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75 Cards in this Set

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Premature separation of a normally positioned placenta in a pregnancy of at least 20 weeks' gestation either before labor or during labor but before delivery. This serious complication of pregnancy, occurring in one of every 200 births and commonly resulting in hemorrhage, may lead to the death of the mother, the fetus, or both. Also called ablatio placentae, accidental hemorrhage.
abruptio placentae
1. Behavior toward another that's offensive, harmful, or injurious. 2. Misuse or particularly excessive use of a substance, service, or equipment; commonly refers to improper use of a drug or similar substance
abuse
1. The act or process of adapting to changes in the physiologic or psychological environment to maintain homeostasis. 2. In ophthalmology: adjustment of the lens of the eye for various distances. 3. In sociology: the use of compromise, arbitration, or negotiation to resolve conflicts between persons or groups that arise from differences in customs or cultural norms. Also called adjustment.
accommodation
Failure of GI smooth-muscle fibers to relax, especially sphincter muscles.
achalasia
Abbreviated as AIDS. A disorder of the immune system characterized by an inability to mount a successful defense against infection such as by organisms that usually aren't pathogenic (opportunistic infections). The syndrome is caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus, which causes a marked depletion in the number of helper T cells. AIDS is currently incurable and fatal. However, recently developed drug treatments and regimens seem to be effective in prolonging the lives of clients with AIDS.
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
A circulatory disorder characterized by persistently cold and blue hands and, less commonly, feet; some forms are related to Raynaud phenomenon
acrocyanosis
Acquired immunity caused by the production of antibodies, either after infection or as a result of vaccination.
active immunity
Abbreviated as ALL. A form of leukemia, most commonly occurring in children, marked by large numbers of immature leukocytes in the blood and blood-forming tissues (including the bone marrow, spleen, liver, and lymph nodes). The disease has a sudden onset and rapid clinical course. Signs and symptoms include fever, pallor, fatigue, loss of appetite, anemia, bleeding, bone pain, spleen enlargement and, because the immune function is disturbed, frequent infection. Also called acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
acute lymphocytic leukemia
Acute inflammation of the kidney, possibly involving the glomerulus, tubules, and interstitial tissues.
acute nephritis
Necrosis of the kidneys' tubular cells in response to a nephrotoxic substance or ischemia; the most common cause of acute renal failure in the hospital.
acute tubular necrosis
An emergency situation occurring with adrenal hypofunction and exposure to trauma, surgery, or other severe physiologic stress that exhausts the body's stores of glucocorticoids.
addisonian crisis
A life-threatening condition characterized by fatigue, hypotension, loss of appetite and weight, nausea or vomiting, and increased hyperpigmentation of the skin and mucous membranes. It results from partial or complete loss of glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, and androgenic function of the adrenal glands caused by tuberculosis, an autoimmune process, or other disease.
Addison's disease
Also called Addisonism, Addison's syndrome, chronic adrenocortical insufficiency.
1. Activated or transmitted by epinephrine, norepinephrine, or a similar substance. 2. Also called a sympathomimetic, a drug that stimulates alpha or beta receptors (thus mimicking the effects of epinephrine or norepinephrine) or acts primarily on receptors in the sympathetic nervous system that are stimulated by dopamine.
adrenergic
Documented written or verbal instructions by the client about his wishes for life-sustaining medical care in the event he becomes incapacitated (for example, living wills, health care power of attorney, or any document that states the client's wishes).
advance directive
Pertaining to death
agonal
1. In anatomy: any muscle in a state of contraction whose action is opposed by another muscle with which it's paired (called the antagonist). 2. In pharmacology: a drug that has an affinity for and stimulates physiologic activity at cell receptors.
agonist
An intense, irrational fear of being in open spaces or of venturing out from the home or other familiar setting. The anxiety may be generalized to any setting beyond the home or may be specific for certain types of situations and environments, such as open spaces or crowded places.
agoraphobia
Abbreviation for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A disorder of the immune system characterized by an inability to mount a successful defense against infection such as by organisms that usually aren't pathogenic (opportunistic infections). The syndrome is caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus, which causes a marked depletion in the number of helper T cells. AIDS is currently incurable and fatal. However, recently developed drug treatments and regimens seem to be effective in prolonging the lives of clients with AIDS.
