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94 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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Specific Gravity
1.010-1.030
Potassium
3.5-5.5
Sodium
135-145
Total Serum Calcium
8.5-10.5
Magnesium
1.5-2.5
RBC
4.2-6.2 M
4.2-5.4 F
WBC
5,000-10,000
Hemoglobin
13-18% M
12-16% F
Hematocrit
42-50% M
40-48% F
PTT (measures effectiveness of Heparin)
20-45 seconds
PT (measures effectivenss of coumadin)
9.5-12.0 seconds
Total Cholesterol
Optimal <200
High >239
Creatine
0.6-1.7
BUN
10-20
pH
7.35-7.45
< acidosis
> alkalosis
PaO2
80-100
<80 hypoxemia
Albumin
4-4.5
Bicarbonate
22-26
<22 acidosis
>26 alkalosis
pCO2
35-45
>45 acidosis
<35 alkalosis
Liver Biopsy
Admin Vit K before to reduce hemm, Pt NPO AM, Pt supine to left, rt. arm up, pt asked to hold breath, after pos. rt. side
Paracentesis/Thorocentesis
Done at bedside; pt. in semi- sitting upright at edge of bed or straddling the chair, empty bladder before, no coughing when needle inserted
Positioning for unconsious pt.
Flat in bed with head turned to 1 side
Cytoscopy
Direct visualization of the bladder; pt. NPO night before, will exp. mild buring after when pee and urine will be pink--encourage fluids
IVP
Pt NPO; clean bowel before and rehydrate after, pt. semi-fowlers to prevent dye from irritating
Lumbar Puncture
Pt. lateral recombent fetal position, knees drawn to abd. head flexed to chest
ECT
prep-NPO, consent
post-pos. unconsious pt., suctioning at bedside
Enemas
Pt. sim's position with rt. knee flexed, hold irrigation 12-18 inches for high enema, insert tube no more 3-4 inches for adult, 2-3 inches for child
Sigmoidscopy/Proctoscopy
Laxitive PM, enema AM, NPO night before
Aminocentesis
Done at 16 weeks to detect genetic disorder, 30 weeks to determine lung maturity; before pt. should empty bladder, monitor fetus after
2.2 lbs = how many kg?
1 kg
1 L = how many mL?
1000 ml
1 mL = how many cc?
1 cc
30 mL = how many oz?
1 oz.
240 mL = how many cups?
1 cup
1 gr = how many mg?
60mg
Diet for Celiac Disease
No BROW (bran, rye, oat, wheat)
*Can eat rice and corn
Diet for RF
Low Protein, K, NA
Diet for PKU
Low Protein
Frontal Lobe
Controls voluntary muscle mvts and contains motor areas for speech, center for personality, behavior functions, memory, emotion, problem solving
Temporal Lobe
Controls hearing, smell, taste, interpretation of spoken language
Parietal Lobe
Coordinates and interprest sensory information from oppposite side of body
Occipital Lobe
Interprets visual stimuli
Blood Transfusion--Allergic reaction
Itching, fever, hives, anaphylactic shock
Blood Transfusion--Hemolytic reaction
Nausea, vomiting, pain in lower back, hypotension, increase pulse rate
*caused by incompatibility
Blood Transfustion--Febrile Reaction
Fever, chills, nausea, headache
Blood Transfusion--Bacterial Reaction
Tachycardia, hypotension, fever, chills, shock
*cuased by contaminated blood product
I Olfactory Nerve
Sense of smell
II Optic
Sense of vision
III Oculomotor
Pupil constricion, raising of eyelids
IV Trochlear
Downward & inward mvt of eyes
VI Abducens
Lateral mvt of the eyes
VII Facial
Facial muscle mvt., Taste
VIII Acoustic
Hearing & balance
IX Glossopharyngeal
Pharyngeal mvt and swallowing
X Vagus
Swallowing and speaking
XI Spinal accessory
Flexion and rotation of head; shrugging of shoulders
XII Hypoglossal
Tongue mvts.
