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60 Cards in this Set

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ABG Norms:
pH
paO2
paCO2
HCO3
O2 Saturation
pH 7.35-7.45
paO2 80-100
paCO2 35-45
HCO3 22-26
O2 Saturation 95-100
Digoxin
.8-2.0
Theophylline
10-20
Dilantin
10-20
Librium
.8-2.1
Gentamycin/Tobramycin
5-10
PT
INR
APTT
9.5-12 secs
1-2
20-45 secs
Urine Specific Gravity
1.005-1.03
RBC
WBC
Platlets
Hgb
Hct
4.2-6.3
4000-10000
135000-400000
12-18
36-54%
BUN
Creatine
10-20
.8-1.2
Protein-Total
Albumin
6-8
3.5-5.0
Amylase
Lipase
60-160
0-160
Calcium
Phosphorus
Sodium
Potassium
Chloride
Magnesium
8.5-10.5
3-4.5
135-145
3.5-5
98-108
1.6-2.6
Cholesterol
LDL
HDL
Triglycerides
140-199
less than 130
30-70
less than 200
TSH
.2-5.4
Respiratory Alkalosis- Cause
Hyperventilation,fever,overventilation by mechanical ventilator, pain, hypoxia, anxiety
Respiratory Alkalosis- S/S
HA, tachypnea, light headedness, change in LOC, paresthesias, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia
Respiratory Acidosis- Cause
Hypoventilation, Asthma and other respiratory conditions, Brain trauma
Respiratory Acidosis- S/S
tachypnea, HA, restlessness, confusion, diaphoresis, hyperkalemia, dysrythmias
Metabolic Acidosis- Cause
DKA,diarrhea, renal failure, malnutrition
Metabolic Acidosis- S/S
Fruity breath, kussmaul respirations, HA, nausea, vomiting,hyperkalemia
Metabolic Alkalosis- Cause
GI problems, suctioning, vomiting, diuretics
Metabolic Alkalosis- S/S
Nausea, vomiting, hypokalemia, hypocalemia, twitching, restlessness
Isotonic IV Fluids
0.9% NS
5%D/W
LR

*inadequate fluid intake
Hypotonic IV Fluids
0.45% NS

*DKA, perspirations, ESRD,diarrhea
Hypertonic IV Fluids
5% D1/2NS
5% D/NS
10% D/W
5% LR

*chronic malnutrition, chronic illness
Hyponatremia Cause
diaphoresis, wound drainage, NPO, RF, CHF, hyperglycemia
Hyponatremia S/S
HA,nausea, abdominal cramping, muscle weakness, tachycardia,
Hypernatremia Cause
Cushings, corticosteroids, NPO, diet
Hypernatremia S/S
pulmonary edema, diminshed reflexes, muscle twitches,
Hypokalemia Cause
diuretics, vomiting, diarrhea, NG suctioning
Hypokalemia S/S
thready, weak, irregular pulse; anxiety, ST depression, T wave
Hyperkalemia Cause
potassium sparing diuretics, Addisons, tissue damage
Hyperkalemia S/S
tall T waves, prolonged PR, flat P waves, widened QRS complex; muscle cramps, diarrhea, decreased BP
Hypomagnesium Cause
malnutrition,diarrhea, vomitting, celiac and chrohns disease, hyperglycemia
Hypomagnesium S/S
depresses ST segments, shallow respirations, positive Trousseaus and Chvostek sign, tetany
Hypermagnesium Cause
antacids
Hypermagnesium S/S
hypotension, bradycardia, widened QRS prolonged PR interval, absent reflexes, drowsiness
Hypophosphatemia Cause
malnutrition, RF, hyperglycemia
Hypophosphatemia S/S
weakness, deep tendon reflexes, irritability, seizures, decreased CO
Hyperphosphatemia Cause
Renal insufficiency, dietary intake
Hyperphosphatemia S/S
prolonged ST, QT interval; hyperactive tendon reflexes, cramps, hypotension
Electrolytes:
Parallel
Inverse
Parallel
Sodium/Calcium/Magnesium/Chloride
Inverse

Sodium/Potassium
Calcium/Phosphate
Hydrogen/Potassium
Adrenal gland
regulates NA and electrolyte balance, flight or fight, metabolism or nutrients; epi and norepi produced, synthesizes corticoids
Pituitary gland
promotes growth of body tissue, influences water absorption by the kidney; ADH, oxytocin, produces all the hormones
Thyroid
controls rate of body metabolism and growth
Parathyroid
controls CA and phosphorous metabolism
Ovaries
estorgen and progesterone
Testes
testosterone
Hypopituitaryism
obesity, cardiac output dec, infertility, fatigue, low BP
Acromaegaly- hyperpituitaryism
large feet and hands, arthritc changes, deep voice, organomegaly, rough skin
DI
hyposecretion of ADH, low spec gravity, dehydration sx
SIADH
excess ADH released, hyponatremia, fluid overload
Addisons
hyposecretion adrenal hormones, everything slowed, hypoglycemia, hyperkalemia
Addison Crisis
hyponatremia, hypoglycemia, shock, hyperkalemia
Cushings
hypersecretion of adrenal hormones;moon face, buffalo hump, hurutruism, hyperglucemia/hypernatremia/inc wbc, hypocalcemia/kalemia
Hypothyroidism
metabollsim dec, could go into a myxedema coma
Hyperthroidism
metabolism inc, goiter, exopathalum; thyroid storm
hypoparathyoid
hypocalcemia/ hyperphospatemia
hyperparathyroid
hypercalcemi/hypophosphatemia