biological model, and on the concept of "survival of the fittest".
Social Darwinism
This social science examines voting patterns and studies government.
Political Science
Cooking utensils are part of:
Material Culture
3 Components of culture are:
Language, values, symbols
Norms without great significance.
Folkways
Smallest unit of culture.
Culture Trait
Shared rules of conduct that tell you how to act.
Norms
Combination of a number of culture complexes into one interrelated whole is:
Culture pattern
Shared beliefs about what is good, bad,right, wrong, desirable, undesirable.
Values
Cluster of interrelated culture traits.
Cultural complex
Belief that cultures should be judged by their own perspective
Cultural relativism
Written rule of conduct enacted by govenment
Law
Neo-nazis, skinheads or devil worshipers are?
Subcultures
Norms, values, symbols, language and objects make up?
Culture
Physical objects of material culture.
Artifacts
Values are to beliefs as norms are to:
Behaviors
A ranked authority structure that operates according to specific rules
Bureaucracy
Vegtables grown in gardens make up the main substance strategy of what type of society?
Horticulture
Large, complex secondary group established to achieve specific goals
Formal organization
Breaking with past experiences and learning new values and norms
Resocialization
A reward or punishment given by a formal organization is called a:
Formal Sanction
The enforcing of norms through eitehr sanctions or internalization
Social control
Process by which a norm becomes a part of one's personality
Internalization
Spontaneous expression of approval or disapproval.
Informal Sanction
Commitment to the full development of one's talents and potential.
Self-Fulfillment
When people make a long-term conscious effort to promote or prevent social change.
Social Movement
Extreme Self-centeredness.
Narcissism
The blending of culturally distinct groups into a single group with a common culture and identity.
Assimilation
Using existing knowledge to create something that did not previously exist.
Invention
These are American Values that involve right and wrong, including helping the less fortunate.
Morality and Humanitarianism
Values and beliefs, technology, and physical environment all can be said to cause what?
Social Change
These produce conflict, are vital to teh stability of society, are not upheld to the same degree for all, and DO NOT stay the same over time.
Values
These are American Values that are the least common source of social change, bring advances in technology and medicine, and produce the greatest change in the least amount of time.
Wars and Conquests
This involves the spreading of culture traits, is spread by instant communication, and is seen in the worldwide distribution of American Products.
Diffusion
What are the following characteristics of: satisfaction with the present, happy to maintain current life-styles, and resistance of change.
Vested Interest
These could include ribbons, badges, medals, praise, cheers, and are usually first experienced within the family.
Positive Sanctions
Vested interests, cultural lag, and ethnocentrism are all sources of what?
Resistance to social change.
Freedom, personal achievement, and equality are all examples of what?
American Values
Results because changes in material culture are accepted more quickly than nonmaterial changes, because some aspects of culture change less rapidly than other aspects, and involves resistance to change.
Cultural Lag
A system of statuses, roles, values and norms organized to satisfy one or more basic needs of society is called:
Social Institution
The smallest group possible is a:
Dyad
Atribution, mediation, and compromise are all examples of:
Accomodation
Network of interrelated statuses and roles that guides human behavior:
Social Structure
Competition, exchange, and accomodation are examples of:
Social Interactionalist
The practice of exchanging one good for another is?
Barter
Corresponding roles that define the pattern of interaction between related statuses are?
Reciprocal Roles
The basis of exchange theory is?
Reciprocity
Occupation is a(n)___________status.
Achieved
Specialization of people or groups in performance of specific economic activities is:
Division of Labor
Expected behavior of someone occupying a particular status.
A role
This theory holds that people are motivated by self-interest and their interactions with other people is called:
Exchange Theory
A status assigned according to standards beyond one's control is called:
Ascribed Status
Family members are to primary group as co-workers are to:
Secondary Group
Takes place when a person has difficulty meeting a role expectation of a single status:
Role strain
Type of society that relies on draft animals and plows to till fields is a:
Agricultural Society
These can be inherited, are thought by some to influence behavior patterns, and are the basis of the nature arguement concerning personality.
Instincts
This concept was proposed by John Locke, it involves newborn children, and means "clean slate"
Tabula Rosa
Military boot camps, mental hospitals, and prisons are examples of what?
Total Institutions
Heredity, parental characteristics, and birth order are factors taht influence what?
Personality Development
Peer groups, schools, and mass media are examples of what?
Agents of Socialization
Interactive prcoess by which we develop an image of ourselves based on whow we imagine we appear to others.
The self looking glass
capacity to learn a particular skill or aquire a particular way of knowledge
Aptitude
The transmission of genetic characteristics from parents to children
heredity
The rights, obligations, and expectations of a role in preparations for assuming that role at a future date
Anticipatory Socialization
The physical maturing that makes a person capable of sexual reproduction
Puberty
Living in a hostile family situation, having social and academic adjustment problems, and having friends who regularly use drugs are all associated with:
Teenage drug use
Under what type of dating system did men probably pay the expense of the date?
Traditional
Establishing personal norms and values is a characteristic of what age group"seraching for themselves"
Adolescence
Greatest source of pressure on teenagers probably comes from
Their peers
Tendencey to marry people who have the same social characteristics as you is called
Homogamy
Gambling, illegal drug use, and vagrancy are
Victemless Crimes
Theory that views deviance as the result of competition and social inequalities
A crime syndicate
Accepting both the cultural goals and the means of achieving these goals is called what?
Conformity
Sanctions used to punish criminals
Corrections
Situation results in a person being labeled as deviant and accepting that label
Secondary Deviance
Theory that suggests that people who commit deviant acts have weak community ties
The control theory
Theory that suggests that people who commit deviant acts have weak community ties
The control theory
Non-conformity that goes undetected
Primary Deviance
Repeated criminal behavior
Recidivism
A situation when norms are unclear
Anomie
Shift from being an independent adult to being dependent on other assistance is
Dependency
Adult female development can be distinguished from adult male development by female emphisis on
Marriage
Satisfaction with retirement is associated with financial security and
Good Heath
Having heath insurance, a secure job, and opportunity to learn new skills are associated with
Job Satisfaction
Increase in number of working women is the biggest change in the composition of
Labor Force
Average number of years a person born at a particular period of time can expect to live is
Life Expectancy
Farmers make up approxomently-----of the labor force
3%
The occupational category that includes doctors, librarians, nurses and teachers is
Professional Specialty
Combination of statuses, roles, activities, goals, values, beliefs, and life circumstances that characterize an individual is a
Life Map
An organic condition that results in the progressive destruction of brain cells is.
Alzheimers