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51 Cards in this Set

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what structures of the neck can be seen or palpated externally?
1. hyoid bone
2. thyroid cartilage
3. 1st tracheal ring
4. isthmus of thyroid gland
5. suprasternal notch
6. sternocleidomastoid muscle
7. trapezius muscle
8. clavicle
what structures are located in the subcutaneous fascia of the neck?
just the external jugular vein -
remember i cut it in lab?
what forms the external jugular vein and where does it drain into? basically, what is its path?
starts from combo of both posterior auricular vein and posterior division of retromandibular vein
drains into subclavian vein
what's clinically significant about the external jugular vein?
used as manometer indicating right-sided heart pressure
is also site for venous catheterization
what are the major triangles of the neck?
posterior and anterior triangles
what are the subtriangles of the posterior triangle of the neck?
1. occipital triangle
2. supraclavicular triangle
what are the subtriangles of the anterior triangle of the neck?
1. muscular triangle
2. carotid triangle
3. digastric
4. submental
what muscle separates the anterior and posterior triangles?
sternocleidomastoid
what muscle separates the occipital and supraclavicular triangle of posterior triangle?
superior belly of omohyoid
what muscle separates the muscular and carotid triangles of anterior triangle of neck?
superior belly of omohyoid
what muscle separates digastric and sbumental triangles of anterior triangle of neck?
anterior belly of digastric
what are the borders of the posterior triangle?
1. sternocleidomastoid muscle
2. trapezius muscle
3. middle third of clavicle
which nerve innervates the sternocleidomastoid muscle and what does it do?
innervation: accessory or CN XI
actions: flexes head on neck
rotates chin to opposite side
what innervates the trapezius muscle and what does it do?
innervation: accessory or CN XI also
actions: extends, laterally flexes neck
shrugs shoulders
what visceral structures is the anterior triangle associated with?
1. esophagus
2. trachea
3. thyroid gland and parathyroid glands
4. pharynx
5. larynx
what are the contents of the posterior triangle?
7 things: 4 nerve things, 1 artery, 1 vein, 1 muscle
1. CN XI
2. Cervical plexus = sensory nerves from C2-C4
3. brachial plexus
4. phrenic nerve
5. subclavian artery
6. external jugular vein
7. omohyoid muscle
what are the major structures in the subclavian triangle?
anterior and middle scalene muscles
what's the insertion, action of the anterior and middle scalene muscles?
insertion: first rib
actions: flex neck laterally
elevates ribs in respiration
what passes between anterior and middle scalenes?
1. subclavian artery
2. brachial plexus = roots and trunks
what passes in front of the anterior scalene muscle?
1. subclavian vein
2. phrenic nerve - C3-C5 keep the diaphragm alive
what are the borders of the anterior triangle?
mandible - superior
sternocleidomastoid - posterior
midline of neck - anteriorly
what vertebral level is the hyoid bone at?
C3
what muscles correspond with the level of the hyoid?
digastric muscle is attached here before going back
at what vertebral level is the cricoid cartilage?
C6
what muscles are in the muscular triangle?
strap muscles
superficial
superior belly of omohyoid
sternohyoid m.
deep
sternothyroid m.
thyrohyoid m.
what strap muscles are considered superficial?
superior belly of omohyoid
sternohyoid m.
what strap muscles are considered deep?
thyrohyoid m
sternothyroid m.
what do the strap muscles do?
help with swallowing
coughing
sneezing
move larynx up and down
what nerve innervates the sternothyroid m.?
the ansa cervicalis
C1-C3
what spinal levels are in the ansa cervicalis?
C1-C3
what nerve stimulates thyrohyoid m.?
C1 spinal level
what structures are between the infrahyoid muscles?
1. laryngeal prominence = thyroid cartilage
2. cricoid cartilage
3. cricothyroid membrane - site of emergency cricothyrotomy
4. trachea - site of tracheotomy
5. esophagus
6. thyroid gland
7. parathyroid glands
how long is the esophagus?
25 cm
what's the path of the esophagus?
begins at cricoid cartilage
passes thru superior mediastinum
pierces diaphragm
enters stomach
where in relation to the trachea is the esophagus?
posterior
where is the esophagus constricted?
3 places;
1. where it originates at pharynx
this is called esophagus junction
2. where crossed by left bronchus and aortic arch
3. where pierces diaphragm - T10
over which tracheal rings is the thyroid isthmus?
2nd, 3rd, 4th tracheal rings
why does the thyroid gland move with swallowing?
pretracheal fascia to larynx
what nerves are on posteromedial surfaces of thyroid gland?
recurrent laryngeal nerves
what are the contents of the carotid triangle?
6 things; 2 artery branches, 1 vein, 3 nerves
1. common carotid artery bifurcation
2. external carotid artery branches
3. internal jugular vein
4. cranial nerves X, XI, XII
5. cervical sympathetic trunk
6. ansa cervicalis
what branches of the external carotid artery are in the carotid triangle?
4
1. superior thyroid
2. lingual
3. facial
4. occipital
where (at what vertebral level, etc.) does the common carotid bifurcate?
C3
upper border of thyroid cartilage
deep to anterior border of SCM
what cranial nerve do the superior and recurrent laryngeal nerves come from?
vagus - CN X
which sides of the ansa cervicalis are the ascending and descending roots?
ascending is C1, more medial, close to CN XII, hypoglossal
descending is lateral, made of C2, C3 fibers
where do C1 fibers go?
to ansa cervicalis ascending root
branches off ansa cervicalis to go to thyrohyoid m.
where is the hypoglossal nerve in relation to ascending root of ansa cervicalis?
right next to it, follows it for a little bit and then arches back up to go to tongue muscles
where are the lymph nodes in the neck? how many different groups of them are there?
1. occipital
2. preauricular
3. postauricular
4. submandibular
5. superficial cervical
6. deep cervical
where are the superficial cervical lymph nodes?
anterior and posterior to sternocleidomastoid m.
where does lymph to the deep cervical nodes come from?
from ALL nodes above it
what are some symptoms of hypothyroidism?
weight gain
feeling cold
feeling tired
constipation
frequent menstrual periods
difficulty breathing
dysphagia
hoarseness to voice
thin hair
coarse, dry skin
mass that moves with swallowing
facial edema around eyes
delayed relaxation phase of deep tendon reflexes
what are consequences of losing all your parathyroid glands?
numbness, tingling around mouth
severe, painful spasmodic contractions of flexor muscles in hands and feet