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42 Cards in this Set

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NFPA 701/ UL 214
Vertical Ignition Test: Standard Methods of Fire Tests for Flame-Resistant Textiles and Films: Window treatments: Propogation of flame beyond the area exposed to ignition source: Pass fail
NFPA 260/ CAL TB 117/ASTM E 1353
Cigarette Ignition Resistance Test of funiture components: "Standard Method of Tests and Classification System for Cigarette Ignition Resistance of Components of Upholstered Funiture: Tests resistance of upholstered furniture componnents to flame and cig. ignition (fabric and fillings)
NFPA 261/ CAL TB 116
Cigarette ignition resistance test of furniture composites "Standard Test Method for Cigarette Ignition Resistance of Mock-Up Upholstered Furniture Assemblies: Tests resistance of seat cushion mock up to cigarette, cush fails in breaks into flames or char more than 2" (not open flame test)
Class A
BIFMA (Buisness and Institutional Manufacturers Association) classification: most resistant to charring and Does not ignite.
NFPA 266/ CAL T 133
Full seating test:"Standard Method of Test for Fire Characteristics of Upholstered Furniture Exoised to flaming ignition source" Open flame on actual sample chair: measures rate of heat, smoke, concentration of carbon oxides [most important measurement- rate of heat release (intensity)] Most stict test for furniture
Material remaining from incomplete combustion
Fire Resistance
property of material or assembly to withstand fire
Easy to ignite
Capable of burning
Flame Retardant or fire retardant
Will ignite but not support burning
used as adjective only
combustion without flame
ASTM D4157
Wyzenbeck Abrasion Resistance test: woven textiles, rubbed back and forth, 3000dr(double rubs)= light duty, 9000 dr= medium duty, 15000dr= heavy duty
ASTM D3884
Taber Abraser test: textiles- most commonly used for carpet, rotated so that the sample rubs two wheels moving in opposite directions
ASTM D4966
Martindale Abrasion test- similar to Wyzenbeek
AATCC Method 16
Fade-Ometer test: exposes textiles to ultraviolet light, 80 hours without color loss is a minimum rating
American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists
AATCC Method 8
Crocking resistance test: rubbed with white cloth, measures chromatic transference- wet or dry
Buisness and Institutional Furniture Manufacturers Assocaiation: measures standards for office furnishings
Put these 8 items in order of most resistance to fire, when untreated: Modacrylic, Olefin, Wool, Nylon, Cellulosic Fibers, Acrylic, Silk, Polyester
1. Wool
2. Silk
3. Modacrylic
4. Nylon
5. Olefin
6. Polyester
7. Acrylic
8. Cellulosic Fibers
Name 3 Cellulosic fibers
cotton, rayon, linen
What type of batting is the best choice when flammability is high priority?
Properties of Wool
Individual fibers are weak
Excellent Resilience
Best for all fabrics
Excellent elasticity
Will burn but is self-extinquishing
Not dimensionally stable
Properties of Cotton
good tensile strength
good abrasion resistance
poor resiliance and recovery
degrades in sun
burns redily
subject to mildew
Properties of Linen
bast fiber- from stalk of flax plant
seldom used for upholstery
lacks resiliance
lacks flexibility
susceptble to abrasion
does not take dyes
tow linen (short staple fibers)
stable and resistant to fading
uses: drapery and wallcovering
Properties of Silk
Fibers spun by silkworm larve
good resiliance
good flexibility
degrades in sun
Properties of Rayon
Worst fabric:Regenerated Cellulosic fiber
poor resist. to sun
poor resilience
high absorbancy
seldom used for upholstery
Properties of Acetate
Regenerated Cellulosic Fiber
low cost
does not wear well
poor sunlight resistance
Properties of Nylon
Popular synthetic
exceptionally strong
high resiliency and elasticity
resistant to chemicals, water, and bacteria
Properties of Acrylic
often used as wool replacement
(look of wool)
good strength
good resilience
resists sunlight
Properties of Modacrylic
good strength
good resilience
resists sunlight
More resistant to heat and flame
Properties of Olefin
Highly resistant to Chemicals, mildew, and microorganisms
Highly resilient
Useful in carpet/carpet backing
Auora FR
Polyester yarn that is permanently flame resistant
Stain, water, flame, and bacteria resistant
(immersion in chemical solution and given chemical spray on back)
Upholstery fabric lamination
breatheable moisture barrier to back
topical coating to front
What are the flammability properties of wool and nylon?
Both burn when in flame but self- extinquish when flame is removed.
What are the flammability properties of olefin and cotton?
Both burn even when flame source is removed.
What are PBDEs and where are they used?
Poly-Bromated Diphenyl Ethers are halogenated flame retardants that cause neurological and reproductive damage in animals- used in furniture, carpeting, textiles, electronics,a dn building materials
What batting is most resistant to cigarette ignition?
Neoprene and combustion modified polyurethane
What are the general rules on contingencies when doing a budget?
When doing an early project budget the percentage should be higher than those added later.
Can do seperate for construction vs FF&E, or 1 for everything.
Name the two most common color systems.
Brewster (or Prang) and Munsell
Describe the color system:
Common color wheel:
3 primaries-RBY

primaries mixed in = amts are secondaries

primary + secondary= tertiary
Describe the color system:
Munsell is most accurate color system
3 scales= hue, value, chroma
5 principal hues= red, yellow, green, blue,and purple designated by one letter
5 intermediate hues designated by 2 letters
Value= degree of light to dark
white is at top (10)
black is at bottem (0)
Chroma- outward from value axis- outside most saturated
inside is closer to gray

Example: G/6/3= Green hue/ value 6/ chroma 3
What is the golden ratio and state it's formula.

What is the greek letter and approximate value?
The most pleasing proportion

Smaller part is to largest part as larger part is to whole

Greek letter- phi
Appox value is 1.618