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175 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Pangea
Earth's previously separate land masses were welded together hundreds of millions of years ago
Diseases from Europe to America and effects
Smallpox
Measles
Mumps
Whooping Cough
Influenza
Chicken pox
Typhus

By 1650 up to 90% of Original Americans died
Additional disease from slave trade
Malaria
Yellow Fever
European Grains introduced
Wheat
Barley
Rye
Sugar
Bananas
Citrus Fruit
Main grain export now hugely influential
Wheat
Slave Trade related to specific crops
Sugar
Rice
Cotton
Domesticated Animals in the New World
Alpacas
Llamas
Dogs
Turkeys
Guinea Pigs
Crops to the East from the New World
Corn
Potatoes
Cassava
Various beans
Squashes
African Corn Consumption
Angola
Zambia
Zimbabwe
Mozambique
South Africa
Potato consumption per capita
Ireland
Mountain populations in China
Potato from Andean region
Produced explosion of European explosion
Cassava in Africa
200 million rely on this
Cassava regions
Between 30 degrees of the equator
Peanut production
Africa is leader
Sweet potatoes in China
third most important after Rice and Wheat
Ranking of Energy per hectare
Cassava
Rice - Corn
First crops to be planted and harvested
Cereal Grains

Led to Wealth and Power
Cereal grain intake
70% in developing countries
40% in developed countries
General calorie content
Most serial grains - 350 kcal and 8-12 g of protein
Supplements for cereal grains
Proteins
Minerals
Vitamins A and C
Grain Husk
No nutritive Value
Grain Embryo/Germ
B vitamins
Vitamin E
Antioxidants
30% fat
Grain Endosperm
Carbohydrate/starch
protein
Corn domestication originated in:
Latin America
Characteristics of Corn
High yield per unit
Matures rapidly
Naturally resistant to bird damage
Corn protein quality
Poor

Low amounts of Lysine and Tryptophan
Wheat cultivation
most widespread of all grains
High Wheat Consumption - Low
Iodine
Most all grains deficient in:
Lysine
Grain for drought conditions:
Millet - Sorghum
Millet and Sorghum benefits
more and higher quality of protein
ground at home so less susceptible to milling losses
Oats grow where?
Cold Highlands
Barley consumption
Stiff porridge
Highland areas of Asia, Africa, South America
Teff and Anemia
Richer in Iron than other grains
Quinoa growth
high mountainous areas where:
soil is poor
rainfall is limited
nights are very cold
Quinoa amino acid
Lysine
Amaranth domestication and consumption
Independent domestication in Mexico
Consumed popped
Five major root crops
Potatoes
Sweet potatoes
African Yams
Cocoyam (Taro)
Cassava
African Yam as a primary agricultural commodity
West Africa & Nigeria
African Yam storage
up to 6 months
Cassava flour
Tapioca
Sweet/Bitter Cassava
dependent on cyanogenicacid removed during processing
Advantages/Disadvantages of Cassava
Grows well on poor soils
Long harvesting season