Bronchoscopy
NPO night before, no smoking before and after because can precipitate coughing; atropine sulfate to decrease oral secretions, semi-fowlers, pt. hoarse, sore throat, NPO until gag relex returns
Hyponatremia
Decreased NA
h/a, muscle weakness, fatigue, apathy, confusion, postural hypotension, anorexia, n/v, wt. loss, coma
Hypernatremia
Increased NA
dry mucous membranes, decreased urinary output, tachycardia
Hyperkalemia
Increased K
n/v/d, irritability, weakness, oliguria, arrhythmias, EKG changes
Hypocalcemia
Decreased CA
osteoporosis, fractures, tingling, convulsions, muscle spasms, tetany
Ultrasound
Fetal Gestation
Placental location
Multiple fetal pregnancy
Amniocentesis
Detect genetic and neural tube defects, assess fetal pulmonary maturity, determine fetal sex
Non-stress test
Assess fetal status; if fetus isn't moving, give juice so mom and baby can have energy
Insulin Administration
*Clear before cloudy
*Gently rotate vials
*Rotate injection sites
Addisons' Disease-signs and symptoms
hypoglycemia, orthostatic hypotension, weakness and lethargy, weight loss, crave salt, bronze skin
Addisons' Disease- key interventions
admin IV hydrocortisone, IV fluids, don't allow pt. to sit up/stand quickly
Cushing's Disease-sign and symptoms
Amenorrhea, hypertension, mood swings, muscle wasting, wt. gain (buffalo hump, moon facies
Cushing's Disease- key interventions
Adenalectomy/post-op care, assess edema, limit water intake, weigh the pt. daily
Hyperthyroidism- signs and symptoms
*Graves Disease
a-fib, bruit/thrill over thyroid, diaphoresis, palpitations, tachycardia, soft nails, hyperactive so tired, heat intolerance
Hyperthyroidism-key interventions
thyroidectomy, iodine preparations, assess cardiovascular status, fatigue, no caffeine, IV fluids
Hypothroidism- signs and symptoms
cold intolerance, thick and hard nails, dry flaky skin, menstal disorders, wt gain
Hyothroidism- key intervetions
Thyroid hormone replacement therapy-Synthroid or Cytomel, 1/2 dose sedatives or narcators, force fluids
Anticholinergic effect
*Elavil, Tofranil, Wellbutrin
confusion, blurred vision, constipation, dry mouth, light-headedness, difficulty starting and continuing to urinate, and loss of bladder control.
Lithuim
eliminated through kidney- impt. monitor kidney function, adequate salt intake impt. to preven retention, monitor for fine hand tremors
Steriods
*ACTH, corticsteriod, predinose
suppress inflammation; makes bones soft and brittel, can cause high blood pressure, SE include fluid retention, HTN, mood swings, wt gain
Myasthenia Crisis
extreme weakness and fatigue, drooping of eyelid, dyspnea; keep suction at bedside, assess swallow and gag reflexes
Guillian Barre Syndrome
muscle weakness ascending from legs to arms; sensory loss precedes motor loss, risk resp. failure, turn lots, encourage fluids
Angina
provoked by exercise, sudden and lasts few minutes, indigestion type pain that always radiates to l. shoulder down to l. arm; give nitro and rest
MI
not so much from exercise, pain sudden and lasts a while, severe and sharp across the chest; give morphine
CA Channel Blockers
*Verapimil, Procardia
assess BP b/c can cause sudden hypotension
Beta Blockers
*olols
assess HR b/c can cause bradycardia
Nitro.
for sublingual, pt. must wait for table to dissolve before swallowing; for paste, rotate application site and apply to clean, dry and hairless area; LIMIT 3 relief in minutes otherwise see MD
Left Ventricular Failure
"left think lungs"
increase workload on heart b/c pulmonary circulation backed up, frothy sputum, non-productive cough, crackles, cheynes-stokes; give morphine and slow RR, O2
Right Ventricular Failure
pitting edema in legs, asictes, jugular vein distention, wt. gain; give Digoxin, diuretics, low NA diet, weigh daily
Digoxin
check apical pulse, don't give if HR less than 60, K level must be normal, GI side effects, dysthrhymias and visual disturbances if toxicity
ICP
*s/sx shock exact opposite
widening BP, bradycardia, labored breathing, increased temp., warm, flushed skin, dilated pupils, LOC worsens; also h/a, projectile vimiting
Expressive asphagia
inability to express ideas- will recognize an object but won't know name
Receptive asphagia
inabiity to understand spoken word-use nonverbal communication, face the pt and speak slowly
Global asphagia
both expressive and receptive; prognosis poor
Anti-convulsants
*Dilantin, Tegretol
don't stop taking abruptly b/c can precitate seizure; may cause drowsiness, insomnia, anxiety, tremors, h/a
Choleystitis
RUQ pain, clay-colored stools, pain radiates to back and shoulder
Pancreatitis
LUQ pain, flank pain