AIDS
Uncontrollable motor restlessness.
akathisia
1. Loss of the ability to move voluntarily. 2. The rest period after systole in the normal heart rhythm. 3. In psychiatry: a neurotic condition characterized by symptoms of paralysis.
akinesia
1. Loss of the ability to move voluntarily. 2. The rest period after systole in the normal heart rhythm. 3. In psychiatry: a neurotic condition characterized by symptoms of paralysis.
akinesia
Abbreviation for acute lymphocytic leukemia. A form of leukemia, most commonly occurring in children, marked by large numbers of immature leukocytes in the blood and blood-forming tissues (including the bone marrow, spleen, liver, and lymph nodes). The disease has a sudden onset and rapid clinical course. Signs and symptoms include fever, pallor, fatigue, loss of appetite, anemia, bleeding, bone pain, spleen enlargement and, because the immune function is disturbed, frequent infection. Also called acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
ALL
A test designed to evaluate a client's collateral circulation in the arm before an invasive arterial procedure such as arterial blood gas analysis. While the client's radial and ulnar arteries are occluded, he clenches his fist, causing the hand to blanch. The client then unclenches his fist while the pressure on the ulnar artery is released (but the radial artery remains occluded). The hand should become pink, indicating a patent ulnar artery.
Allen's test
Being genetically different but belonging to the same species.
allogeneic
Inability to speak resulting from mental deficiency or dementia.
alogia
Drug type that inhibits sympathetic activity by activating or inhibiting alpha and beta receptors or dopamine receptors.
alpha-adrenergic blocker
Abbreviation for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A disorder that causes slow onset of dyspnea that worsens with time. Other features include dysphagia, dysarthria, muscle weakness and atrophy, fasciculations, shallow respirations, tachypnea, and emotional lability. Also known as Lou Gehrig disease.
ALS
Decreased visual acuity in one eye in the absence of detectable structural or pathologic changes
amblyopia
The absence or cessation of menstruation. Except in preadolescents and in pregnant and postmenopausal women, amenorrhea may reflect dysfunction of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, ovary, or uterus; congenital absence or surgical removal of both ovaries or the uterus; or an adverse effect of medication.
amenorrhea
Withdrawal of a sample of amniotic fluid by transabdominal puncture and needle aspiration, usually performed during the fifth month of pregnancy to detect such genetic disorders as Down syndrome, neural tube defects, and Tay-Sachs disease; if the clinician suspects sex-linked genetic defects, the procedure may be done to determine fetal sex.
amniocentesis
Artificial rupture of the membranes.
amniotomy
Abbreviated as ALS. A disorder that causes slow onset of dyspnea that worsens with time. Other features include dysphagia, dysarthria, muscle weakness and atrophy, fasciculations, shallow respirations, tachypnea, and emotional lability. Also known as Lou Gehrig disease.
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
State in which painful stimuli are perceived but not painful.
analgesia
1. Having the ability to relieve pain. 2. A medication that relieves pain.
analgesic
A systemic reaction to a previously encountered antigen.
anaphylaxis
A surgical procedure in which two blood vessels, ducts, or other tubelike structures are joined to allow the flow of substances between them. Types of anastomoses are end-to-end and side-to-side.
anastomosis
Congenital brain defect characterized by absent bones from the cranial vault and absent or poorly developed hemispheres, brain stem, and basal ganglia.
anencephaly
Severe chest pain characterized by sensations of spasm, constriction, and crushing weight, classically radiating from the area over the heart to the left shoulder and arm and possibly accompanied by a feeling of choking or suffocation. Angina usually results from myocardial oxygen deprivation secondary to atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries.
angina pectoris
Inability to experience pleasure.
anhedonia
A negatively charged ion.
anion
Rheumatoid arthritis affecting the spine.
ankylosing spondylitis
Loss of appetite.
anorexia
An eating disorder, most common among adolescent girls, characterized by an aversion to eating, a morbid fear of becoming obese despite significant weight loss, a disturbed body image that results in a feeling of being fat even when extremely thin, and amenorrhea (in females).
anorexia nervosa
1. In pharmacology: a drug that nullifies the action of another drug. 2. In anatomy: a muscle whose effects counteract the effects of another muscle. 3. In dentistry, a tooth that meets another in the opposite jaw during chewing or clenching of the teeth.