stores poorly
endemic goiter
PEM
Cassava poisoning
Tubers with HIGHEST nutrition composite
Sweet potatoes
Sweet Potato - vitamin deficiency?
Vitamin A deficiency remedy
Cocoyam also known as
Taro
Cocoyam uses
both root and leaves
Potatoes used by Romans
Taro-like
Potato climates
cold
Dehydrated potatoes
chuno, tunta
Tubers: Greatest caloric content
Cassava
Tubers: Greatest protein level
Cocoyam
Tubers: Protein quality
Potato
Tubers: Highest vitamin C content
Cassava
Tubers: Iron level
Cassava
Tubers: Vitamin A
Sweet potato
Tubers low in:
Phytic acid
Tubers high in:
Vitamin C - aids in iron absorption
Which of the five tubers is not primarily used in developing countries
Potatoes
Root crop dependent regions of the world
Africa
Latin America
South Pacific
Leguminosae/Pulses
Beans, peas, lentils, groundnuts
Groundnuts (peanuts) and soybeans rich in:
Calcium and Iron
thiamine
Riboflavin
Niacin
Grain legumes
beans
lentils
lupins
peas
peanuts
soybeans
Common bean domestication
Mesoamerica
Legumes contain more protein than:
Meat
Legumes richer in calcium and iron than:
cereals
Phytoyhaemagglutin
extremely destructive toxin
killed at 100 C for 10 minutes
Common bean stores indefinitely if;
cool, dry place
Lima Beans originated
South American Region, known as Haba beans
Chickpea also known as and cultivated in:
Garbanzo bean
Asia and Mediterranean regions
Cow peas
produced in semi-arid tropics of Asia and Africa
Seed harvesting
Left on plant to reach full maturity
Harvested and dried
Soybeans harvested in Asia for direct
Human consumption
Soybeans and Amino Acids
Well balanced source
Peanuts nutritive properties
High fat
high niacin - pellagra prevention
Good source of thiamin
Little carbohydrate
Milk production
highest in India
Highest fat and protein milk
Sheep
First milk production
Southeast Iran
Holstein Cow
Holland
Developing world consumption
low
highest milk per capita consumption
Somalia
Somalia milk source
Goats
Highest butter fat content
Jersey cow
Water Buffalo Milk Production
India
Non fortified milk content
Calcium
Riboflavin
High quality protein
Vitamins A, D, B12
Vitamin A and D in fortified
D - 500 from 40
A - 5000 from 1300
Vitamin A by season in Milk
high in spring and summer
Low in winter when cattle are fed dry stored foods
Lactose Intolerance Ethnic risk
America Indians
Asians
Central African
Australian Aborigines
American Blacks
Lactose Inolerance due to lack of
Lactase
Results of fermentation of lactose
gases
cramping
bloating
etc...
Lactase production continuing into adulthood
Northern Europe
Mediterranean
Central Africa
South Asia
Powdered Milk response
Not used properly or at all
Caused discomfort
Meat nutrients
Iron
Zinc
Vitamin B6 and 12
Meat protein
complete protein
Meat source of n-3 fatty acids
Tilapia
Meat iron and zinc
Beef
Meat w/ niacin
Chicken - supplement with corn to avoid pellagra
Animals to convert feed to gain
best - beef
worst - fish
Most consumed meat
beef
Sector of world most to have cattle
Nomads
Mutton and goat
similar between developed and developing populations
Advantages to Pigs
short gestation period
large litters
ominvore
Most exensively produced animal
Chicken
Most farmed fish
tilapia
Guinea Pig consumption
Andean cultures
Water Buffalo consumption
South and SE Asia
Yak consumption
blood as well
Storage of Vegetables
Rare
Vegetable consumption in developing world
Forage often used as part of diet
Vegetable Nutrient
carotene
vit C
calcium
iron
minerals
Dark Green Leaves
more carotene
protein
calcium
iron
Regional Vegetable consumption
most - Latin America
Least - Oceania
Antioxidant in Tomatoes
Lycopene
Carotenoid source
from word Carrots
Swiss Chard good non fat source of
Vitamin E
Spinach content
impressive array of minerals and vitamins
Macular Degeneration prevention
Carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin
Roman beloved vege
broccoli
Broccoli nutrition
high in fiber
nutrient dense
folate
riboflavin
potassium
iron
vit C
beta carotene
lutein
Fruit content
mainly C
Fruit carbohydrates
Sugar
Vitamin A fruits
papayas and mangoes
Nutritional attribute of bananas
high carb
potassium
Vit B6
1 cup OJ
90% vit C daily
Pineapple good source of:
Thiamin - prevent beriberi
Development with a face
Policies that are sustainable and benefit the poor and undernourished
Goals of dev w/ a face
stable and safe food supplies
adequate protection from disease
available health services
environment that encourages caring practices
Major forms of malnutrition
PEM
Vit A
Anemias
Iodine
Zinc
Cash crop competition with food crops
low food availability for human nutrition
Focus groups for nutrition intervention
highest risk
most likely to benefit
Animals for nutrition interventions
Goats
Chickens
Pigs
Fish
Iodates
used with lower quality salts
iodine fortification also used in
milk
bread
flour
sugar
Iron toxicity
organ damage
Vitamin A fortification vehicles
margarines
fats and oils
milk
sugar
cereals
instant noodles
spice mix
Vitamin D fortification
margarine
dairy products
vegetable oils
Vit E fortification
fats and oils
B-complex fortification vehicles
cereals
Folic acid and B12 with heart disease
break down homocysteine in the body
hectare of land
10k square meters
Guinea pig diet in Benson Inst. Program
need vit C source
Egg
Single most perfect food
Hen egg production
300 annually
Dairy goat milk production
150 gallons
Raw soybeans contain:
trypsin inhibitor for protein digestion
150 broiler chickens
550 lb edible meat per year
Successful nutritional interventions
iron/folate supplementation
multiple micronutrient
iodine in salt
calcium
energy and protein supplements
GMO domination
USA
Processes of GMO
Cisgenesis
Transgenesis
GMO process
attach to virus or agro bacterium
Cisgenesis
genes artificially transferred between organisms
Transgenesis
genes put into organism not normally able to do naturally
Transgenesis gene introduction
exogenous gene, called a transgene
Emerging GMOs that can be beneficial
golden rice
carrots w/ calcium
tomatoes
cassava
Intervention costs per person/annually
iodine - 2 cents
vit A sugar - 17 cents
iron sugar - 1 dollar
Cost per life saved
iron in pregnant woman - 800 dollars
iodine fort - 1000 dollars
vit a supp in U5 - 325
Vitamin A failure in Asia
failed to reach more than 36%
coverage was dropped
Under $25 interventions
breast feeding
iodized salt
vit A in sugar
mass dose with vit A
iodine injections in preggos
daily oral iron for preggos
Supplementation vs fortification
more expensive
vital for harder to reach populations
Famines
severe shortages of food often affecting large geo area or sig number of people
starvation
path condition lack of food consumption threatens/causes death
clinical starvation symptoms
loss of luster in hair
pulse slows
reduced BP
Hormonal disturbances by famine
amenorrhea in women
impotence in males
famine edema
bedridden and puffy
swelling of dependent parts of body like feet and legs
preschool children in famine conditions
marasmus
kwashiorkor
intractable diarrhea - prolapsed rectum
Severe malnourishment
develops infection
dies of pneumonia, tb, etc...
starvation and appetite
appetite might be huge
refeeding should be introduced progressively
Famine division
natural
human action
widespread famines cause
chronic malnourishment and chronic hunger
suggested protein diets for famine relief
1940 kcal
45 g protein
45 g fat
refugee
well founded fear of:
race
religious
nationality - persecution
refugee camp diseases
scurvy
pellagra
beriberi
displaced farmers encouraged to produce:
tomatoes
carrots
legumes
poultry
rabbits
guinea pigs
Nutritional status assessment
anthropometric measurements to assess PEM
Clinical signs of malnutrition
edema
kwashiorkor
eye signs of xerophthalmia
skin lesions of pellagra