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65 Cards in this Set

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Why is an exposure chart designed?
To provide detailed exposure technique for a material of a given thickness which will produce a pre determined density.
exposure charts are sometimes called what?
constant density or technique chart.
Set of guidelines used to establish uniformity?
parameters
vary from chart to chart?
variables
What are the different variables for exposure charts?
exposure, kV range, and material thickness
Must be listed on the chart?
Constants
What are the different constants?
-type material
-type of machine
-type and make of film
-HD to be produced
-mA used
-SFD
-quality enhancers
-processing method
-type of development
What materials are used in the construction of an exposure chart?
semi-logarithmic paper and a wedge.
Prevents lines from curving back onto each other?
Semi-logarithmic paper
What are 4 ways to construct a chart?
-Step block
-Step block & characterist curve.
-Wedge tappered
-Wedge tappered& characteristic curve
Least perfered method of constructing a chart?
Step block
Why is the step block the least perfered method of constructing a chart?
Req 4 exposure per kV line, and each exposure taken at different MAS. An you can not always find desired density.
What is the most accurate way to construct a chart?
wedge tappered
What method do we use in school for constructing exposure charts?
wedge tappered & characteristic curve.
What formula is used to find the thickness of a tappered wedge at a given density?
(TANagl x D)+t=T
Four densities must be selected which will be used for every kV line What are they?
First cchoose the constant density, then choose 3 others evenly spacedfrom the constant
What are some of the factors in selecting film to be used?
-Film used most often
-Has good contrast and latitiude
-Has characteristic curve available for it.
When using the tappered wedge method how many densities are messured?
4 densities(D) from the thinest part of the wedge
How are the 4 dots ploted on the graph connected?
at the most otimum angle
What is the purpose of a radiographic technique?
To provide repatable step by step procedures, giving uniformity.
Why should radiography only be used if other methods are not avalible?
its expensive.
accounts for a considerable share of the critcal components of an aircraft?
Casting
Defects associated with casting process?
-Micro shrinkage
-shringage porosity
gas porosity
inclusions
hot cracks
cold shuts
misruns
dendritics
unfused chaplets
core shift
surface irregularities
Weld discontinuities consist of what?
of a change in the materials homoeneity
Shiny,bright white specks on a radiograph?
tungsten inclusions
Different welding defects and conditions?
cover bead, undercutting, splatter, arc tracks and burns,junctions and laps, propsity, slag and wagon tracks, lack of vead fusion, incomplete penetration, burn through.
What are the different service inspection that can be performed?
wear, corr, cracks or crack like defects, water in hunnycomb, FOD, assemblies, and workmenship
What are the five geometric factors?
-Focal spot size
-SFD
-beam to film allignment
-Film to object distance
-object to film alignment
When developing a technique what are the three considerations in order?
1st- material type
2nd- material thickness
3rd-lowest practical kV under a 1000 MAS
For Z & L channels how many flanges are computed?
one thickness
For C&I channels how many flanges are computed?
TWO
What is the difference between TPT and TMT?
TPT-The thickness of the intire part

TMT-The thickness x rays have to travel.
To shoot a solid part at an angle you have to do what?
get the TMT
if the angle is at 37 degrees what does that mean?
the part is 2in or greater
when do you increase the angle by 5 degrees?
For every 1/2in below 2in
What is the max angle that can be shoot?
52 dgrees
How is the exposure time determined for angle shots?
by adding 10% to the final calculated time
What is the max shift to compensate for angle shots?
3in
Film characteristic curve can also be called?
HD curve
LRE chart
LRE chart is designed for?
Density corrections, film changes, processing changes
What does a LRE chart show?
The relationship between the exposure applied and the resulting density
Why do you multiply or divide the ALRV by the original MAS?
Do determine the new MAS for the correction or change.
If you go from a M film to R film what must you do with the ALRV?
Multipy because you are going to a slower film
How do you determine the area of coverage for a larger pice of film?
by finding the new SFD.

right the formula down.
How is defect location determined?
draw formula
What is the purpose of multi-thickness overlay?
designed to make 1 exposure of a part with various thicknesses.
The thinnist material on a part will have what?
maximum HD on film
The maximum thickness of the part will have what HD?
minimum
The logarithm of the different LREs multiplied by MAS is used to compue the difference in what?
HD for multi thickness
Can be used to show the thickness range that will be covered by one exposure?
Plastic overlay
For plastic overlay the angle of the kV line used will determine what?
The amound of material that can be covered in one exposure at the densityies desired?
In multi thickness shots as kV increases so does what?
thinkness range
For multi thinkness what line gives you the MAS?
2.0 (red)
If the thickest section cannot be covered in a single exposure you must do what?
use multi-film technique
How is penetrameter size calculated for multi-thickness shots?
Follow the 2.0HD over to the nearest kV line and down.
What does Pre-repair consist of?
outline area after visual inspection

Varify outline by tap test

Further varify by using other methods available
Whats does post repair inspection consist of?
Adhesive/foam splice

Excessive/lack of adhesive
What is the 90 Degree exposure for in BCL inspections?
crushed core, corrosion, water intrapment
Angle exposures in BCL inspections are taken at a max angle of?
5 degrees
A 5 degree angle shot may be used to do what during BCL inspections?
blow open cell wall areas and inspect for node seperation.
May be used to determaing damage extent in advanced composites?
5 degree angle shot
For better contrast in BCL inspections you should do what?
Use low kV between 25-75
What is normal shift of xray tube head?
60in SFD- 1in center ray shift

72in SFD-1.25 in

80in SFD-1.4 in
Area of coverage on BCL inspection does what?
Allows radiographer to dermine the amount of cell area that will apperar clearly on the radiograph
What formula is used for determining that area of coverage on BCL.
Draw it.