antagonist
Direction of movment referring from front to back and side to side.
anteroposterior-to-lateral
Direction of movment referring from front to back and side to side.
anteroposterior-to-lateral
1. Of or relating to blockade of the impulses of parasympathetic or other cholinergic nerve fibers. 2. Any agent with anticholinergic properties.
anticholinergic
Information about a disorder or about the normal growth and development expectations of a specific age-group given at an appropriate time before an event in order to provide the client with support and strategies for dealing with potential problems before they occur.
anticipatory guidance
Elasticized stockings prescribed for some postoperative or bedridden clients to enhance venous blood flow from the lower extremities and thus prevent thromboembolism resulting from pooling of blood in the veins and dilation of veins.
antiembolism stockings
A disorder that manifests after age 15 as a pervasive disregard for and violation of the rights of others
antisocial personality disorder
Absence of urine production.
anuria
An abnormal narrowing of the orifice of the aortic valve, which prevents normal flow of blood from the left ventricle into the aorta. The constriction may result from a congenital malformation or pathologic fusion of the valve cusps. It causes decreased cardiac output and pulmonary vascular congestion.
aortic stenosis
A numerical evaluation of a neonate's condition in which a rating of 0, 1, or 2 is assigned to each of five criteria: heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex responses, and skin color. The five scores are then combined: A score of 7 to 10 is considered normal, 4 to 7 indicates moderate distress, and 3 or less indicates acute distress. The score is usually obtained at 1 minute and 5 minutes after birth.
Apgar score
Loss or impairment of the ability to communicate through speech, written language, or signs, resulting from brain disease or trauma.
aphasia
Relating to or suffering from aphasia.
aphasic
Loss of the voice as a result of disease or injury to the larynx.
aphonia
A recurring disease of unknown cause marked by the eruption of ulcers on the mucous membranes of the mouth. Also called canker sore.
aphthous stomatitis
Absence of breathing
apnea
Suffering from apnea (absence of breathing).
apneic
Inflammation of the vermiform appendix. When acute, appendicitis commonly necessitates an appendectomy to prevent perforation of the appendix and subsequent peritonitis.
appendicitis
Suffering from apnea (absence of breathing).
apneic
Inflammation of the vermiform appendix. When acute, appendicitis commonly necessitates an appendectomy to prevent perforation of the appendix and subsequent peritonitis.
appendicitis
Complete or partial inability to perform purposeful movements in the absence of sensory or motor impairment.
apraxia
Irregular heartbeat
arrhythmia
Fluid accumulation in the spaces between tissues and organs in the abdominal cavity.
ascites
The absence of living, disease-producing organisms. Medical asepsis refers to the removal or destruction of disease organisms or infected material. Surgical asepsis refers to protection against infection before, during, or after surgery by means of sterile technique.
asepsis
A respiratory disorder characterized by recurrent attacks of paroxysmal dyspnea, bronchospasm, wheezing on expiration, and coughing. Conditions that may trigger an asthma attack include inhalation of allergens or pollutants, vigorous exercise, emotional stress, and infection.
asthma
Impairment of the ability to coordinate voluntary muscle movement.
ataxia
Relating to or suffering from impaired ability to coordinate voluntary muscle movement.
ataxic
Decreased or lack of air in the lung, causing lung volume loss.
atelectasis
Arteriosclerosis characterized by irregularly distributed lipid deposits in arterial intima, causing narrowed arterial lumens and, ultimately, fibrosis and calcification.
atherosclerosis
Flaccidity or lack of tone.
atony
A skin inflammation occurring in individuals with a genetic predisposition to allergies, characterized by intense itching, maculopapular lesions, and excoriation (rash pattern varies with age but usually occurs on the face).
atopic dermatitis
Evaluation of hearing using an audiometer. Various audiometric tests identify the lowest intensity of sound at which a client can perceive an auditory stimulus, hear different frequencies, and differentiate speech sounds. Pure tone audiometry evaluates the ability to hear frequencies, usually ranging from 125 to 8,000 Hz, and can determine whether a hearing loss results from a problem in the middle ear, inner ear, or auditory nerve.
audiometry
Perceptual experiences occurring in the absence of actual external sensory stimuli (for example, hearing voices telling one to do something).
auditory hallucinations